1 Discovery Antoine Henri Becquerel was born in Paris on December 15, 1852 Summit Environmental Technologies, Inc. Analytical Laboratories 3310 Win Street Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio Fax: Call Toll Free: Visit us online at:
2 Discovery The early researchers also discovered that many other chemical elements besides uranium have radioactive isotopes. A systematic search for the total radioactivity in uranium ores also guided Marie Curie to isolate a new element polonium and to separate a new element radium from barium. The two elements' chemical similarity would otherwise have made them difficult to distinguish. Call Toll Free: Visit us online at:
3 Discovery Marie Curie, née Maria Sklodowska, was born in Warsaw on November 7, 1867
4 All substance are made of atoms. These have electrons (e) around the outside, and a nucleus in the middle. The nucleus consists of protons (p) and neutrons (n), and is extremely small. In some types of atom, the nucleus is unstable, and will decay into a more stable atom. This radioactive decay is completely spontaneous. Most radioactive substances have many more particles in their nucleus. Summit Environmental Technologies, Inc. Analytical Laboratories 3310 Win Street Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio Fax: Call Toll Free: Visit us online at:
5 What's an isotope? So isotopes of an atom have the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons. Just because something is called an isotope doesn't necessarily mean it's radioactive.
6 Radioactivity is the spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei. The nucleus emits alpha particles, ß particles, or electromagnetic rays during this process. There are three common types of radioactive decay, alpha, beta, and gamma. The difference between them is the particle emitted by the nucleus during the decay process
7 Alpha, Beta particles Alpha particles are made of 2 protons and 2 neutrons. We can write them as a helium nucleus. Because they have a large charge, alpha particles ionize other atoms strongly. Beta particles is often an electron. If an electron is involved the number of neutrons in the nucleus decreases by one and the number of protons increases by one.
8 Alpha and Beta particles Alpha Beta
9 The process of transforming one element to another is known as Transmutation.
10 Gamma rays Gamma rays do not directly ionize other atoms, although they may cause atoms to emit other particles which will then cause ionization.
11 Penetration of Matter Penetrating power Low Alpha Medium Beta High Gamma
12 Half Life Radioactive decay rates are normally stated in terms of their half-lives, and the half-life of a given nuclear species is related to its radiation risk. The original term, dating to 1907, was "half-life period", which was later shortened to "half-life" in the early 1950s.
13 The half-lives for some nuclides of interest Symbol Element Radiation Half-Life U-238 Uranium-238 alpha 4,460,000,000 years Th-234 Thorium-234 beta 24.1 days Pa-234 Protactinium-234 beta 1.17 minutes U-234 Uranium-234 alpha 247,000 years Th-230 Thorium-230 alpha 80,000 years Ra-226 Radium-226 alpha 1,602 years Rn-222 Radon-222 alpha 3.82 days Po-218 Polonium-218 alpha 3.05 minutes Pb-214 Lead-214 beta 27 minutes Bi-214 Bismuth-214 beta 19.7 minutes Po-214 Polonium-214 alpha 1 microsecond Pb-210 Lead-210 beta 22.3 years Bi-210 Bismuth-210 beta 5.01 days Po-210 Polonium-210 alpha days Pb-206 Lead-206 none stable
14 Radioactivity in drinking water is not a new phenomenon, having been present to some extent for thousands of years.
15 Radioactivity in drinking water comes from two sources, naturally occurring and man made. Man made radioactivity is usually found in surface waters while naturally occurring radioactivity comes from bedrock.
16 Radium-226 and radium-228 are natural groundwater contaminants that usually occur in trace quantities. At high exposure levels, radium-226 and radium-228 can cause bone cancer in humans and are believed to cause stomach, lung, and other cancers as well. Uranium is a naturally occurring radioactive contaminant found in both groundwater and surface water. At high exposure levels, uranium is believed to cause bone cancer and other cancers in humans. Gross Alpha emitters occur naturally as radioactive contaminants, but several come from manmade sources. They may occur in either groundwater or surface water. At high exposure levels, alpha emitters are believed to cause cancer in humans. Beta and photon emitters are primarily manmade radioactive contaminants associated with operating nuclear power plants, facilities that use radioactive material for research or manufacturing, or facilities that dispose of radioactive material. Some beta emitters occur naturally. Beta and photon emitters primarily occur in surface water. At high exposure levels, beta and photon emitters are believed to cause cancer in humans.
