13C NMR Spectroscopy

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "13C NMR Spectroscopy"

Transcription

1 13 C NMR Spectroscopy

2 Introduction Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) is the most powerful tool available for structural determination. A nucleus with an odd number of protons, an odd number of neutrons, or both, has a nuclear spin that can be observed by the NMR spectrometer. NMR active nuclei include: 1 H, 13 C, 19 F, and 31 P. Remember a spinning nucleus generates a magnetic field (magnetic moment). In the absence of an external magnetic field, proton magnetic moments have random orientations. However, in the presence of an external magnetic field, the magnetic moment is aligned either with or against the external field. 2

3 Introduction The stronger the magnetic field, the greater the energy difference between the two spin states, resulting in a greater population difference between the two states greater sensitivity. 3

4 External magnetic field Nuclear Spin Energy Levels A photon of light with the right amount of energy (radiofrequency, rf) can be absorbed and cause the spinning proton to flip. E 2 E 2 h absorption of energy E 1 E 1 The nuclei undergo a spin flip, and the nuclei are said to be in resonance. This absorption of energy leads to the NMR signal 4

5 Nuclear Spin Energy Levels If the two states become equally populated, then no net spin transitions occur and no signal is produced. This is called saturation. The frequency of EM radiation necessary for resonance depends on the strength of the magnetic field and on the chemical environment of the nucleus. Fortunately, protons (in 1 H NMR) in molecules usually experience different chemical environments (i.e. are shielded to varying extents). 5

6 1 H NMR Spectroscopy Therefore, different frequencies are required to bring different protons into resonance. Consider CH 3 OH: Deshielded, senses higher effective magnetic field so comes into resonance at a higher frequency. H H O C H H Shielded, senses a smaller effective magnetic field so comes into resonance at a lower frequency. 6

7 1 H NMR Spectroscopy A 1 H NMR spectrum provides the following information: 1. The # of different types of H number of basic groups of signals. 2. The relative numbers of different types of H 3. The electronic environment of the different types of H 4. The number of hydrogen neighbors a proton has 7

8 Simple Correlation Table of 1 H Chemical Shifts * See text and Lab manual for more extensive tables 8

9 Why Carbon ( 13 C) NMR Spectroscopy Some organic compounds have few C-H bonds: Others have very similar 1 H NMR spectra: HO HO C C O C C C O O O O H 3 C CH 3 H 3 C H H H H CH 3 O O 2,6-dimethylbenzoquinone 2,5-dimethylbenzoquinone 9

10 Carbon ( 13 C) NMR vs 1 H NMR The 13 C nucleus can also undergo nuclear magnetic resonance. 13 C NMR vs 1 H NMR : 12 C, the most abundant isotope of carbon, does NOT exhibit NMR behavior. Why? 13 C, only natural abundance, does exhibit NMR behavior. Due to low abundance, 13 C- 13 C coupling is usually not observed. Chemical shift ranges are much larger Integration in 13 C NMR is NOT reliable due to variable relaxation times from C to C. Also Nuclear Overhauser Effect - the intensity of the C signal increases as the number of attached protons increases. Not uniform however. 10

11 Fourier Transform (FT) spectroscopy The magnetic moment of the 13 C nucleus is about 1/4 that of the H nucleus resulting in lower sensitivity. The low natural abudance and small magnetic moment of the 13 C isotope results in the 13 C nucleus being about less sensitive than the 1 H nucleus to NMR phenomena. Consequently, much longer acquisition times were required. The development of Fourier transform (FT) spectroscopy has made 13 C NMR acquisition routine. The old way of acquiring NMR was to apply a constant magnetic field to the sample and scan the range of frequencies = continuous wave (CW) NMR. With FT-NMR the data is collected all at once by exciting the sample with an RF pulse (typically only a few microseconds long) which covers all the resonance frequencies, and thus changes the orientation of all the protons. 11

12 Intensity of signal Fourier Transform (FT) spectroscopy After the pulse has stopped, the decay of the signal from the sample is measured. The decaying sine wave called a free induction decay (FID): O C H 3 C CH 3 Fourier Transform Time (s) Frequency A Fourier transform converts the intensity vs time data into intensity vs frequency information. 12

13 Fourier Transform (FT) spectroscopy Fourier Transform 13

14 Chemical Shifts in 13 C NMR Two simple ideas will make interpretation of 13 C NMR spectra easier: 1. Hybridization of the C atom determines the chemical shift: sp 3 hybridized carbons have chemical shift values. sp 2 hybridized carbons have chemical shift values. 2. The presence of an EN element near a C atom will cause its chemical shift to move. 14

15 Simple Correlation Table of 13 C chemical shifts See text (p. 593) and Lab manual (p. 60) for more extensive tables 15

16 Coupling in Carbon NMR The low abundance of 13 C makes C-C coupling very rare. However, 13 C-H coupling is common. N+1 rule still applies: Coupling constants are large ~ Hz for directly attached H s. 16

17 Coupling in Carbon NMR Spectra which show 13 C-H coupling are called protoncoupled spectra. However, extensive 13 C-H coupling often produces splitting patterns that are difficult to interpret. To simply 13 C NMR spectra, often recorded using broad band proton decoupling. Therefore each carbon signal appears as a singlet, because C-H splitting has been eliminated. Spectra recorded in the broad band proton decoupling mode give the number of unique carbon atoms in a molecule. 17

