ATOMS A T O M S, I S O T O P E S, A N D I O N S. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 1 of 39)

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1 ATOMS A T O M S, I S O T O P E S, A N D I O N S The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 1 of 39)

2 THE ATOM All elements listed on the periodic table are made up of atoms. An atom is the smallest particle of an element. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 2 of 39)

3 Dalton's Atomic Theory The idea of atoms did not become scientific theory until John Dalton ( ) developed an atomic theory proposing that atoms were responsible for the combinations of elements in compounds. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 3 of 39)

4 Dalton's Atomic Theory 1. All matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms. 2. All atoms of a given element are identical to one another and different from atoms of other elements. 3. Atoms of two or more different elements combine to form compounds. A particular compound is always made up of the same kinds of atoms and the same number of each kind of atom. 4. A chemical reaction involves the rearrangement, separation, or combination of atoms. Atoms are never created or destroyed in a chemical reaction. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 4 of 39)

5 Atoms Atoms are the building blocks of everything around us too small to see with the naked eye Image of Platinum & Nickel atoms The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 5 of 39)

6 Subatomic Particles in an Atom By the end of the 1880s, experiments with electricity showed that atoms were composed of tiny particles, called subatomic particles which included protons, neutrons, and electrons it was shown that some subatomic particles in an atom have charge The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 6 of 39)

7 Electrical Charges in an Atom Electrical charges can be positive or negative. two positive charges repel each other two negative charges repel each other unlike charges attract each other The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 7 of 39)

8 The Structure of an Atom In 1897, J.J. Thomson discovered the electron using cathode ray experiments. He proposed the plum pudding model of an atom. In this model electrons and protons are uniformly mixed throughout the atom. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 8 of 39)

9 The Structure of an Atom In 1911, Ernest Rutherford tested J. J. Thomson s hypothesis using his gold foil experiment. This findings were not consistent with Thomson s model. Rutherford proposed the planetary model of the atom. Which states there is: a small region in the center with positive charge called the nucleus a region of space around the center of the atoms occupied by electrons The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 9 of 39)

10 The Structure of an Atom In 1932, James Chadwick discovered that the nucleus of the atom also contained neutral particles called neutrons. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 10 of 39)

11 The Structure of an Atom In an atom, the protons and neutrons that make up almost all the mass of the atom are packed into the tiny volume of the nucleus. The rapidly moving electrons (negative charge) surround the nucleus and account for the large volume of the atom. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 11 of 39)

12 Mass of the Atom The mass of the atom is due to the protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Electrons have a much smaller mass. Chemists use a unit called atomic mass unit (amu), defined as one-twelfth of the mass of the carbon atom with 6 protons and 6 neutrons. The mass of all elements in the periodic table is compared to the mass of this carbon atom. On the amu scale, the mass of a proton and a neutron have a mass of about 1 amu. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 12 of 39)

13 THE PERIODIC TABLE The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 13 of 39)

14 ATOMIC NUMBER The atomic number is specific for each element and the same for all atoms of that element is equal to the number of protons in an atom typically appears above the symbol of an element The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 14 of 39)

15 ATOMIC NUMBERS AND PROTONS Hydrogen has atomic number 1; every H atom has 1 proton. Carbon has atomic number 6; every C atom has 6 protons. Copper has atomic number 29; every Cu atom has 29 protons. Gold has atomic number 79; every Au atom has 79 protons. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 15 of 39)

16 ATOMIC MODELS The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 16 of 39)

17 LEARNING CHECK State the number of protons in each atom. 1. A nitrogen atom (a) 5 protons (b) 7 protons (c) 14 protons 2. A sulfur atom (a) 32 protons (b) 16 protons (c) 6 protons 3. A barium atom (a) 137 protons (b) 81 protons (c) 56 protons The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 17 of 39)

18 SOLUTION State the number of protons in each atom. 1. A nitrogen atom (b) 7 protons 2. A sulfur atom (b) 16 protons 3. A barium atom (c) 56 protons The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 18 of 39)

19 Atoms Are Neutral An atom of any element is electrically neutral; it has a net charge of zero has an equal number of protons and electrons A neutral atom of calcium, atomic number 20, contains 20 protons and 20 electrons. It has zero net charge. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 19 of 39)

20 Mass Numbers The mass number represents the number of particles in the nucleus is equal to the number of protons + number of neutrons does not appear on the periodic table because it applies to a single atom only The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 20 of 39)

