ATOMS A T O M S, I S O T O P E S, A N D I O N S. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 1 of 39)

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "ATOMS A T O M S, I S O T O P E S, A N D I O N S. The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 1 of 39)"

Transcription

1 ATOMS A T O M S, I S O T O P E S, A N D I O N S The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 1 of 39)

2 THE ATOM All elements listed on the periodic table are made up of atoms. An atom is the smallest particle of an element. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 2 of 39)

3 Dalton's Atomic Theory The idea of atoms did not become scientific theory until John Dalton ( ) developed an atomic theory proposing that atoms were responsible for the combinations of elements in compounds. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 3 of 39)

4 Dalton's Atomic Theory 1. All matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms. 2. All atoms of a given element are identical to one another and different from atoms of other elements. 3. Atoms of two or more different elements combine to form compounds. A particular compound is always made up of the same kinds of atoms and the same number of each kind of atom. 4. A chemical reaction involves the rearrangement, separation, or combination of atoms. Atoms are never created or destroyed in a chemical reaction. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 4 of 39)

5 Atoms Atoms are the building blocks of everything around us too small to see with the naked eye Image of Platinum & Nickel atoms The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 5 of 39)

6 Subatomic Particles in an Atom By the end of the 1880s, experiments with electricity showed that atoms were composed of tiny particles, called subatomic particles which included protons, neutrons, and electrons it was shown that some subatomic particles in an atom have charge The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 6 of 39)

7 Electrical Charges in an Atom Electrical charges can be positive or negative. two positive charges repel each other two negative charges repel each other unlike charges attract each other The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 7 of 39)

8 The Structure of an Atom In 1897, J.J. Thomson discovered the electron using cathode ray experiments. He proposed the plum pudding model of an atom. In this model electrons and protons are uniformly mixed throughout the atom. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 8 of 39)

9 The Structure of an Atom In 1911, Ernest Rutherford tested J. J. Thomson s hypothesis using his gold foil experiment. This findings were not consistent with Thomson s model. Rutherford proposed the planetary model of the atom. Which states there is: a small region in the center with positive charge called the nucleus a region of space around the center of the atoms occupied by electrons The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 9 of 39)

10 The Structure of an Atom In 1932, James Chadwick discovered that the nucleus of the atom also contained neutral particles called neutrons. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 10 of 39)

11 The Structure of an Atom In an atom, the protons and neutrons that make up almost all the mass of the atom are packed into the tiny volume of the nucleus. The rapidly moving electrons (negative charge) surround the nucleus and account for the large volume of the atom. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 11 of 39)

12 Mass of the Atom The mass of the atom is due to the protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Electrons have a much smaller mass. Chemists use a unit called atomic mass unit (amu), defined as one-twelfth of the mass of the carbon atom with 6 protons and 6 neutrons. The mass of all elements in the periodic table is compared to the mass of this carbon atom. On the amu scale, the mass of a proton and a neutron have a mass of about 1 amu. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 12 of 39)

13 THE PERIODIC TABLE The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 13 of 39)

14 ATOMIC NUMBER The atomic number is specific for each element and the same for all atoms of that element is equal to the number of protons in an atom typically appears above the symbol of an element The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 14 of 39)

15 ATOMIC NUMBERS AND PROTONS Hydrogen has atomic number 1; every H atom has 1 proton. Carbon has atomic number 6; every C atom has 6 protons. Copper has atomic number 29; every Cu atom has 29 protons. Gold has atomic number 79; every Au atom has 79 protons. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 15 of 39)

16 ATOMIC MODELS The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 16 of 39)

17 LEARNING CHECK State the number of protons in each atom. 1. A nitrogen atom (a) 5 protons (b) 7 protons (c) 14 protons 2. A sulfur atom (a) 32 protons (b) 16 protons (c) 6 protons 3. A barium atom (a) 137 protons (b) 81 protons (c) 56 protons The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 17 of 39)

18 SOLUTION State the number of protons in each atom. 1. A nitrogen atom (b) 7 protons 2. A sulfur atom (b) 16 protons 3. A barium atom (c) 56 protons The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 18 of 39)

19 Atoms Are Neutral An atom of any element is electrically neutral; it has a net charge of zero has an equal number of protons and electrons A neutral atom of calcium, atomic number 20, contains 20 protons and 20 electrons. It has zero net charge. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 19 of 39)

20 Mass Numbers The mass number represents the number of particles in the nucleus is equal to the number of protons + number of neutrons does not appear on the periodic table because it applies to a single atom only The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 20 of 39)

21 Calculate Number of Neutrons We calculate the number of neutrons in an atom from its mass number and atomic number: Mass Number - Atomic Number = Number of Neutrons Potassium has a mass number of 39 and an atomic number of 19. To find the number of neutrons, subtract the atomic number from its mass number. 39 (mass number) 19 ( atomic number) = 20 neutrons The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 21 of 39)

22 Composition of Elements The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 22 of 39)

23 Learning Check An atom of zinc has a mass number of How many protons are in the nucleus? (a) 30 (b) 35 (c) How many neutrons are in the nucleus? (a) 30 (b) 35 (c) What is the mass number of a zinc atom that has 37 neutrons? (a) 37 (b) 65 (c) 67 The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 23 of 39)

