1. In the general symbol cleus, which of the three letters. 2. What is the mass number of an alpha particle?

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1 1. In the general symbol cleus, which of the three letters Z A X for a nu represents the atomic number? 2. What is the mass number of an alpha particle? 3. What is the mass number of a beta particle? 4. Write the complete symbol for a beta particle, in the form Z A X. 5. Which type of radiation emitted by radioactive nuclei is similar in mass to a helium atom? 6. Which type of radiation emitted by radioactive nuclei is negatively charged? 7. Which type of radiation emitted by radioactive nuclei is a form of electromagnetic radiation? 8. Which type of radiation emitted by radioactive nuclei has no mass? 9. Which type of radiation emitted by radioactive nuclei is the most penetrating? 10. Which type of radiation emitted by radioactive nuclei is the slowest moving and least penetrating? 11. What may happen to a molecule if it is hit by gamma radiation? 12. What product nucleus would result from the alpha decay of radium-226? 13. The isotope 226 Ra decays to Rn by emitting radiation. Name the type of radiation. 14. The isotope 63 Ni decays to Cu by emitting radiation. Name the type of radiation. 15. The isotope 99m Tc decays to Tc by emitting radiation. Name the type of radiation. 16. Give the complete nuclear symbol for the isotope formed when the 16 isotope 7N undergoes beta decay. 17. Give the complete nuclear symbol for X in the following equation for radioactive decay. 18. Give the complete nuclear symbol for X in the following equation for radioactive decay U X He 19. What term is used to describe a radioactive isotope which decays by emitting only a gamma ray? 20. What is meant by the "binding energy" of a nucleus? Page 1

2 21. What fraction of the initial amount of a radioactive isotope still remains after four half-lives? e j 22. The half-life of tritium 3 1 H is 12 years. How long does it take for 16.0 ng of tritium to decay to the point where 2.0 ng remains? 23. In Einstein's equation, E = mc 2, what do E, m and c represent? 24. What is the nuclear process that produces energy in commercial nuclear power plants? 25. What kind of reactor produces its own fuel in the process of providing electrical energy? 26. What is the identity of the radioactive isotope involved in radiocarbon dating? 27. In what important way do cancer cells differ from normal cells? 28. What term is used to describe radioactive substances which are used as probes to study internal organs? 29. In what part of the body does iodine tend to concentrate? 30. Name any two radioactive isotopes commonly used in nuclear medicine. 31. What type of disease can be conveniently studied using xenon-133 as a tracer? 32. What device uses magnetic and electric fields to create high-energy charged particles? 33. What is the term that describes the amount of radiation attributable to our everyday surroundings? 34. What is a film badge? 35. Which radioactive element is found in some indoor air? 36. What term represents the dosage of toxic material needed to kill 50% of the exposed population in 30 days? 37. Who discovered, in 1896, that uranium ore emits radiation? A. Curie B. Becquerel C. Geiger D. Rutherford E. Roentgen 38. Which of the following isotopes has no neutrons? A. H-1 B. H-2 C. H-3 D. He-4 E. C Which nuclear particle is the same as an He 2+ ion? A. alpha B. beta C. gamma D. proton E. electron Page 2

3 40. How many protons are contained in one alpha particle? A. 0 B. 1 C. 2 D. 4 E How many neutrons are contained in an alpha particle? A. 0 B. 1 C. 2 D. 4 E The symbol 4 2 He represents A. an alpha particle B. a beta particle C. a gamma ray D. a positron E. a deuteron 43. Which radioactive emission is stopped by a few sheets of paper? A. alpha B. beta C. gamma D. proton E. electron 44. The symbol -1 0 e represents A. an alpha particle B. a beta particle C. a gamma ray D. a positron E. a deuteron 45. Which of the following particles or rays requires barriers of lead and/or concrete for protection? A. alpha B. beta C. gamma D. proton E. electron 46. What particle or nucleus X is needed to complete the following equation: Rn Po A. proton B. uranium-235 C. alpha D. beta E. gamma + X? 47. What particle or nucleus X is needed to complete the following equation: 40 19K -1 0 e + X? A. hydrogen-3 B. carbon-14 C. argon-40 D. potassium-41 E. calcium-40 Page 3