18 Proton-coupled vs Proton-decoupled 13 C NMR Spectra 18

19 Interpreting 13 C NMR Spectra CH 3 H 3 C C CH 2 CH 3 CH 3 CDCl 3 solvent TMS 19

20 Interpreting 13 C NMR Spectra O CH 3 C O CH 2 CH 3 20

21 Interpreting 13 C NMR Spectra O CH 3 21

22 Interpreting 13 C NMR Spectra O O H 3 C CH 3 H 3 C H H H H CH 3 O O 22

23 Mass Spectrometry

24 Basic Principles Mass Spectroscopy (MS) is a destructive analytical technique for measuring the ( ) of ions in the gas phase. This allows accurate determination of the of a molecule. Structural information is also gained. Molecular Formula determination is sometimes possible. While the method is destructive, only very small amounts (1 mg or less) is required. 24

25 Basic Principles MS does not involve the absorption or emission of light. A mass spectrometer is designed to do 3 things: 1. Convert a neutral molecule, M, into positive (or negative) ions usually by bombardment with a beam of high energy electrons. M + e M + 2e ev in energy 1 ev = 23 kcal/mol 2. Separate the ions based on mass (mass-to-charge ratio, ). 3. Measure the relative abundance of each ion. 25

26 Schematic of Mass Spectrometer First the sample is vaporized under vacuum. A beam of electrons bombards Electron the molecules Impact in the gas phase causing ionization and formation Ionization of radical Source cations. ~70 Volts Electron Collector (Trap) Electron impact Ionization source Repeller + Neutral Molecules + Inlet _ Positive Ions + to Analyzer e - e - e - _ Electrons Filament Extraction Plate 26

27 Schematic of Mass Spectrometer The radical cations fragment further after ionization owing to the large amount of energy transferred by the electron beam. Some fragments carry a positive charge, others are neutral: CH 4 - e H H C H m/z = H Molecular ion [CH 3 ] + H m/z = [CH 2 ] m/z = + 2H Only the positively charged fragments are accelerated into the analyzer tube. 27

28 Schematic of Mass Spectrometer Magnetic Sector Mass Analyzer The analyzer tube is surrounded by a magnet whose magnetic field deflects the positively charge fragments in a curved path. ion trajectory not in register (too light) ion trajectory in register S Ion Source N Electromagnet ion trajectory not in register (too heavy) Detector The amount of deflection depends on m/z. 28

29 Basis of Fragment Separation Fragments with smaller m/z value are deflected than a larger m/z value. Since z is usually, the fragments are sorted by mass. By varying the magnetic field, cations of different masses are sorted and counted by a detector. The more stable the fragment the more likely it will make it to the detector. The masses are graphed or tabulated according to their relative abundance = The Mass Spectrum. 29

30 The Mass Spectrum of Methane m/z Intensity C12 H+ [C 12 ] +. [C 12 H 2 ] +. M + = 15 C 12 H m/z Base peak M + = 16 Molecular ion [C 12 H 4 ] +. 30

31 Relative abundance, % Isotopes Most elements common to organic compounds are mixtures of isotopes. The existence of atomic isotopes in nature accounts for the appearance of M+1 and M+2 peaks in a mass spectrum. Organic compounds containing only C, H, O, and N usually have relatively small M+1 and M+2 peaks. M+ M+ M+1 + M+1 + M+2 + m/z C 6 H 12 m/z C 20 H 42 31

32 Isotopes Element Most abundant isotope Less abundant isotope Relative abundance Hydrogen 1 H 2 H Carbon 12 C 13 C 1.08 Nitrogen 14 N 15 N 0.38 Oxygen 16 O 18 O 0.20 Sulfur 32 S 34 S 4.4 Chlorine 35 Cl 37 Cl 32.5 Bromine 79 Br 81 Br

33 Relative abundance, % Isotopes MS is particularly valuable for compounds which contain Cl and Br: If one S atom is present, M + 2 is ~ 4% of M +. If one Cl atom is present, M + 2 is ~ 33% of M +. If one Br atom is present, M + 2 is ~ to M +. M M M M M M M+ M+ M+ M+2 + M+2 + M m/z m/z m/z

34 Mass Spectrum with Chlorine Cl CH H 3 C CH 3 M+2 + M+ 34

35 Mass Spectrum with Bromine H 3 C CH 2 CH 2 Br M+ M

36 Isotopes Carbon Rule For compounds containing only C, H, and O, the following formula can be used to determine the number of carbons in the molecule: no.c s= relativeintensity of 1.1 M +1 peak Determine the molecular formula of the unknown organic compound whose mass spectral data is given in the table below: Peak Mass (m/z) Relative intensity M M M

37 Isotopes Nitrogen Rule: if a compound has: An odd number of nitrogen atoms, its molecular ion, M+, will be odd. Zero or an even number of nitrogen atoms, its molecular ion, M+, will be even. 37

38 Resolution Resolution: a measure of how well a mass spectrometer separates ions of different mass. Low resolution capable of distinguishing among ions of different nominal mass, i.e. different by at least one or more amu. High resolution capable of distinguishing among ions that differ in mass by as little as amu. For example: CO, N 2, and ethene all have a nominal mass of 28 amu. High resolution MS can distinguish these molecules. CO N 2 CH 2 =CH amu amu amu 38

39 Fragmentation Pathways Structural information is available from analysis of fragments formed by bond cleavages in the molecular ion, M +. In general, the molecular ion, M +, will fragment so as to form the most stable cationic fragment (usually a carbocation). In some cases, the M + peak is very small or absent. Occurs if the fragments are considerably more stable M +. 39

40 Mass Spectrum-Fragmentation Consider the mass spectrum of pentane: p text Fragmentation of the molecular ion often results: 40