24 Solution An atom of zinc has a mass number of How many protons are in the nucleus? (a) How many neutrons are in the nucleus? (b) What is the mass number of a zinc atom that has 37 neutrons? (c) 67 The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 24 of 39)

25 Learning Check An atom has 14 protons and 20 neutrons. 1. Its atomic number is (a) 14 (b) 16 (c) Its mass number is (a) 14 (b) 16 (c) The element is (a) Si (b) Ca (c) Se The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 25 of 39)

26 Solution An atom has 14 protons and 20 neutrons. 1. Its atomic number is (a) Its mass number is (c) The element is (a) Si The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 26 of 39)

27 Isotopes ISOTOPES are atoms of the same element that have different mass numbers have the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons most elements have two or more isotopes that contribute to the atomic mass of that element. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 27 of 39)

28 Atomic Symbols An atomic (nuclear) symbol represents a particular isotope of an element gives the mass number in the upper left corner and the atomic number in the lower left corner mass number atomic number 24 Mg 12 Chemical Symbol The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 28 of 39)

29 Atomic Symbols, Subatomic Particles The atomic symbol indicates the number of protons, neutrons and, electrons in a specific isotope of an element O 15P Zn 8 protons 15 protons 30 protons 8 neutrons 16 neutrons 35 neutrons 8 electrons 15 electrons 30 electrons The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 29 of 39)

30 Atomic Mass Atomic mass is the average of all the naturally occurring isotopes of that element. The atomic mass of an element is listed below the symbol of each element on the periodic table calculated based on the weighted average of all naturally occurring isotopes based on its comparison to the mass of 12 C not the same as the mass number Atomic Mass 11 Na The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 30 of 39)

31 VALENCE ELECTRONS Electrons orbit the nucleus in various energy levels or shells. Electrons in the outermost energy shell are called valence electrons. All elements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons. An elements valence electrons determines the chemical properties Atoms transfer or share valence electrons in order to obtain a stable electron configuration. Typically, eight or zero valence electrons. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 31 of 39)

32 Ions Ions, which have electrical charges, form when atoms lose or gain electrons to form a stable electron configuration. Metals lose valence electron to form ions with positive charge. Non-metals gain valence electrons to form ions with negative The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 32 of 39)

33 Positive Ions: Loss of Electrons A sodium atom (Na) will lose its valence electron to form a sodium ion (Na + ). Positively charged ions of metals are called cations. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 33 of 39)

34 Positive Ions: Loss of Electrons Magnesium, a metal in Group 2A (2), obtains a stable electron configuration by losing two valence electrons, forming an ion with a 2 + charge. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 34 of 39)

35 Negative Ions: Gain of Electrons An atom of chlorine with seven valence electrons gains one electron to form an octet. Because it now has 18 electrons and not 17 electrons, it becomes a chloride ion (Cl ) with a charge of 1. Negatively charged ions of nonmetals are called anions. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 35 of 39)

36 Transfer of Electrons The metal transfers its valence electron(s) to the non-metal. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 36 of 39)

37 Formula and Names of Some Common Ions The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 37 of 39)

38 Summary of Important Concepts General Rules Atomic Number = Number of Protons Mass Number = Number of Neutrons + Number of Protons Charge = Number of Protons Number of Electrons Nuclear Charge = Number of Protons For Atoms Charge = Zero Number of Protons = Number of Electrons The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 38 of 39)

39 Questions Prepared and Compiled from various sources by D. Leonard (Learning Specialists) The Academic Support Daytona State College The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 39 of 39)

2.5 The Modern View of Atomic Structure: An Introduction

2.5 The Modern View of Atomic Structure: An Introduction 2.5 The Modern View of Atomic Structure: An Introduction Figure 2.13 a & b (a) Expected Results of the Metal Foil Experiment if Thomson's Model Were Correct (b) Actual Results Copyright Houghton Mifflin

More information

Unit 2a: Atomic Structure

Unit 2a: Atomic Structure Unit 2a: Atomic Structure Defining the Atom Atomic Theory 1. All matter is made up of very tiny particles called atoms. 2. Atoms of the same element are chemically alike. 3. Individual atoms of an element

More information

9/13/2013. However, Dalton thought that an atom was just a tiny sphere with no internal parts. This is sometimes referred to as the cannonball model.

9/13/2013. However, Dalton thought that an atom was just a tiny sphere with no internal parts. This is sometimes referred to as the cannonball model. John Dalton was an English scientist who lived in the early 1800s. Dalton s atomic theory served as a model for how matter worked. The principles of Dalton s atomic theory are: 1. Elements are made of

More information

The Atom Atomic Number Mass Number Isotopes

The Atom Atomic Number Mass Number Isotopes The Atom Atomic Number Mass Number Isotopes 1 Atomic Theory Atoms are building blocks of elements Similar atoms in each element Different from atoms of other elements Two or more different atoms bond in

More information

History of the Atomic Model. History of the Atomic Model John Dalton (Late 1700 s) History of the Atomic Model Henri Bacquerel (1896)

History of the Atomic Model. History of the Atomic Model John Dalton (Late 1700 s) History of the Atomic Model Henri Bacquerel (1896) hapter 4 Atoms and Elements 1 Basic hemistry 4.3 The Atom Democritus (400 B..) Believed that matter was composed of invisible particles of matter he called atoms. Antoine Lavoisier (1700 s) Law of onservation

More information

History of the atomic theory Atomic structure Isotopes Ions Average atomic mass % abundance