17 Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Alpha,Beta, and Gamma could be analyzed into three distinct species by either a magnetic field or an electric field.
18 Instruments used by Summit Labs Gas-Proportional Counter (gross alpha/gross beta,ra-226, Ra-28, U) Scintillation Counter (Ra-226) Liquid-Scintillation Counter (Radon)
19 Units: 1) Disintegration - count per second 2) Becquerel one disintegration per second (Bq) 3) Curie 37billion disintegrations per second (pci) 4) pci/l
20 Required Detection Limits and MCL Contaminant Detection Limit MCL Gross Alpha 3 pci/l (except U and Radon) 15 pci/l Gross Beta 4 pci/l ( Beta and photon emitters) 4mrem/year Ra pci/l Ra pci/l Ra-226+Ra pci/l Uranium 2 pci/l 30 pci/l
21 Dose: Rad- energy absorbed by tissue that is exposed to radioactivity. Rem combines the amount of radiation exposure (Rad) with its alleged impact on health. Concentration=4mrem/yer 4mrem/yr/(2L/d x d/yr x2.29x10(-5)mrem/pci)=239 pci/l
22 Sample Collection, Preservation and Handling Collect samples in 1 gallon plastic containers. It is recommended that samples be preserved at the time of collection by adding Enough 1N HNO3 to the sample to bring it to ph 2 If samples are to be collected without preservation, they should be brought to the laboratory within 5 days, then preserved and held in the original container for a minimum of 16 hours before analysis.
23 Holding time The correct holding time for gross alpha, Ra-226 and Ra-228, and uranium is 6 months (see Manual for the Certification of Laboratories Analyzing Drinking Water EPA 815-B , March 1997 Criteria and Procedures Quality Assurance); however, for annual compositing of 3 radionuclide samples, the holding time is 12 months. This confusion was the result of a mismatch between the certification manual and the regulation. A footnote was added to the March 1997 edition of the certification manual, which acknowledged the conflict and stipulated a 12 month holding time for a composite. Therefore, systems can composite radionuclide samples during the initial monitoring period for up to one year.
24 Methods For Analysis of Drinking Water Gross Alpha (EPA 900.0) Gross Beta (EPA 900.0) Radium 226 (EPA 903.0) Radium 228 (EPA 904.0) Uranium (EPA 908.0)
25 Methods Summary Method Summary 1) Gross Alpha/Beta (evaporation) 100 ml acidified sample evaporated to 20 ml and quantitatively transfer on the pre-weight planchet Method Summary 1)1 L acidified sample. Ra-226 is co-precipitated with Ba as Sulfate 2) Precipitate is separated from sample matrix and supernate is discarded Method Summary 1) 1 L acidified sample. Ra-228 is co-precipitated with Ba and Pb as Sulfate 2) The (Ba-Ra)SO4 precipitate is dissolved in basic EDTA. The progeny, Ac-228, is chemically separated from its parent by repeatedly forming the (Ba-Ra)SO4 3) Ac-228 is then separated from Ra-228 by precipitation as a OH.(save supernate) 4)This is the end of ingrowth and beginning of Ac-228 decay. 5)Ac-228 is co-precipitated with Y as Ac-Y2(c2O4)3 Counted on a low-background Alpha/Beta gas proportional counter.
26 DATA EVALUATION RANDOM Uncertainties: Includes the radioactive decay process itself, random timing uncertainties, variations in collection, sample preparation, positioning of the sample at the detector, etc. The list is nearly endless. SYSTMATIC Uncertainties: can be considered to be conceivable sources of inaccuracy which are biased and not subject to random fluctuations and those which may be due to random cause but cannot be or are not assessed by statistical methods. QA /QC data are key in defining the level of uncertainty.