21 Calculate Number of Neutrons We calculate the number of neutrons in an atom from its mass number and atomic number: Mass Number - Atomic Number = Number of Neutrons Potassium has a mass number of 39 and an atomic number of 19. To find the number of neutrons, subtract the atomic number from its mass number. 39 (mass number) 19 ( atomic number) = 20 neutrons The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 21 of 39)

22 Composition of Elements The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 22 of 39)

23 Learning Check An atom of zinc has a mass number of How many protons are in the nucleus? (a) 30 (b) 35 (c) How many neutrons are in the nucleus? (a) 30 (b) 35 (c) What is the mass number of a zinc atom that has 37 neutrons? (a) 37 (b) 65 (c) 67 The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 23 of 39)

24 Solution An atom of zinc has a mass number of How many protons are in the nucleus? (a) How many neutrons are in the nucleus? (b) What is the mass number of a zinc atom that has 37 neutrons? (c) 67 The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 24 of 39)

25 Learning Check An atom has 14 protons and 20 neutrons. 1. Its atomic number is (a) 14 (b) 16 (c) Its mass number is (a) 14 (b) 16 (c) The element is (a) Si (b) Ca (c) Se The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 25 of 39)

26 Solution An atom has 14 protons and 20 neutrons. 1. Its atomic number is (a) Its mass number is (c) The element is (a) Si The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 26 of 39)

27 Isotopes ISOTOPES are atoms of the same element that have different mass numbers have the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons most elements have two or more isotopes that contribute to the atomic mass of that element. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 27 of 39)

28 Atomic Symbols An atomic (nuclear) symbol represents a particular isotope of an element gives the mass number in the upper left corner and the atomic number in the lower left corner mass number atomic number 24 Mg 12 Chemical Symbol The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 28 of 39)

29 Atomic Symbols, Subatomic Particles The atomic symbol indicates the number of protons, neutrons and, electrons in a specific isotope of an element O 15P Zn 8 protons 15 protons 30 protons 8 neutrons 16 neutrons 35 neutrons 8 electrons 15 electrons 30 electrons The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 29 of 39)

30 Atomic Mass Atomic mass is the average of all the naturally occurring isotopes of that element. The atomic mass of an element is listed below the symbol of each element on the periodic table calculated based on the weighted average of all naturally occurring isotopes based on its comparison to the mass of 12 C not the same as the mass number Atomic Mass 11 Na The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 30 of 39)

31 VALENCE ELECTRONS Electrons orbit the nucleus in various energy levels or shells. Electrons in the outermost energy shell are called valence electrons. All elements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons. An elements valence electrons determines the chemical properties Atoms transfer or share valence electrons in order to obtain a stable electron configuration. Typically, eight or zero valence electrons. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 31 of 39)

32 Ions Ions, which have electrical charges, form when atoms lose or gain electrons to form a stable electron configuration. Metals lose valence electron to form ions with positive charge. Non-metals gain valence electrons to form ions with negative The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 32 of 39)

33 Positive Ions: Loss of Electrons A sodium atom (Na) will lose its valence electron to form a sodium ion (Na + ). Positively charged ions of metals are called cations. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 33 of 39)

34 Positive Ions: Loss of Electrons Magnesium, a metal in Group 2A (2), obtains a stable electron configuration by losing two valence electrons, forming an ion with a 2 + charge. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 34 of 39)

35 Negative Ions: Gain of Electrons An atom of chlorine with seven valence electrons gains one electron to form an octet. Because it now has 18 electrons and not 17 electrons, it becomes a chloride ion (Cl ) with a charge of 1. Negatively charged ions of nonmetals are called anions. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 35 of 39)

36 Transfer of Electrons The metal transfers its valence electron(s) to the non-metal. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 36 of 39)

37 Formula and Names of Some Common Ions The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 37 of 39)

38 Summary of Important Concepts General Rules Atomic Number = Number of Protons Mass Number = Number of Neutrons + Number of Protons Charge = Number of Protons Number of Electrons Nuclear Charge = Number of Protons For Atoms Charge = Zero Number of Protons = Number of Electrons The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 38 of 39)

39 Questions Prepared and Compiled from various sources by D. Leonard (Learning Specialists) The Academic Support Daytona State College The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 39 of 39)

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