History of the atomic theory Atomic structure Isotopes Ions Average atomic mass % abundance Honors Chemistry Unit 2 Bunsen, I must tell you how excellent your study of chemical spectroscopy is, as is your pioneer work in photochemistry but what really impresses me is that cute little burner you

More information

Theories of Matter Composition

Theories of Matter Composition Chapter 2 Theories of Matter Composition Democritus (5 th 4 th century BC) ATOMISM Aristotle (4 th 5 th century BC) CONTINUOUS MATTER FOUR ELEMENTS Earth, Air, Fire, Water Boyle (17 th century) Reintroduced

More information

Atoms, Molecules, Formulas, and Subatomic Particles

Atoms, Molecules, Formulas, and Subatomic Particles Introduction to Chemistry Chapter 5 1 Atoms, Molecules, Formulas, and Subatomic Particles The Atom: The smallest particle of an element that can exist and still have the properties of the element building

More information

1. Structure and Properties of the Atom

1. Structure and Properties of the Atom SACE Stage 1 Chemistry - The Essentials 1. Structure and Properties of the Atom 1.1 Atoms: A simple definition of the atom is that it is the smallest particle that contains the properties of that element.

More information

b. How is the modern periodic table arranged? In order of increasing atomic number

b. How is the modern periodic table arranged? In order of increasing atomic number Unit 3 Review Chapters 4 (Atomic Structure) & 6 (Periodic Table) Part 1: Answer the following questions. 1. a. Which scientist created the first modern atomic theory? John Dalton b. What was his theory?

More information

List the 3 main types of subatomic particles and indicate the mass and electrical charge of each.

List the 3 main types of subatomic particles and indicate the mass and electrical charge of each. Basic Chemistry Why do we study chemistry in a biology course? All living organisms are composed of chemicals. To understand life, we must understand the structure, function, and properties of the chemicals

More information

Chapter 3 Atoms and Elements

Chapter 3 Atoms and Elements Chapter 3 Atoms and Elements 1 Elements Elements are pure substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances by ordinary laboratory processes the building blocks of matter listed on the inside

More information

1. Structure and Properties of the Atom

1. Structure and Properties of the Atom 1. Structure and Properties of the Atom 1.1 Atoms: A simple definition of the atom is that it is the smallest particle that contains the properties of that element. The idea of atoms was first suggested

More information

Matter. Elements. Pure Substances. Elements in a Compound. Compounds. 3.1 Classification of Matter. Matter is the stuff that makes up all things.

Matter. Elements. Pure Substances. Elements in a Compound. Compounds. 3.1 Classification of Matter. Matter is the stuff that makes up all things. Chapter 3 Atoms and Elements Matter 3.1 Classification of Matter Matter is the stuff that makes up all things. 1 2 Pure Substances Elements A pure substance is classified as matter with a specific composition.

More information

Chapter Two Study Guide Answers

Chapter Two Study Guide Answers Chapter Two Study Guide Answers Concepts 1. Know the law of conservation of mass 2. Know about the structure of the atom and who did what including Thomson, Rutheford, Millikan, Bohr 3. Know the three

More information

Preliminary Course: Atomic Structure. Daniel Hillebrand O' Donovan

Preliminary Course: Atomic Structure. Daniel Hillebrand O' Donovan Preliminary Course: Atomic Structure Daniel Hillebrand O' Donovan Why Learn Atomic Structure? The material universe is made of matter. What is matter? What is its structure? How is knowing this structure

More information

Elements, Atoms & Ions

Elements, Atoms & Ions Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation FOURTH EDITION by Steven S. Zumdahl University of Illinois Elements, Atoms & Ions Chapter 4 1 2 Elements Aims: To learn about the relative abundances of the elements,

More information

Atomic Theory and Bonding

Atomic Theory and Bonding Atomic Theory and Bonding Textbook pages 168 183 Section 4.1 Summary Before You Read What do you already know about Bohr diagrams? Record your answer in the lines below. What are atoms? An atom is the

More information

ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE

ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE Physical Science 2nd Semester NAME: CLASS PERIOD: TEACHER: ASSIGNMENT/PAGE NUMBERS DUE DATE POINTS EARNED Periodic Table of Elements pg. 1 Atomic Structure Learning Targets

More information

ATOMIC THEORY. Name Symbol Mass (approx.; kg) Charge

ATOMIC THEORY. Name Symbol Mass (approx.; kg) Charge ATOMIC THEORY The smallest component of an element that uniquely defines the identity of that element is called an atom. Individual atoms are extremely small. It would take about fifty million atoms in

More information

1) Scientific law = a generalization of scientific observations that describes what happens (does not explain)

1) Scientific law = a generalization of scientific observations that describes what happens (does not explain) I. Law vs. Theory 1) Scientific law = a generalization of scientific observations that describes what happens (does not explain) 2) Theory (model) = a set of assumptions used to explain observations and

More information

Atomic Calculations. 2.1 Composition of the Atom. number of protons + number of neutrons = mass number

Atomic Calculations. 2.1 Composition of the Atom. number of protons + number of neutrons = mass number 2.1 Composition of the Atom Atomic Calculations number of protons + number of neutrons = mass number number of neutrons = mass number - number of protons number of protons = number of electrons IF positive