27 QA /QC Blank- Instrument Background Trip blank Method Blank 1) Duplicates Extra sample taken from same place, analyzed independently to document sampling precision. 2) Matrix Duplicate Intralaboratory split sample used to document method precision in a given matrix. 3) LCS- Spike- Known activity/nuclide addition to deionized water. 4) Matrix Spike- Known activity/nuclide addition to sample aliquot prior to preparation to document bias in a given matrix. (Matrix interference) 5) Matrix Spike Duplicate- Intralaboratory split sample with known additions prior to preparation to document precision and bias.
28 Conclusion A gross alpha test is the first step in determining the level of radioactivity in drinking water. If gross alpha activity is less than 5 pci/l no further action is required. If gross alpha activity is greater than 5 but less than 15 pci/l testing for Radium 226 and 228 is required. If gross alpha activity is greater than 15 pci/l testing for Uranium is required. If gross beta activity is greater than 50 pci/l than testing for the individual nuclides is required.
29 Thank you for your attention!
30 Summit Environmental Technologies, Inc. Analytical Laboratories 3310 Win Street Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio Call Toll Free: Fax:
CHAPTER 20: Atomic Structure Nuclear Chemistry radioactivity: a spontaneous (naturally-occurring) emission of particles or radiation from the nuclei of atoms Historical Background Roentgen (1895) discovery
1. In the general symbol cleus, which of the three letters Z A X for a nu represents the atomic number? 2. What is the mass number of an alpha particle? 3. What is the mass number of a beta particle? 4.
Radioactivity Emission of high energy photons and particles Alpha, Beta and Gamma Rays Elements heavier than lead (Z=82), are radioactive Radioactive materials emit: alpha particles (helium nucleus) beta
COMPENDIUM OF EPA-APPROVED ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR MEASURING RADIONUCLIDES IN DRINKING WATER June 1998 Prepared by the Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance Air, Water and Radiation Division (EH-412)
EPA Radionuclides Rule and the RadNet Program Kelly Moran (215) 814-2331 email@example.com 7/20/2011 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1 What is a radionuclide (radioisotope)? element - any one of
Nuclear Chemistry Up to now, we have been concerned mainly with the electrons in the elements the nucleus has just been a positively charged thing that attracts electrons The nucleus may also undergo changes
1 Radioactive Decay of 220 Rn and 232 Th Physics 2150 Experiment No. 10 University of Colorado Introduction Some radioactive isotopes formed billions of years ago have half- lives so long that they are
Comparison of natural radioactivity removal methods for drinking water supplies: A review E. Esmeray, M. E. Aydin Selcuk University Environmental Engineering Department, Konya Turkey e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Nuclear Chemistry Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. Nuclear Chemistry 2 Study Guide: Things You Must Know Vocabulary (know the definition
Chapter 4 & 25 Notes Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Page 1 DEFINING THE ATOM Early Models of the Atom In this chapter, we will look into the tiny fundamental particles that make up matter. An atom
Physics and Chemistry 1501 Nuclear Science Part I Atomic bombs, nuclear power plants, and the sun are powered as the result of releasing of nuclear energy. (Read objectives on screen.) In this program,
Big Idea: Changes in the nucleus of an atom can result in the ejection of particles, the transformation of the atom into another element, and the release of energy. 1 Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist
Radon What is radon? Radon is a radioactive gas. It is colorless, odorless, tasteless, and chemically inert. Unless you test for it, there is no way of telling how much is present. Radon is formed by the
3/31/16 NAME: PD 3 1. Given the equation representing a nuclear reaction in which X represents a nuclide: Which nuclide is represented by X? 2. Which nuclear emission has the greatest mass and the least
Chem 1151 Lab 5 - Nuclear Chemistry Learning Objectives: 1) Understand the concept of radioactive decay 2) Know the change associated with an alpha, beta or gamma decay of a nucleus 3) Write the product
Name: Tuesday, June 10, 2008 Nuke review The radioisotopes carbon-14 and nitrogen-16 are present in a living organism. Carbon-14 is commonly used to date a once-living organism. Figure 1 A sample of wood
Basics of Nuclear Physics and Fission A basic background in nuclear physics for those who want to start at the beginning. Some of the terms used in this factsheet can be found in IEER s on-line glossary.