4 48. When the isotope Bi undergoes alpha decay, the product isotope is A Tl B Au C Po D Tl E. 214m 83 Bi 49. When the isotope Bi undergoes beta decay, the product isotope is A Po B Au C Po D Tl E. 214m 83 Bi 50. What information is conveyed by the m in 99mTc? A. The mass of the isotope is 99. B. The isotope is metastable. C. The isotope is man-made. D. There are multiple isotopes for this element. E. This is the most abundant isotope for this element. 51. How many half-lives are needed for a ng sample of a radioactive isotope to decay to 12.5 ng? A. 4 B. 5 C. 10 D. 16 E It has been stated that ten half-lives are sufficient for a radioactive isotope sample to decay to background levels. What fraction of the initial amount of an isotope actually does remain after ten half-lives? A B C D E A 50. mg sample of iodine-131 was placed in a container 32.4 days ago. If its half-life is 8.1 days, how many milligrams of iodine-131 are now present? A mg B. 3.1 mg C mg D mg E. 6.2 mg 54. What is the name of the nuclear process in which heavy nuclei split into two lighter nuclei? A. gamma decay B. beta decay C. breeding D. fission E. fusion Page 4

5 55. What is the process responsible for energy production in the sun? A. chemical combustion B. oxidation-reduction C. decomposition D. fission E. fusion 56. What fissionable isotope or element is produced from U-238 in a breeder reactor? A. U-235 B. U-238 C. Pu D. He E. H From which of the following isotopes is carbon-14 formed by cosmic ray bombardment in the upper atmosphere? A. Li-5 B. U-238 C. O-16 D. O-18 E. N Which one of the following radioactive isotopes is used to diagnose coronary disease? A. thallium-201 B. xenon-133 C. carbon-14 D. iodine-131 E. uranium The isotope iodine-131 is used in studies of the A. heart B. lung C. liver D. thyroid E. kidney 60. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depends on the presence in tissue of A. carbon atoms B. hydrogen atoms C. water molecules D. radioactive isotopes E. magnetic particles Page 5

6 61. Which of the following measures of radioactivity takes into account the relative biological effect (RBE) of the radiation involved? A. rem B. rad C. roentgen D. curie E. half-life 62. T F The mass of an alpha particle is equal to that of four protons. 63. T F Beta particles are a form of electromagnetic energy. 64. T F Gamma rays move at the speed of light. 65. T F Gamma rays are fast moving electrons. 66. T F A metastable isotope decays by emitting a gamma ray. 67. T F Compared to the energy of chemical bonds, nuclear binding energy is very weak. 68. T F Nuclei with 84 or more protons are radioactive. 69. T F Isotopes with even numbers of protons and neutrons are generally more stable than those with odd numbers of these particles. 70. T F A radioactive sample will decay completely in two half-lives. 71. T F After four half-lives, the fraction of a radioactive isotope remaining is one eighth of the initial amount. 72. T F The sun's source of energy is nuclear fission. 73. T F Commercial nuclear power plants use the fusion process to generate electrical energy. 74. T F When an atom is hit by gamma radiation, it may become ionized. 75. T F Doubling the distance from a source of radioactivity will halve the radiation intensity. 76. T F When the strength of a radioactive source is specified in curies, it provides no information on the biological effects of the radiation. 77. T F The term LD 50 means the dose of toxic material that will be needed to kill 50% of the exposed population within 30 days. Page 6

7 Answer Key for Test "chapter10.tst", 8/17/04 No. in No. on Q-Bank Test Correct Answer Z e alpha particle beta particle gamma ray gamma ray gamma ray alpha particle loss of electrons, or ionization radon alpha particle beta particle gamma ray O C 7 N Th + X metastable isotope It is the energy responsible for holding the protons and neutrons together in the nucleus one sixteenth (0.061) years E = energy; m = mass; c = speed of light fission breeder reactor C-14 or carbon They undergo much more rapid cell division tracers or radioactive tracers thyroid gland (from) iodine-131, technetium-99m, thallium-201, xenon-133, barium-131, chromium pulmonary disease particle accelerator background level of radiation It is a badge worn by radiation workers, containing a film which measures their cumulative radiation dose radon LD B A A C C A A B Page 1

8 Answer Key for Test "chapter10.tst", 8/17/04 No. in No. on Q-Bank Test Correct Answer C C E D C B B D B D E C E A D B A F F T F T F T T F F F F T F T T Page 2

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