41 Mass Spectrum of Pentane 41

42 Fragmentation of Alkanes 43 CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH CH M + 1 CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 + HC CH 3 m/z 43 CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH CH 3 2 CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH + CH 3 m/z 86 3 m/z 71 CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 + H 2 C CH CH 3 m/z 57 42

43 Compounds with Heteroatoms Molecules containing O, N, halogens, or other heteroatoms often undergo (adjacent to heteroatom). Driving force is resonance stabilized cations. 43

44 Fragmentation of Alcohols Alcohols common fragmentation is -cleavage and loss of H 2 O to give an M-18 peak. OH M-29 H 3 C C CH 2 CH 3 CH 3 M + = 88 (not observed) M-15 M M-18 44

45 Fragmentation of Amines + CH 2 =NH 2 m/z=30 H 3 C H 3 C CH CH 2 NH 2 M + = 73 Mass spectrum of isobutylamine 45

46 Fragmentation of Ketones 43 O H 3 C C CH 2 CH 3 57 M + = 72 Mass spectrum of 2-butanone 46

47 McLafferty Rearrangement If one of the alkyl groups attached to the carbonyl carbon of an aldehyde or ketone has a hydrogen, a cleavage known as a McLafferty rearrangement can occur. M 28 O Mass spectrum of butyraldehyde H M + =72 47

48 Aromatic Compounds Usually strong M+ peak. m/z =91 for tropylium ion and methylene spacings above 91 (105, 119, etc. for alkyl chains) often observed. m/z = 65 (C 5 H 5+ ), 77 (C 6 H 5+ ) are sometimes observed. CH 2 R CH -R 2 m/z 91 m/z 91 48

49 Aromatic Compounds 49

50 Common Fragments O CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 C H H 3 C m/z = O C HO O C CH 2 O C m/z =

Chapter 13 Spectroscopy NMR, IR, MS, UV-Vis

Chapter 13 Spectroscopy NMR, IR, MS, UV-Vis Chapter 13 Spectroscopy NMR, IR, MS, UV-Vis Main points of the chapter 1. Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance a. Splitting or coupling (what s next to what) b. Chemical shifts (what type is it) c. Integration

More information

Introduction. Chapter 12 Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy. Electromagnetic Spectrum. Types of Spectroscopy 8/29/2011

Introduction. Chapter 12 Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy. Electromagnetic Spectrum. Types of Spectroscopy 8/29/2011 Organic Chemistry, 6 th Edition L. G. Wade, Jr. Chapter 12 Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy Introduction Spectroscopy is an analytical technique which helps determine structure. It destroys

More information

Organic Chemistry Tenth Edition

Organic Chemistry Tenth Edition Organic Chemistry Tenth Edition T. W. Graham Solomons Craig B. Fryhle Welcome to CHM 22 Organic Chemisty II Chapters 2 (IR), 9, 3-20. Chapter 2 and Chapter 9 Spectroscopy (interaction of molecule with

More information

Chapter 13 Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy

Chapter 13 Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy Chapter 13 Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy Copyright 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 Overview of Mass Spectrometry Mass spectrometry

More information

Top five list for Mass Spectrometry. 1. Molecular weight 2. Fragmentation pattern 3. Isotope ratio 4. Nitrogen rule 5. Exact mass

Top five list for Mass Spectrometry. 1. Molecular weight 2. Fragmentation pattern 3. Isotope ratio 4. Nitrogen rule 5. Exact mass Mass Spectrometry Top five list for Mass Spectrometry 1. Molecular weight 2. Fragmentation pattern 3. Isotope ratio 4. Nitrogen rule 5. Exact mass A Mass Spectrometer A mass spectrometer is designed to

More information

For example: (Example is from page 50 of the Thinkbook)

For example: (Example is from page 50 of the Thinkbook) SOLVING COMBINED SPECTROSCOPY PROBLEMS: Lecture Supplement: page 50-53 in Thinkbook CFQ s and PP s: page 216 241 in Thinkbook Introduction: The structure of an unknown molecule can be determined using

More information

Instrumental Lab. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Dr Alex J. Roche

Instrumental Lab. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Dr Alex J. Roche Instrumental Lab Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Dr Alex J. Roche 1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy NMR is the most powerful analytical tool currently available to an organic chemist. NMR allows

More information

Infrared Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry

Infrared Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry Infrared Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry Introduction It is fundamental for an organic chemist to be able to identify, or characterize, the new compound that he/she has just made. Sometimes this can

More information

Lecture Topics: I. IR spectroscopy

Lecture Topics: I. IR spectroscopy IR and Mass Spectrometry Reading: Wade chapter 12, sections 12-1- 12-15 Study Problems: 12-15, 12-16, 12-23, 12-25 Key Concepts and Skills: Given an IR spectrum, identify the reliable characteristic peaks

More information

Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Introduction: The NMR Spectrum serves as a great resource in determining the structure of an organic compound by revealing the hydrogen and carbon skeleton.

More information

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a powerful analytical technique used to characterize organic molecules by identifying carbonhydrogen frameworks within

More information

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Introduction NMR is the most powerful tool available for organic structure determination. It is used to study a wide variety of nuclei: 1 H 13 C 15 N 19 F 31 P 2

More information

NMR is the most powerful structure determination tool available to organic chemists.

NMR is the most powerful structure determination tool available to organic chemists. Nuclear Magnetic esonance (NM) Spectrometry NM is the most powerful structure determination tool available to organic chemists. An NM spectrum provides information about: 1. The number of atoms of a given

More information

CHE334 Identification of an Unknown Compound By NMR/IR/MS

CHE334 Identification of an Unknown Compound By NMR/IR/MS CHE334 Identification of an Unknown Compound By NMR/IR/MS Purpose The object of this experiment is to determine the structure of an unknown compound using IR, 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR and Mass spectroscopy. Infrared

More information

Chapter 11 Structure Determination: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. 11.1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Chapter 11 Structure Determination: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. 11.1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance John E. McMurry http://www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 11 Structure Determination: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 11.1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Many atomic nuclei behave

More information

By far the most important and useful technique to identify organic molecules. Often the only technique necessary.