RADON 107 4. CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND RADIOLOGICAL INFORMATION 4.1 CHEMICAL IDENTITY Radon is a naturally occurring radionuclide. The largest source of radon in the environment is due to the ambient levels
Take notes while watching the following video tutorials to prepare for the Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Activity. Atomic Structure Introduction dabe page 1 Atoms & Elements Part 0: Atomic Structure
EXPERIMENTS FOR NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY 2010, 2008, 2004, 1972 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Permission for classroom use provided original copyright is included. David A. Katz Department of Chemistry
Atomic structure A. Introduction: In 1808, an English scientist called John Dalton proposed an atomic theory based on experimental findings. (1) Elements are made of extremely small particles called atoms.
APPENDIX 10 Normally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) Contents A10.1 Introduction... A10/3 A10.2 Occurrence & Concentration of NORM in Oil and Gas Operations... A10/4 A10.2.1 Probability of NORM formation
Regents Review Mr. Beauchamp. Given the nuclear equation: H + X 6 3 Li + 4 He The particle repr esented by X is 9 4 Li 9 4 Be 0 5 Be 0 6 C. Which isotope will spontaneously decay and emit particles with
Radiological Protection For practical purposes of assessing and regulating the hazards of ionizing radiation to workers and the general population, weighting factors are used. A radiation weighting factor
Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist s View Big Idea: Changes in the nucleus of an atom can result in the ejection of particles, the transformation of the atom into another element, and the release of energy.
Nuclear Chemistry Why? Nuclear chemistry is the subdiscipline of chemistry that is concerned with changes in the nucleus of elements. These changes are the source of radioactivity and nuclear power. Since
Q. In some areas of the U.K. people are worried because their houses are built on rocks that release radon. Read the information about radon. It is a gas. It is formed by the breakdown of radium. It emits
Volume 8, Issue 1, March 2003 Analytical Grade Ion Exchange Resins If you currently use one of the Bio-Rad resins listed below, we d like you to evaluate our analytical grade ion exchange resins. Compare
Main properties of atoms and nucleus. Atom Structure.... Structure of Nuclei... 3. Definition of Isotopes... 4. Energy Characteristics of Nuclei... 5. Laws of Radioactive Nuclei Transformation... 3. Atom
Unit 1 Practice Test Matching Match each item with the correct statement below. a. proton d. electron b. nucleus e. neutron c. atom 1. the smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of
Introduction to Nuclear Physics 1. Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table According to the Bohr-Rutherford model of the atom, also called the solar system model, the atom consists of a central nucleus
Lesson 43: Alpha, Beta, & Gamma Decay The late 18s and early 19s were a period of intense research into the new nuclear realm of physics. In 1896 Henri Becquerel found that a sample of uranium he was doing
Chemistry 1C-Dr. Larson Chapter 21 Review Questions MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) By what process does thorium-230 decay to radium-226?
Chapter 7: Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry Problems: -20, 24-30, 32-46, 49-70, 74-88, 99-0 7.2 THE DISCOVERY OF RADIOACTIVITY In 896, a French physicist named Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium-containing
1 Strontium-90 decays with the emission of a β-particle to form Yttrium-90. The reaction is represented by the equation 90 38 The decay constant is 0.025 year 1. 90 39 0 1 Sr Y + e + 0.55 MeV. (a) Suggest,
RADON 1. ehemical and Physical Data 1.1 Introduction Radon is a noble gas that occurs in several isotopic forms. Only two of these are found in significant concentrations in the human environment: radon-222,
Nuclear Transmutations ( Nucleosynthesis ) Nucleosynthesis reactions in the interior of stars have produced nearly all of the naturally occurring elements on earth. In a nuclear transmutation a nucleus
Introduction The Nucleus Nuclear Energy: Nuclear Decay Almost any phrase that has the word nuclear in it has a bad reputation. The term conjures up images of mushroom clouds and radioactive mutants. It
Nuclear Reactions- chap.31 Fission vs. fusion mass defect..e=mc 2 Binding energy..e=mc 2 Alpha, beta, gamma oh my! Definitions A nucleon is a general term to denote a nuclear particle - that is, either
Nuclear Energy Chemistry in Context: Chapter 7: Fires of Nuclear Fission Assignment: All the problems with blue codes or answers on Page 530 1957, the first nuclear power plant near Pittsburgh, PA. Seabrook
11. Nuclear Chemistry Chemical reactions occur as a result of loosing/gaining and sharing electrons in the valance shell which is far away from the atomic nucleus as we described in previous chapters in
Nuclear Physics The forces holding together the nucleus are large. And so are the energies involved. Radioactivity is a natural process. Certain nuclei fall apart and emit ionizing radiation as they do.