More information

Chemistry 65 Chapter 4 THE ATOMIC THEORY

Chemistry 65 Chapter 4 THE ATOMIC THEORY THE ATOMIC THEORY The smallest particle of matter that still retains its properties is called an atom. In the fifth century B.C., the Greek philosopher Democritus proposed that matter is composed of a

More information

Composition and Structure of the Atom. Protons: Positively charged, high mass particle. Neutrons: Neutral (no) charge, high mass

Composition and Structure of the Atom. Protons: Positively charged, high mass particle. Neutrons: Neutral (no) charge, high mass Composition and Structure of the Atom Atom: basic unit of an element; smallest unit that retains chemical properties of an element Subatomic particles: Small particles that are the building blocks from

More information

Atomic Theory: The Nuclear Model of the Atom

Atomic Theory: The Nuclear Model of the Atom Chapter 5 Atomic Theory: The Nuclear Model of the Atom Section 5.1 Dalton s Atomic Theory Goal 1 Precursors to John Dalton s atomic theory Law of Definite Composition The percentage by mass of the elements

More information

Elements, Atoms & Ions

Elements, Atoms & Ions Copyright 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Elements, Atoms & Ions Chapter 4 All rights reserved. 1 4.1 Elements Over 112 known, of which 88 are found in nature others are man-made Man-made elements are

More information

Chapter 2. Atoms and Elements

Chapter 2. Atoms and Elements Chapter 2. Atoms and Elements John Dalton Robert Millikan J.J. Thomson Ernest Rutherford The Components of Matter Elements, Compounds, Mixtures Dalton s Atomic Theory Modern Atomic Theory Atomic and Mass

More information

Honors Chemistry Unit 2: The Atom & Its Nucleus

Honors Chemistry Unit 2: The Atom & Its Nucleus Honors Chemistry Unit 2: The Atom & Its Nucleus (2016-2017) Bunsen, I must tell you how excellent your study of chemical spectroscopy is, as is your pioneer work in photochemistry but what really impresses

More information

Chemistry CP Unit 2 Atomic Structure and Electron Configuration. Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 2 will assess the following:)

Chemistry CP Unit 2 Atomic Structure and Electron Configuration. Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 2 will assess the following:) Chemistry CP Unit 2 Atomic Structure and Electron Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 2 will assess the following:) 2. Atomic Structure and Electron 2-1. Give the one main contribution to the

More information

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems Atoms and Elements 2 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems 2.1 a. Cu b. Si c. K d. N e. Fe f. Ba g. Pb h. Sr 2.2 a. O b. Li c. S d. Al e. H f. Ne g. Sn h. Au 2.3 a. carbon b. chlorine c. iodine d. mercury

More information

Isotopes. Isotopes are written with the name followed by a hyphen and the mass number. Symbol notation is when we write it like this: and O

Isotopes. Isotopes are written with the name followed by a hyphen and the mass number. Symbol notation is when we write it like this: and O Isotopes Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different masses due to different numbers of neutrons. See the example below for two isotopes of oxygen. One has 8 neutrons while the other has

More information

CHAPTER 2: ATOMS, MOLECULES AND

CHAPTER 2: ATOMS, MOLECULES AND CHAPTER 2: ATOMS, MOLECULES AND IONS Atom: Basic unit of matter. Smallest particle of the element which retain the properties of that element. Eg: Oxygen, Hydrogen Molecules: Two or more atoms (same or

More information

5 Early Atomic Theory and Structure. Chapter Outline. Dalton s Model of the Atom. Dalton s Model of the Atom. Dalton s Model of the Atom 10/2/2013

5 Early Atomic Theory and Structure. Chapter Outline. Dalton s Model of the Atom. Dalton s Model of the Atom. Dalton s Model of the Atom 10/2/2013 5 Early Atomic Theory and Structure Chapter Outline 5.1 5.2 Electric Charge A. Discovery of Ions 5.3 Subatomic Parts of the Atom Lightning occurs when electrons move to neutralize charge difference between

More information

Unit 6 Particles with Internal Structure 3-1

Unit 6 Particles with Internal Structure 3-1 Unit 6 Particles with Internal Structure 3-1 The Elements Remember, elements are combined to form molecules the way letters are combined to form words. Presently there are about 115 known elements. Only

More information

Chapter 2 Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table

Chapter 2 Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table Chapter 2 Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table 2.1 (a) neutron; (b) law of conservation of mass; (c) proton; (d) main-group element; (e) relative atomic mass; (f) mass number; (g) isotope; (h) cation; (i)

More information

Chemistry 101 Chapter 2 ATOMIC MODEL. atoms (Carbon atoms in diamond) molecules (H 2 O molecules in water) ions (Na + and Cl ions in sodium chloride)

Chemistry 101 Chapter 2 ATOMIC MODEL. atoms (Carbon atoms in diamond) molecules (H 2 O molecules in water) ions (Na + and Cl ions in sodium chloride) ATOMIC MODEL All forms of matter are made up of PARTICLES These PARTICLES may be: atoms (Carbon atoms in diamond) molecules (H 2 O molecules in water) ions (Na + and Cl ions in sodium chloride) The particulate

More information

Atom nucleus (protons and neutrons) electron cloud (electrons)

Atom nucleus (protons and neutrons) electron cloud (electrons) Atom nucleus (protons and neutrons) electron cloud (electrons) Atomic Number equal to the number of protons Mass Number protons + neutrons Charge when # of electrons # of protons Negatively Charged Ion