By far the most important and useful technique to identify organic molecules. Often the only technique necessary. Chapter 13: NMR Spectroscopy 39 NMR Spectroscopy By far the most important and useful technique to identify organic molecules. Often the only technique necessary. NMR spectrum can be recorded for many

More information

Chapter 16: NMR Spectroscopy (i.e., the most exciting thing on the planet)

Chapter 16: NMR Spectroscopy (i.e., the most exciting thing on the planet) Chapter 16: NMR Spectroscopy (i.e., the most exciting thing on the planet) ne day (soon), the following will make a lot of sense to you: 16.1-16.3 The Proton: An Unexpected Journey NMR: Like electrons,

More information

NMR Spectroscopy. Introduction

NMR Spectroscopy. Introduction Introduction NMR Spectroscopy Over the past fifty years nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, commonly referred to as nmr, has become the most important technique for determining the structure of organic

More information

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 m/z

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 m/z Mass spectrum for the ionization of acetone MS of Acetone + Relative Abundance CH 3 H 3 C O + M 15 (loss of methyl) + O H 3 C CH 3 43 58 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 m/z It is difficult to identify the ions

More information

1 H and 13 C NMR compared: Both give information about the number of chemically nonequivalent nuclei (nonequivalent

1 H and 13 C NMR compared: Both give information about the number of chemically nonequivalent nuclei (nonequivalent 1 H and 13 C NMR compared: 13 C NMR Spectroscopy Both give information about the number of chemically nonequivalent nuclei (nonequivalent hydrogens or nonequivalent carbons) Both give information about

More information

PROTON NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY (H-NMR)

PROTON NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY (H-NMR) PROTON NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY (H-NMR) WHAT IS H-NMR SPECTROSCOPY? References: Bruice 14.1, 14.2 Introduction NMR or nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a technique used to determine

More information

electron does not become part of the compound; one electron goes in but two electrons come out.

electron does not become part of the compound; one electron goes in but two electrons come out. Characterization Techniques for Organic Compounds. When we run a reaction in the laboratory or when we isolate a compound from nature, one of our first tasks is to identify the compound that we have obtained.

More information

Solving Spectroscopy Problems

Solving Spectroscopy Problems Solving Spectroscopy Problems The following is a detailed summary on how to solve spectroscopy problems, key terms are highlighted in bold and the definitions are from the illustrated glossary on Dr. Hardinger

More information

Mass Spectrometry. Overview

Mass Spectrometry. Overview Mass Spectrometry Overview Mass Spectrometry is an analytic technique that utilizes the degree of deflection of charged particles by a magnetic field to find the relative masses of molecular ions and fragments.2

More information

Used to determine relative location of atoms within a molecule Most helpful spectroscopic technique in organic chemistry Related to MRI in medicine

Used to determine relative location of atoms within a molecule Most helpful spectroscopic technique in organic chemistry Related to MRI in medicine Structure Determination: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance CHEM 241 UNIT 5C 1 The Use of NMR Spectroscopy Used to determine relative location of atoms within a molecule Most helpful spectroscopic technique in

More information

NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY

NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY NMR Spectroscopy F34 1 NULEAR MAGNETI RESONANE SPETROSOPY Involves interaction of materials with the low-energy radiowave region of the electromagnetic spectrum Origin of Spectra Theory All nuclei possess

More information

C NMR Spectroscopy C NMR. C Transition Energy

C NMR Spectroscopy C NMR. C Transition Energy NMR NMR Spectroscopy is the most abundant natural isotope of carbon, but has a nuclear spin I = 0, rendering it unobservable by NMR. Limited to the observation of the nucleus which constitutes only.% of

More information

4. It is possible to excite, or flip the nuclear magnetic vector from the α-state to the β-state by bridging the energy gap between the two. This is a

4. It is possible to excite, or flip the nuclear magnetic vector from the α-state to the β-state by bridging the energy gap between the two. This is a BASIC PRINCIPLES INTRODUCTION TO NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE (NMR) 1. The nuclei of certain atoms with odd atomic number, and/or odd mass behave as spinning charges. The nucleus is the center of positive

More information

Molecular spectroscopy III: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

Molecular spectroscopy III: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Molecular spectroscopy III: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which magnetic nuclei in a magnetic field absorb electromagnetic radiation at a

More information

Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy CHEM 334L Organic Chemistry Laboratory Revision 2.0 Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy In this laboratory exercise we will learn how to use the Chemistry Department's Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

More information

Nuclear Structure. particle relative charge relative mass proton +1 1 atomic mass unit neutron 0 1 atomic mass unit electron -1 negligible mass

Nuclear Structure. particle relative charge relative mass proton +1 1 atomic mass unit neutron 0 1 atomic mass unit electron -1 negligible mass Protons, neutrons and electrons Nuclear Structure particle relative charge relative mass proton 1 1 atomic mass unit neutron 0 1 atomic mass unit electron -1 negligible mass Protons and neutrons make up

More information

Mass Spectrometry. 1. Calculation of Molecular Ion or Fragment Composition

Mass Spectrometry. 1. Calculation of Molecular Ion or Fragment Composition Mass Spectrometry 1 alculation of Molecular Ion or Fragment omposition a ommon Isotopes Nominal Abundance, Isotope Mass % Exact Mass 1 1 99985 10078 (or D) 0015 0141 1 1 989 10000 13 13 11 130034 14 N

More information

Background A nucleus with an odd atomic number or an odd mass number has a nuclear spin that can be observed by NMR spectrometers.