RADIOLOGICAL FALSE POSITIVES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SOIL AND GROUNDWATER DATA FROM COMMERCIAL LABORATORIES Walter Kubilius Westinghouse Savannah River Company Thomas Coffey, Paul Mark EXR, Inc. Allen Volesky
INFORMACIÓN FUENTES EXCEPTUADAS PARA ENSEÑANZA RSS-2 G-M Resolving Time Set This set is used for determining the resolving time of GM Counters. It consists of three half discs, two of which contain 5 microcuries
Radon: Our Major Source of Radiation Dose Introduction Radon-222 is a natural, radioactive isotope of element number 86, that occurs in the uranium-238 decay chain (see table 1). Its immediate parent is
Physics 114 Midterm 2 Review: Solutions These review sheets cover only selected topics from the chemical and nuclear energy chapters and are not meant to be a comprehensive review. Topics covered in these
WD-WSEB-3-11 2004 Dissolved Mineral Radioactivity in Drinking Water General New Hampshire's bedrock contains naturally occurring radioactivity. A few examples with health importance include radon, radium
Webster s Dictionary The act or process of radiating The process of emitting radiant energy in the form of waves or particles Dictionary.com the process in which energy is emitted as particles or waves.
Chapter 18: The Structure of the Atom 1. For most elements, an atom has A. no neutrons in the nucleus. B. more protons than electrons. C. less neutrons than electrons. D. just as many electrons as protons.
In the Middle Ages, individuals called alchemists spent a lot of time trying to make gold. Often, they fooled people into believing that they had made gold. Although alchemists never succeeded in making
chapter 14 3 Inside the Atom section 2 The Nucleus Before You Read Every person is different. What are some things that make one person look different from another person? What You ll Learn what radioactive
INFO-0545 RADIOISOTOPE SAFETY MONITORING FOR RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION 1. INTRODUCTION This document provides general guidance for monitoring and controlling radioactive contamination, and relating the
Chapter 16 Nuclear Chemistry tan is going to visit his son Fred at the radiology department of a local research hospital, where Fred has been recording the brain activity of kids with learning differences
The Structure of the Atom Section 4.1 Early Ideas About Matter In your textbook, read about the philosophers, John Dalton, and defining the atom. For each statement below, write true or false. 1. Ancient
1 The Atom Unit 3 Atomic Structure And Nuclear Chemistry What are the basic parts of an atom? How is an atom identified? What is nuclear chemistry? How is a nuclear equation written? Atom Smallest particle
Medical Physics and Radioactivity Radioactivity Unstable nucleus Electromagnetic wave particle Atoms which emit electromagnetic radiation or a particle by the spontaneous transformation of their nucleus
Radon What is radon? Radon is part of a chain of decays descending from uranium. Recall that radon is produced as part of the uranium decay chain, discussed in Chapter 16. It is produced in the decay 226
Nuclear Science A Guide to the Nuclear Science Wall Chart 2003 Contemporary Physics Education Project (CPEP) Chapter 15 Radiation in the Environment 1 Many forms of radiation are encountered in the natural
S t r a i g h t T o x Polonium-210: The perfect poison? by Dwain Fuller, D-FTCB, TC-NRCC It was July 5 th, 2012, the Thursday of the Society of Forensic Toxicologists meeting in Boston. My cell phone rings,
AS91172 version 1 Demonstrate understanding of atomic and nuclear physics Level 2 Credits 3 This achievement standard involves demonstrating understanding of atomic and nuclear physics. Assessment typically
Radiation Safety University of Nevada Reno EH&S Revised October 2012 Compiled by M. Jo Copyright (c) 2012, Environmental Health & Safety, All Rights Reserved. Some graphs in this document are the property