More information

Chapter 4. Chemical Foundations: Elements, Atoms, and Ions

Chapter 4. Chemical Foundations: Elements, Atoms, and Ions Chapter 4 Chemical Foundations: Elements, Atoms, and Ions 4.1 4.2 Symbols for the Elements 4.3 Dalton s Atomic Theory 4.4 Formulas of Compounds 4.5 The Structure of the Atom 4.6 Introduction to the Modern

More information

Preliminary Course Atomic Structure Colm Healy

Preliminary Course Atomic Structure Colm Healy Preliminary Course Atomic Structure 1 + 2 Colm Healy Outline Part One Matter Atomic Structure Atomic Model(s) Part Two Periodic Table Main Group Properties Ions 2 Chemistry The Study of Stuff Matter physical

More information

47374_04_p25-32.qxd 2/9/07 7:50 AM Page 25. 4 Atoms and Elements

47374_04_p25-32.qxd 2/9/07 7:50 AM Page 25. 4 Atoms and Elements 47374_04_p25-32.qxd 2/9/07 7:50 AM Page 25 4 Atoms and Elements 4.1 a. Cu b. Si c. K d. N e. Fe f. Ba g. Pb h. Sr 4.2 a. O b. Li c. S d. Al e. H f. Ne g. Sn h. Au 4.3 a. carbon b. chlorine c. iodine d.

More information

Chapter 5: Early Atomic Theory and Structure. 5.1 Early Thoughts. In the year 440 B.C., believed that all matter was made of 4 elements (list them):

Chapter 5: Early Atomic Theory and Structure. 5.1 Early Thoughts. In the year 440 B.C., believed that all matter was made of 4 elements (list them): Chapter 5: Early Atomic Theory and Structure Name: 5.1 Early Thoughts In the year 440 B.C., believed that all matter was made of 4 elements (list them): Around 370 B.C., proposed that all matter was composed

More information

6.6: Theories of the Atom pg. 228

6.6: Theories of the Atom pg. 228 6.6: Theories of the Atom pg. 228 Key Concepts: 4. Atomic models evolve as a result of experimental evidence. 5. Atoms contain protons and neutrons in a central core surrounded by electrons. Theories Evolve

More information

GOYAL BROTHERS PRAKASHAN

GOYAL BROTHERS PRAKASHAN Assignments in Science Class IX (Term II) 4 Structure of The Atom IMPORTANT NOTES 1. Experiments on static electricity have proved that seemingly electrically neutral matter consists of electrically charged

More information

Atomic Theory. Chapter 3. History of the Atom. Structure & Models of Atoms

Atomic Theory. Chapter 3. History of the Atom. Structure & Models of Atoms Chapter 3 Atoms Atomic Theory As early as 400 BC scientists have believed in an atomic theory thanks to Democritus. Atoms were the building blocks of matter. 2000 years later we can see the atom! History

More information

Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table Chapter 13 & 14 Assignment & Problem Set

Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table Chapter 13 & 14 Assignment & Problem Set Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table 2 Study Guide: Things You

More information

All matter is made of atoms.

All matter is made of atoms. Chapter 5, Section 1 Key Concept: Atoms are the smallest form of elements. BEFORE, you learned All matter is made of atoms Elements are the simplest Substances NOW, you will learn * Where atoms are found

More information

Answer Sheet. CHM 080 Spring 2012 K. Young Practice Exam #

Answer Sheet. CHM 080 Spring 2012 K. Young Practice Exam # 1 Answer Sheet Name Each question is worth 1 point, the entire exam will be scaled up to 100 points total (e.g. all 78 correct = 100 points). You may use your cheat sheet, your calculator, the periodic

More information

Language of Chemistry includes chemical symbols of elements, chemical formulas, & chemical equations. Periodic Table. Each element has its own

Language of Chemistry includes chemical symbols of elements, chemical formulas, & chemical equations. Periodic Table. Each element has its own Language of Chemistry includes chemical symbols of elements, chemical formulas, & chemical equations All known elements (ca.100) are arranged in Periodic Table. Sodium Na Potassium K Hydrogen H Each element

More information

Untitled Document. 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? 4. Which statement best describes the density of an atom s nucleus?

Untitled Document. 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? 4. Which statement best describes the density of an atom s nucleus? Name: Date: 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? A. protons and electrons grouped together in a random pattern B. protons and electrons grouped together in an alternating pattern C. a core

More information

SAI. Protons Electrons Neutrons Isotope Name. Isotope Symbol 131i S3 1. Atomic Number. Mass Number

SAI. Protons Electrons Neutrons Isotope Name. Isotope Symbol 131i S3 1. Atomic Number. Mass Number ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE CHAPTER 4 WORKSHEET PART A Given the following isotopes, determine the atomic number, the mass number, the number of protons, electrons and neutrons. Isotope Symbol

More information

UNIT 2 - ATOMIC THEORY

UNIT 2 - ATOMIC THEORY UNIT 2 - ATOMIC THEORY VOCABULARY: Allotrope Anion Atom Atomic Mass Atomic Mass unit (a.m.u.) Atomic number Bohr model Cation Compound Electron Electron Configuration Element Excited state Ground state

More information

Anions Negatively charged ion. Formed when atoms gain an electron(s). Non-metals tend to form anions.