Background A nucleus with an odd atomic number or an odd mass number has a nuclear spin that can be observed by NMR spectrometers. NMR Spectroscopy I Reading: Wade chapter, sections -- -7 Study Problems: -, -7 Key oncepts and Skills: Given an structure, determine which protons are equivalent and which are nonequivalent, predict the

More information

F321 THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS. ATOMS Atoms consist of a number of fundamental particles, the most important are... in the nucleus of an atom

F321 THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS. ATOMS Atoms consist of a number of fundamental particles, the most important are... in the nucleus of an atom Atomic Structure F32 TE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS ATOMS Atoms consist of a number of fundamental particles, the most important are... Mass / kg Charge / C Relative mass Relative Charge PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON

More information

Chapter 13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Chapter 13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Organic Chemistry, 6 th Edition L. G. Wade, Jr. Chapter 13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Jo Blackburn Richland College, Dallas, TX Dallas County Community College District 2006, Prentice Hall

More information

H NMR (proton NMR): determines number and type of H atoms 13. C NMR (proton NMR): determines number and type of C atoms

H NMR (proton NMR): determines number and type of H atoms 13. C NMR (proton NMR): determines number and type of C atoms 14.1 An Introduction to NMR Spectroscopy A. The Basics of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy nuclei with odd atomic number have a S = ½ with two spin states (+1/2 and -1/2) 1 H NMR (proton NMR):

More information

NMR SPECTROSCOPY A N I N T R O D U C T I O N T O... Self-study booklet NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE. 4 3 2 1 0 δ PUBLISHING

NMR SPECTROSCOPY A N I N T R O D U C T I O N T O... Self-study booklet NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE. 4 3 2 1 0 δ PUBLISHING A N I N T R O D U T I O N T O... NMR SPETROSOPY NULEAR MAGNETI RESONANE 4 3 1 0 δ Self-study booklet PUBLISING NMR Spectroscopy NULEAR MAGNETI RESONANE SPETROSOPY Origin of Spectra Theory All nuclei possess

More information

Infrared Spectroscopy 紅 外 線 光 譜 儀

Infrared Spectroscopy 紅 外 線 光 譜 儀 Infrared Spectroscopy 紅 外 線 光 譜 儀 Introduction Spectroscopy is an analytical technique which helps determine structure. It destroys little or no sample (nondestructive method). The amount of light absorbed

More information

So what does this mass spectrometer thing look like?

So what does this mass spectrometer thing look like? Mass Spectrometry: What is it? Mass spectrometry is an analytical tool that makes use of the mass to charge ratio of particles to determine the molecular formula of a compound. In the lab, this tool can

More information

Mass Spec - Fragmentation

Mass Spec - Fragmentation Mass Spec - Fragmentation An extremely useful result of EI ionization in particular is a phenomenon known as fragmentation. The radical cation that is produced when an electron is knocked out of a neutral

More information

A 13 C-NMR spectrum. RF Frequency The intensity of the peak doesn t does not necessarily correlate to the number of carbons.

A 13 C-NMR spectrum. RF Frequency The intensity of the peak doesn t does not necessarily correlate to the number of carbons. 13 -NMR We can examine the nuclear magnetic properties of carbon atoms in a molecule to learn about a molecules structure. Most carbons are 12 ; 12 has an even number of protons and neutrons and cannot

More information

Department of Chemistry College of Science Sultan Qaboos University. Topics and Learning Outcomes

Department of Chemistry College of Science Sultan Qaboos University. Topics and Learning Outcomes Department of Chemistry College of Science Sultan Qaboos University Title : CHEM 3326 (Applied Spectroscopy) Credits : 3 Course Format : 2 lectures and 2 tutorials Course Text : Spectrometric Identification

More information

Chapter 15 NMR Spectroscopy

Chapter 15 NMR Spectroscopy Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 15 NMR Spectroscopy Page 1 Chapter 15 NMR Spectroscopy Parts of Topics A5 and A9 from the IB HL Chemistry Curriculum A5 A.5.1 Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry (2

More information

Structure Determination by NMR

Structure Determination by NMR Structure Determination by NMR * Introduction to NMR * 2D NMR, resonance assignments J Correlated Based Experiments * COSY - Correlated Spectroscopy * NOESY - Nuclear Overhauser Effect Spectroscopy * HETCOR

More information

Chemical Shift (δ) 0 (by definition) 0.8-1.0 1.2-1.4 1.4-1.7 1.6-2.6 2.0-3.0 2.2-2.5 2.3-2.8 0.5-6.0 3.4-4.0 3.3-4.0 0.5-5.0

Chemical Shift (δ) 0 (by definition) 0.8-1.0 1.2-1.4 1.4-1.7 1.6-2.6 2.0-3.0 2.2-2.5 2.3-2.8 0.5-6.0 3.4-4.0 3.3-4.0 0.5-5.0 Chemical Shifts 1 H-NMR Type of Hydrogen (CH 3 ) 4 Si RCH 3 RCH 2 R R 3 CH R 2 C=CRCHR 2 RC CH ArCH 3 ArCH 2 R ROH RCH 2 OH RCH 2 OR R 2 NH O RCCH 3 O RCCH 2 R Chemical Shift (δ) 0 (by definition) 0.8-1.0