Name CHEM 103 Spring 2006 Final Exam 5 June 2006 Multiple Choice (5 points each) Write the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question in the blank provided 1. An aqueous
Summary The radiation environment to which the population of Sweden is exposed is dominated by medical investigations and background radiation from the ground and building materials in our houses. That
Radioactivity & Particles Introduction... 2 Atomic structure... 2 How are these particles arranged?... 2 Atomic notation... 4 Isotopes... 4 What is radioactivity?... 5 Types of Radiation: alpha, beta and
Chapter 8: Composition of the Atom The Discovery of Subatomic Particles Rutherford s Model of the Atom Atomic Number and Isotopes Chapter 8: Composition of the Atom The Discovery of Subatomic Particles
INFORMATION SHEET October 2 FINAL RADON AND HEALTH What is radon and where does it come from? Radon is a natural radioactive gas without odour, colour or taste. It cannot be detected without special equipment.
A South Jersey Homeowner s Guide to Radioactivity in Drinking Water: Radium Radioactive substances in ground water, such as radium, uranium and thorium, occur naturally. They are present at least to some
NAME PER DATE DUE ACTIVE LEARNING IN CHEMISTRY EDUCATION CHAPTER 8 NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY (Part ) 8-997, A.J. Girondi NOTICE OF RIGHTS All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted
CHAPTER 6 Nuclear reactions are among the most powerful energy sources in nature. Key Concepts In this chapter, you will learn about: half-life nuclear decay nuclear reactions Learning Outcomes When you
PHY 192 Half Life 1 Radioactivity III: Measurement of Half Life. Introduction This experiment will once again use the apparatus of the first experiment, this time to measure radiation intensity as a function
Radon What is Radon? Radon is a gas produced by the radioactive decay of the element radium. Radon itself is radioactive, losing an alpha particle and forming the element polonium. Each of the three naturally-occurring
half-life Number of particles left The half-life of an element tells us how long it will take for half of the nuclei in a sample of an unstable element to decay. So, after one half-life, only half of the
Chapter 7: The Fires of Nuclear Fission What is nuclear fission? Is using nuclear energy safe for humans and the environment? Is nuclear energy better to use than electric generated energy? What happens
Tutorial 4.6 Gamma Spectrum Analysis Slide 1. Gamma Spectrum Analysis In this module, we will apply the concepts that were discussed in Tutorial 4.1, Interactions of Radiation with Matter. Slide 2. Learning
Nuclear Energy in Everyday Life Understanding Radioactivity and Radiation in our Everyday Lives Radioactivity is part of our earth it has existed all along. Naturally occurring radioactive materials are
9 th Grade Physical Science Springfield Local Schools Common Course Syllabi Course Description The purpose of the Physical Science course is to satisfy the Ohio Core science graduation requirement. The
9 Radiological aspects The objective of this chapter is to provide criteria with which to assess the safety of drinking-water with respect to its radionuclide content. The Guidelines do not differentiate
Perspectives of a method for measuring soil-gas radon by an opened counting vial Hugo López del Río Juan Carlos Quiroga Cifuentes Unidad Académica de Estudios Nucleares Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas
ABSTRACT Comparison of Activity Determination of Radium 226 in FUSRAP Soil using Various Energy Lines - 12299 Brian Tucker*, Jough Donakowski**, David Hays*** *Shaw Environmental & Infrastructure, Stoughton,
CHAPTER 13 NUCLEAR STRUCTURE NUCLEAR FORCE The nucleus is help firmly together by the nuclear or strong force, We can estimate the nuclear force by observing that protons residing about 1fm = 10-15m apart