Anions Negatively charged ion. Formed when atoms gain an electron(s). Non-metals tend to form anions. Isotopes Lets Review Again! Ions Valence Electrons Compounds General Information: Isotope Atoms of an element having the same number of protons and electrons but different number of neutrons. Average Atomic

More information

Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 2 A particle view of matter

Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 2 A particle view of matter Q1. Dalton and Thomson each proposed a model of an atom. a What experimental evidence did Thomson have that was not available to Dalton? b As a result of this experimental evidence, how did Thomson s model

More information

Chapter 4 Atomic Structure

Chapter 4 Atomic Structure Chapter 4 Atomic Structure Section 4.1 Defining the Atom OBJECTIVES: Describe Democritus s ideas about atoms. Section 4.1 Defining the Atom OBJECTIVES: Explain Dalton s atomic theory. Section 4.1 Defining

More information

Mr. Dolgos Regents Chemistry NOTE PACKET. Unit 2: Atomic Theory

Mr. Dolgos Regents Chemistry NOTE PACKET. Unit 2: Atomic Theory *STUDENT* *STUDENT* Mr. Dolgos Regents Chemistry NOTE PACKET Unit 2: Atomic Theory 1 *STUDENT* UNIT 2 - ATOMIC THEORY *STUDENT* VOCABULARY: Allotrope Anion Atom Atomic Mass Atomic Mass unit (a.m.u.) Atomic

More information

THE PERIODIC TABLE O F T H E E L E M E N T S. The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 117, Page 1 of 27)

THE PERIODIC TABLE O F T H E E L E M E N T S. The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 117, Page 1 of 27) THE PERIODIC TABLE O F T H E E L E M E N T S The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 117, Page 1 of 27) THE PERIODIC TABLE In 1872, Dmitri Mendeleev created the periodic table arranged

More information

Chapter 2. Atomic Theory

Chapter 2. Atomic Theory Chapter 2 Atomic Theory 400 B.C.E. atomists 1804 C.E. Dalton 1903 Thompson A History of Atomic Models 1932 Chadwick 1913 Bohr 1911 Rutherford Early Philosophy of Matter Some early philosophers believed

More information

2 The Structure of Atoms

2 The Structure of Atoms CHAPTER 4 2 The Structure of Atoms SECTION Atoms KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What do atoms of the same element have in common? What are isotopes? How is an element

More information

THE ATOM HISTORY AND STRUCTURE

THE ATOM HISTORY AND STRUCTURE THE ATOM HISTORY AND STRUCTURE Atom- The smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element. Originated from the Greek word Atomos - meaning indivisible particle. Ancient views of

More information

Atoms, Molecules and Ions

Atoms, Molecules and Ions Atoms, Molecules and Ions Chapter 2 The Modern Atomic Theory Modern Atomic theory has four assumptions: 1. Atoms make up all matter. 2. The atoms of one element are different from the atoms of another

More information

Name: Period: Date: Unit 3 Practice Review (the questions on the test are NOT the same as the review questions)

Name: Period: Date: Unit 3 Practice Review (the questions on the test are NOT the same as the review questions) Name: Period: Date: Unit 3 Review: things you will need to know 1. Atomic Theories: Know all the scientists in order. What did they discover? What experiment did they use? 2. Development of the periodic

More information

Chapter 4 Atomic Structure OBJECTIVES: Section 4.1 Defining the Atom. Describe Democritus s ideas about atoms. Section 4.1 Defining the Atom

Chapter 4 Atomic Structure OBJECTIVES: Section 4.1 Defining the Atom. Describe Democritus s ideas about atoms. Section 4.1 Defining the Atom Chapter 4 Atomic Structure Section 4. Defining the Atom Describe Democritus s ideas about atoms. Pre-AP Chemistry Charles Page High School Stephen L. Cotton Section 4. Defining the Atom Explain Dalton

More information

UNIT 4 ATOMIC THEORY

UNIT 4 ATOMIC THEORY UNIT 4 ATOMIC THEORY 1. Atomic theory: Dalton s model Thomson s model Rutherford s model Bohr s model Electron cloud model 2. Particles inside the atom Atomic number Mass number 3. Ions Cations Anions

More information

Chapter 5 Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table. Section 5.1 Atoms

Chapter 5 Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table. Section 5.1 Atoms Chapter 5 Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table Section 5.1 Atoms OBJECTIVES: Summarize Dalton s atomic theory. Describe the size of an atom. Adapted from notes by Stephen L. Cotton History of the atom

More information

3.1 Atomic Theory. Prentice Hall 2007 Chapter Three 1. Prentice Hall 2007 Chapter Three 2. Prentice Hall 2007 Chapter Three 3

3.1 Atomic Theory. Prentice Hall 2007 Chapter Three 1. Prentice Hall 2007 Chapter Three 2. Prentice Hall 2007 Chapter Three 3 3.1 Atomic Theory Chemistry is founded on four fundamental assumptions about atoms and matter, which together make up modern atomic theory: 1. All matter is composed of atoms. 2. The atoms of a given element

More information

Test 2: Atomic Structure Review

Test 2: Atomic Structure Review Name: Monday, October 15, 2007 Test 2: Atomic Structure Review 1. Figure 1 The diagram shows the characteristic spectral line patterns of four elements. Also shown are spectral lines produced by an unknown