More information

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance notes

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance notes Reminder: These notes are meant to supplement, not replace, the laboratory manual. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance notes Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a spectrometric technique which provides information

More information

Radical and Cation Stabilities Radical vs cation stabilities

Radical and Cation Stabilities Radical vs cation stabilities Mass Spectrometry and Free Radicals MS recap Positive mode of Electron Ionization / ESI MS sees charged species (M+, M+), but does not see uncharged (R ) Radical and Cation Stabilities Radical vs cation

More information

Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( 1 H-NMR) Spectroscopy

Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( 1 H-NMR) Spectroscopy Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( 1 H-NMR) Spectroscopy Theory behind NMR: In the late 1940 s, physical chemists originally developed NMR spectroscopy to study different properties of atomic nuclei,

More information

INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY (IR)

INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY (IR) INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY (IR) Theory and Interpretation of IR spectra ASSIGNED READINGS Introduction to technique 25 (p. 833-834 in lab textbook) Uses of the Infrared Spectrum (p. 847-853) Look over pages

More information

Symmetric Stretch: allows molecule to move through space

Symmetric Stretch: allows molecule to move through space BACKGROUND INFORMATION Infrared Spectroscopy Before introducing the subject of IR spectroscopy, we must first review some aspects of the electromagnetic spectrum. The electromagnetic spectrum is composed

More information

Organic Chemistry Nuclear Magnetic Resonance H. D. Roth. Chemistry 307 Chapter 13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Organic Chemistry Nuclear Magnetic Resonance H. D. Roth. Chemistry 307 Chapter 13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Chemistry 307 Chapter 13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of three spectroscopic techniques that are useful tools for determining the structures of organic

More information

Determination of Molecular Structure by MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY

Determination of Molecular Structure by MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY Determination of Molecular Structure by MOLEULAR SPETROSOPY hemistry 3 B.Z. Shakhashiri Fall 29 Much of what we know about molecular structure has been learned by observing and analyzing how electromagnetic

More information

1) A compound gives a mass spectrum with peaks at m/z = 77 (40%), 112 (100%), 114 (33%), and essentially no other peaks. Identify the compound.

1) A compound gives a mass spectrum with peaks at m/z = 77 (40%), 112 (100%), 114 (33%), and essentially no other peaks. Identify the compound. 1) A compound gives a mass spectrum with peaks at m/z = 77 (40%), 112 (100%), 114 (33%), and essentially no other peaks. Identify the compound. First, your molecular ion peak is 112 and you have a M+2

More information

Atomic Calculations. 2.1 Composition of the Atom. number of protons + number of neutrons = mass number

Atomic Calculations. 2.1 Composition of the Atom. number of protons + number of neutrons = mass number 2.1 Composition of the Atom Atomic Calculations number of protons + number of neutrons = mass number number of neutrons = mass number - number of protons number of protons = number of electrons IF positive

More information

The Four Questions to Ask While Interpreting Spectra. 1. How many different environments are there?

The Four Questions to Ask While Interpreting Spectra. 1. How many different environments are there? 1 H NMR Spectroscopy (#1c) The technique of 1 H NMR spectroscopy is central to organic chemistry and other fields involving analysis of organic chemicals, such as forensics and environmental science. It

More information

The Hydrogen Atom Is a Magnet. http://www.seed.slb.com/en/scictr/watch/gashydrates/detecting.htm

The Hydrogen Atom Is a Magnet. http://www.seed.slb.com/en/scictr/watch/gashydrates/detecting.htm The Hydrogen Atom Is a Magnet Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR) Proton NMR A hydrogen nucleus can be viewed as a proton, which can be viewed as a spinning charge. As with any spinning charge,

More information

Organic Spectroscopy. UV - Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy. !! 200-800 nm. Methods for structure determination of organic compounds:

Organic Spectroscopy. UV - Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy. !! 200-800 nm. Methods for structure determination of organic compounds: Organic Spectroscopy Methods for structure determination of organic compounds: X-ray rystallography rystall structures Mass spectroscopy Molecular formula -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

More information

NMR - Basic principles

NMR - Basic principles NMR - Basic principles Subatomic particles like electrons, protons and neutrons are associated with spin - a fundamental property like charge or mass. In the case of nuclei with even number of protons

More information

CHAPTER 12 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY. and MASS SPECTROSCOPY

CHAPTER 12 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY. and MASS SPECTROSCOPY KOT 222 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY II CHAPTER 12 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY and MASS SPECTROSCOPY Part I Infrared Spectroscopy What is Spectroscopy? Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction of matter and electromagnetic

More information

Shielding and Chemical Shift. Figure 14.3

Shielding and Chemical Shift. Figure 14.3 Shielding and Chemical Shift Figure 14.3 1 Summary of Shielding Figure 14.4 2 Shielding and Signal Position 3 Characteristic Chemical Shifts Protons in a given environment absorb in a predictable region

More information

Chemical shift = observed chemical shift in MHz/ frequency of spectrometer (MHz)

Chemical shift = observed chemical shift in MHz/ frequency of spectrometer (MHz) Chapter 4. Physical Basis of NMR Spectroscopy. Today the most widely used method for determining the structure of organic compounds is nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. NMR spectroscopy involves

More information

How to Quickly Solve Spectrometry Problems

How to Quickly Solve Spectrometry Problems How to Quickly Solve Spectrometry Problems You should be looking for: Mass Spectrometry (MS) Chemical Formula DBE Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) Important Functional Groups o Alcohol O-H o Carboxylic Acid

More information

NMR Phenomenon. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. µ A spinning charged particle generates a magnetic field.

NMR Phenomenon. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. µ A spinning charged particle generates a magnetic field. NMR Phenomenon Nuclear Magnetic Resonance µ A spinning charged particle generates a magnetic field. A nucleus with a spin angular momentum will generate a magnetic moment (μ). If these tiny magnets are

More information

(3)

(3) 1. Organic compounds are often identified by using more than one analytical technique. Some of these techniques were used to identify the compounds in the following reactions. C 3 H 7 Br C 3 H 8 O C 3

More information

Pesticide Analysis by Mass Spectrometry

Pesticide Analysis by Mass Spectrometry Pesticide Analysis by Mass Spectrometry Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to introduce concepts of mass spectrometry (MS) as they pertain to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of organochlorine

More information

NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE AND INTRODUCTION TO MASS SPECTROMETRY

NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE AND INTRODUCTION TO MASS SPECTROMETRY NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESNANCE AND INTRDUCTIN T MASS SPECTRMETRY A STUDENT SHULD BE ABLE T: 1. Identify and explain the processes involved in proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and mass

More information

Analytical chemistry year 12

Analytical chemistry year 12 Analytical chemistry year 12 1) Consider the molecule on the right. a) How many sets of peaks are present in the 1 H NMR spectrum? 3 b) How many sets of peaks are present in the 13 C NMR spectrum? 4 c)

More information

Nuclear Shielding and 1. H Chemical Shifts. 1 H NMR Spectroscopy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Nuclear Shielding and 1. H Chemical Shifts. 1 H NMR Spectroscopy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance NMR Spectroscopy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Nuclear Shielding and hemical Shifts What do we mean by "shielding?" What do we mean by "chemical shift?" The electrons surrounding a nucleus affect the effective

More information

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Wade Textbook

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Wade Textbook Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Wade Textbook Background Is a nondestructive structural analysis technique Has the same theoretical basis as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Referring to MRI as nuclear

More information

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Nuclear Magnetic Resonance NMR is probably the most useful and powerful technique for identifying and characterizing organic compounds. Felix Bloch and Edward Mills Purcell were awarded the 1952 Nobel

More information

2 Atomic structure and the periodic table

2 Atomic structure and the periodic table Page 35 Questions 1 a) Isotopes have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons. Therefore, B and D are isotopes of element number 17 (chlorine). B is a 35 Cl atom and D is a 37 Cl +

More information

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy cont... Recommended Reading:

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy cont... Recommended Reading: Applied Spectroscopy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy cont... Recommended Reading: Banwell and McCash Chapter 7 Skoog, Holler Nieman Chapter 19 Atkins, Chapter 18 Relaxation processes We need

More information

Chemistry 307 Chapter 10 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Chemistry 307 Chapter 10 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Chemistry 307 Chapter 10 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of three spectroscopic techniques that are useful tools for determining the structures of organic

More information

Determining the Structure of an Organic Compound

Determining the Structure of an Organic Compound Determining the Structure of an Organic Compound The analysis of the outcome of a reaction requires that we know the full structure of the products as well as the reactants In the 19 th and early 20 th

More information

Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

Ultraviolet Spectroscopy Ultraviolet Spectroscopy The wavelength of UV and visible light are substantially shorter than the wavelength of infrared radiation. The UV spectrum ranges from 100 to 400 nm. A UV-Vis spectrophotometer

More information

1. According to the modern model of the atom, the nucleus of an atom is surrounded by one or more

1. According to the modern model of the atom, the nucleus of an atom is surrounded by one or more 1. According to the modern model of the atom, the nucleus of an atom is surrounded by one or more 8. The diagram below represents the nucleus of an atom. A) electrons B) neutrons C) positrons D) protons

More information

E35 SPECTROSCOPIC TECHNIQUES IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

E35 SPECTROSCOPIC TECHNIQUES IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY E35 SPECTRSCPIC TECNIQUES IN RGANIC CEMISTRY TE TASK To use mass spectrometry and IR, UV/vis and NMR spectroscopy to identify organic compounds. TE SKILLS By the end of the experiment you should be able

More information

Interpretation of Experimental Data

Interpretation of Experimental Data Lab References When evaluating experimental data it is important to recognize what the data you are collecting is telling you, as well as the strengths and limitations of each method you are using. Additionally,

More information

Chapter 5 Organic Spectrometry

Chapter 5 Organic Spectrometry Chapter 5 Organic Spectrometry from Organic Chemistry by Robert C. Neuman, Jr. Professor of Chemistry, emeritus University of California, Riverside orgchembyneuman@yahoo.com

More information

Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry. I. The Atomic Structure

Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry. I. The Atomic Structure Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry I. The Atomic Structure A. The Nucleus (a) Rutherford Bombardment Experiment This experiment leaded to the proposal of nucleus in atom. RESULTS (1)Most of the particles

More information

PSI AP Chemistry Unit 1 MC Homework. Laws of Multiple and Definite Proportions and Conservation of Mass

PSI AP Chemistry Unit 1 MC Homework. Laws of Multiple and Definite Proportions and Conservation of Mass PSI AP Chemistry Unit 1 MC Homework Name Laws of Multiple and Definite Proportions and Conservation of Mass 1. Dalton's atomic theory explained the observation that the percentage by mass of the elements

More information

CHEMISTRY 251 Spectroscopy Problems

CHEMISTRY 251 Spectroscopy Problems EMISTRY 251 Spectroscopy Problems The IR below is most likely of a: aldehyde alkane alkene alkyl bromide alkyne The IR below is most likely of a: acyl chloride alcohol 3 amide ether nitrile The IR spectrum

More information

Spin-Lattice Relaxation Times

Spin-Lattice Relaxation Times Spin-Lattice Relaxation Times Reading Assignment: T. D. W. Claridge, High Resolution NMR Techniques in Organic Chemistry, Chapter 2; E. Breitmaier, W. Voelter, Carbon 13 NMR Spectroscopy,3rd Ed., 3.3.2.