More information

7.4. Using the Bohr Theory KNOW? Using the Bohr Theory to Describe Atoms and Ions

7.4. Using the Bohr Theory KNOW? Using the Bohr Theory to Describe Atoms and Ions 7.4 Using the Bohr Theory LEARNING TIP Models such as Figures 1 to 4, on pages 218 and 219, help you visualize scientific explanations. As you examine Figures 1 to 4, look back and forth between the diagrams

More information

Review - Atomic Structure

Review - Atomic Structure Name: Tuesday, June 03, 2008 Review - Atomic Structure 1. The number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom can be determined by 1. adding the atomic number to the mass number 3. adding the mass number

More information

Atoms and Ions. In a Neutral Atom of an Element: The # of (-) = The # of (+)

Atoms and Ions. In a Neutral Atom of an Element: The # of (-) = The # of (+) Atoms and Ions 2 2 In a Neutral Atom of an Element: The # of (-) = The # of (+) This represents an of the element ( P s & e - s) We have now taken one electron away from Lithium! It still has _ Protons,

More information

Chapter 3 Atoms & the. Chapter 3 Section 2 The Simplest Matter Pages 80-85

Chapter 3 Atoms & the. Chapter 3 Section 2 The Simplest Matter Pages 80-85 Chapter 3 Atoms & the Periodic Table Chapter 3 Section 2 The Simplest Matter Pages 80-85 The Elements There are many different types of atoms. An element is matter made up of only one kind of atom. An

More information

Early Atomic Theory and Structure. Beginning Days (Theory of an Atom) Beginning Days 8/14/2011. Chapter 5

Early Atomic Theory and Structure. Beginning Days (Theory of an Atom) Beginning Days 8/14/2011. Chapter 5 Early Atomic Theory and Structure Chapter 5 Beginning Days (Theory of an Atom) 5 th century B.C., Greek philosophers Empedocles and Democritus proposed their own theories about an atom. Empedocles stated

More information

Periodic Table & Atomic Structure

Periodic Table & Atomic Structure St Peter the Apostle High School Chemistry Department Periodic Table & Atomic Structure N4 & N5 Homework Questions Answer questions as directed by your teacher. National 4 level questions are first followed

More information

Elements, Atoms, and Ions 3-1

Elements, Atoms, and Ions 3-1 Chapter 3: Chemical Foundations Elements, Atoms, and Ions 3-1 Objectives Learn the names and symbols for some elements. Learn about the relative abundance for some elements. Learn about Dalton s theory

More information

Trends in Periodic Table

Trends in Periodic Table Name: Date: 1. In the modern Periodic Table, the elements are arranged in order of increasing A. atomic number B. mass number C. oxidation number D. valence number 6. As the elements in Group IA are considered

More information

Physical Science Notes Properties of Atoms and the Periodic Table

Physical Science Notes Properties of Atoms and the Periodic Table Physical Science Notes Properties of Atoms and the Periodic Table Structure of the Atom Elements are abbreviated in scientific shorthand. Symbols on the periodic table are short or abbreviated ways to

More information

Regular Chemistry - Atoms & Elements Practice Test

Regular Chemistry - Atoms & Elements Practice Test Regular Chemistry - Atoms & Elements Practice Test Mr. Matthew Totaro MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which of the following statements

More information

Elements may combine in more than one proportion to form more than one compound. Examples...

Elements may combine in more than one proportion to form more than one compound. Examples... 1 UNIT 5 - ATOMIC THEORY: THE NUCLEAR MODEL OF THE ATOM 2 3 Dalton s Atomic Theory 1) Each element is made up of tiny, individual particles called atoms. 2) Atoms are indivisible; they cannot be created

More information

Chemistry Test #2: Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table (KEY!)

Chemistry Test #2: Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table (KEY!) Chemistry Test #2: Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table (KEY!) This review does not cover everything that will be on Tuesday s exam. In order to perform at your highest level, I suggest completing the

More information

An ATOM is the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element.

An ATOM is the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element. An ATOM is the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element. Postulated existence of atoms and void (makes change possible) Elements differ in shape, position, and arrangement

More information

2014 Spring CHEM101 Ch1-2 Review Worksheet Modified by Dr. Cheng-Yu Lai,

2014 Spring CHEM101 Ch1-2 Review Worksheet Modified by Dr. Cheng-Yu Lai, Ch1 1) Which of the following underlined items is not an intensive property? A) A chemical reaction requires 3.00 g of oxygen. B) The density of helium at 25 C is 1.64 10-4 g/cm3. C) The melting point

More information

Lecture 4 - Observations that Led to the Nuclear Model of the Atom. Chem 103, Section F0F Unit I - An Overview of Chemistry Lecture 4

Lecture 4 - Observations that Led to the Nuclear Model of the Atom. Chem 103, Section F0F Unit I - An Overview of Chemistry Lecture 4 Chem 103, Section F0F Unit I - An Overview of Chemistry Lecture 4 Some observations that led to the nuclear model for the structure of the atom The modern view of the atomic structure and the elements

More information

Introduction to Atoms

Introduction to Atoms Introduction to Atoms What is the smallest particle into which an element can be divided and still be the same substance? A. electron B. neutron C. proton D. atom What is the smallest particle into which

More information

Unit 2: Atomic Theory Practice Packet

Unit 2: Atomic Theory Practice Packet Unit 2: Atomic Theory Practice Packet 1 Name History of Atomic Theory Period Fill in the missing information in the chart below: Name of Researcher Equipment Sketch of Model Major Idea/Discovery N/A All