More information

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy April 28, 2016 Exam #3: Graded exams on Tuesday! Final Exam Tuesday, May 10 th, 10:30 a.m. Room: Votey 207 (tentative) Review Session: Sunday, May 8 th, 4 pm, Kalkin 325 (tentative) Office Hours Next week:

More information

Introduction to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Introduction to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Introduction to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Dr. Dean L. Olson, NMR Lab Director School of Chemical Sciences University of Illinois Called figures, equations, and tables are from Principles

More information

Problem Set 3 Solutions CH332 (SP 06) 1. Skoog problem 15-1 (omit terms (j), (k) and (m)). Draw diagrams as necessary.

Problem Set 3 Solutions CH332 (SP 06) 1. Skoog problem 15-1 (omit terms (j), (k) and (m)). Draw diagrams as necessary. Problem Set 3 Solutions CH332 (SP 06) 1. Skoog problem 15-1 (omit terms (j), (k) and (m)). Draw diagrams as necessary. a) fluorescence Relaxation of an excited state by emission of a photon without a change

More information

Introduction to NMR Part 1. Revised 2/19/07 Anne M. Gorham

Introduction to NMR Part 1. Revised 2/19/07 Anne M. Gorham Introduction to NMR Part 1 Revised 2/19/07 Anne M. Gorham What is an NMR? Niobium-tin-copper clad coil wound like a spool of thread. The current runs through this coil, creating the magnetic field. This

More information

SPECTROSCOPY. NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE (NMR) AND INFRARED (IR)

SPECTROSCOPY. NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE (NMR) AND INFRARED (IR) EXPERIMENT 9 SPETRSPY. NULEAR MAGNETI RESNANE (NMR) AND INFRARED (IR) Materials Needed approx 100 mg of an ester synthesized in Expt #7 - (octyl acetate, benzyl acetate, or isopentyl acetate) approx 1

More information

NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY

NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY PRINCIPLE AND APPLICATION IN STRUCTURE ELUCIDATION Professor S. SANKARARAMAN Department of Chemistry Indian Institute of Technology Madras Chennai 600 036 sanka@iitm.ac.in

More information

CHEM1002 Worksheet 4: Spectroscopy Workshop (1)

CHEM1002 Worksheet 4: Spectroscopy Workshop (1) CHEM1002 Worksheet 4: Spectroscopy Workshop (1) This worksheet forms part of the Spectroscopy Problem Solving Assignment which represents 10% of the assessment of this unit. You should use the support

More information

MS Instrumentation. Ionisation 5/8/2008

MS Instrumentation. Ionisation 5/8/2008 Relative abundance Relative Intensity 5/8/2008 In a mass spectrometer -The chemical substance undergo ionization to produce charged particles (ions in the gas phase) -Then the mass of the charged ions

More information

Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules and Ions. Dalton s Atomic Theory ( ) Postulates

Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules and Ions. Dalton s Atomic Theory ( ) Postulates Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules and Ions The topics in this chapter should be review from a previous course. It is expected that you are able to review and master this material quickly and somewhat independently.

More information

April 24, 2015. A Classical Perspective. Exam #3: Solution Key online now! Graded exams by Monday!

April 24, 2015. A Classical Perspective. Exam #3: Solution Key online now! Graded exams by Monday! April 24, 2015 Exam #3: Solution Key online now! Graded exams by Monday! Final Exam Monday, May 4 th, 10:30 a.m. Room: Perkins 107 1 A Classical Perspective A classical view will help us understand the

More information

SIGNAL SPLITTING: Why are there so many peaks all in one area? This is called signal splitting. Example: (image from Illustrated Glossary, splitting)

SIGNAL SPLITTING: Why are there so many peaks all in one area? This is called signal splitting. Example: (image from Illustrated Glossary, splitting) Proton NMR Spectroscopy: Split the signals, not your brain! Before we can understand signal splitting, we have to understand what NMR is. This tutorial will first discuss a few concepts about NMR and then

More information

CHEM 51LB EXP 1 SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS: INFRARED AND NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY

CHEM 51LB EXP 1 SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS: INFRARED AND NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY CHEM 51LB EXP 1 SPECTRSCPIC METHDS: INFRARED AND NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESNANCE SPECTRSCPY REACTINS: None TECHNIQUES: IR Spectroscopy, NMR Spectroscopy Infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

More information

Suggested solutions for Chapter 3

Suggested solutions for Chapter 3 s for Chapter PRBLEM Assuming that the molecular ion is the base peak (00% abundance) what peaks would appear in the mass spectrum of each of these molecules: (a) C5Br (b) C60 (c) C64Br In cases (a) and

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Exam Name 1) Which compound would be expected to show intense IR absorption at 3300 cm-1? A) butane B) CH3CH2C CH C)CH3C CCH3 D) but-1-ene 1) 2) Which compound would be expected to show intense IR absorption

More information

Organic Spectroscopy

Organic Spectroscopy 1 Organic Spectroscopy Second Year, Michaelmas term, 8 lectures: Dr TDW Claridge & Prof BG Davis Lectures 1 4 highlight the importance of spectroscopic methods in the structural elucidation of organic

More information

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR)

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR) NMR is a spectroscopic technique which relies on the magnetic properties of the atomic nucleus. When placed in a strong magnetic field, certain nuclei resonate

More information