More information

1. According to the modern model of the atom, the nucleus of an atom is surrounded by one or more

1. According to the modern model of the atom, the nucleus of an atom is surrounded by one or more 1. According to the modern model of the atom, the nucleus of an atom is surrounded by one or more 8. The diagram below represents the nucleus of an atom. A) electrons B) neutrons C) positrons D) protons

More information

Atoms, Isotopes, and Ions Teacher Information

Atoms, Isotopes, and Ions Teacher Information STO-142 Atoms, Isotopes, and Ions Teacher Information Summary Teacher Suggestions Students use chips and a periodic table to model the sub-atomic particles in atoms, isotopes, and ions. Chips and model

More information

Ch. 2 Atoms and Elements. Early Atomic Theory

Ch. 2 Atoms and Elements. Early Atomic Theory Ch. 2 Atoms and Elements Chapter Overview Introduction to atomic theory [2.1-5] Properties of atomic particles, elements [2.6] Your friend, the Periodic Table! [2.7] Atomic symbols [2.8] Isotopes [2.8]

More information

Chapter 4 Atoms and Elements

Chapter 4 Atoms and Elements Chemistry 25 Chapter 4 Atoms and Elements Experiencing Atoms What is ATOM? Atoms are incredibly small, yet they compose everything. Atoms are the pieces of elements. Properties of the atoms determine the

More information

Subatomic Particle Data and a Periodic Table of the Elements can be found at the End of the Exam.

Subatomic Particle Data and a Periodic Table of the Elements can be found at the End of the Exam. CHEM 109 Introduction to Chemistry Fall 2016 Name: Examination 3 Multiple Choice Questions Subatomic Particle Data and a Periodic Table of the Elements can be found at the End of the Exam. 1. Elemental

More information

The Atom and the Periodic Table

The Atom and the Periodic Table The Atom and the Periodic Table Atoms http://library.thinkquest.org/12659/media/solar_system/sun/sun.jpg Everything in the Universe is made of stuff (also known as matter). The building blocks are the

More information

Chapter 4: Atoms and Elements

Chapter 4: Atoms and Elements Chapter 4 Page 1 Chapter 4: Atoms and Elements Atoms are EXTREMELY SMALL particles out of which all knownmatter is made. They are the smallest particle of a chemical element that still have the properties

More information

Periodic Table, Valency and Formula

Periodic Table, Valency and Formula Periodic Table, Valency and Formula Origins of the Periodic Table Mendelѐѐv in 1869 proposed that a relationship existed between the chemical properties of elements and their atomic masses. He noticed

More information

Name Date Period. Chemistry: Unit 3 - Atoms Test Review KEY

Name Date Period. Chemistry: Unit 3 - Atoms Test Review KEY Name Date Period Concepts to know for the Unit 3 test: Chemistry: Unit 3 - Atoms Test Review KEY 1. Summarize the major experimental evidence that led to the development of various atomic models, both

More information

Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions 1. Methane and ethane are both made up of carbon and hydrogen. In methane, there are 12.0 g of carbon for every 4.00 g of hydrogen, a ration of 3:1 by mass. In ethane,

More information

ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE CHAPTER 3 PHYSICAL SCIENCE

ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE CHAPTER 3 PHYSICAL SCIENCE ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE CHAPTER 3 PHYSICAL SCIENCE Chapter 3 Vocabulary Words (27 words) Nucleus Atomic number Proton Mass number Neutron Isotopes Electron Atomic mass unit (amu) Energy level Average

More information

Electron Proton Neutron

Electron Proton Neutron () Exercises Question 1: Compare the properties of electrons, protons and neutrons. Answer 1: Electron Proton Neutron (i) Electron are present outside the nucleus of an atom. (ii) Electron are negatively

More information

Early History of Atomic Theories

Early History of Atomic Theories ATOMIC THEORY Early History of Atomic Theories Greek Philosophers Proposed that all matter was made up of four basic particles: Air Earth Fire Water Empedocles Democritus Proposed that matter was made

More information

mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 2 CHAPTER 2 THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM Substance that consists of only one type of atom.

mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 2 CHAPTER 2 THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM Substance that consists of only one type of atom. CHAPTER 2 THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM Element Matter Anything that occupies space & has mass. Substance that consists of only one type of atom. Kinetic Theory of Matter Compound Substance that contains two

More information

( + and - ) ( - and - ) ( + and + ) Atoms are mostly empty space. = the # of protons in the nucleus. = the # of protons in the nucleus

( + and - ) ( - and - ) ( + and + ) Atoms are mostly empty space. = the # of protons in the nucleus. = the # of protons in the nucleus Atoms are mostly empty space Atomic Structure Two regions of every atom: Nucleus - is made of protons and neutrons - is small and dense Electron cloud -is a region where you might find an electron -is

More information

Physical Sciences: Matter & Energy. What is physical science? A. Physical science is a field of science that studies matter and energy.

Physical Sciences: Matter & Energy. What is physical science? A. Physical science is a field of science that studies matter and energy. Physical Sciences: Matter & Energy What is physical science? A. Physical science is a field of science that studies matter and energy. B. Physical science has 2 main branches: 1. PHYSICS: the study of

More information

Valence Electrons How do you find the number of valence electrons in an atom of a representative element?

Valence Electrons How do you find the number of valence electrons in an atom of a representative element? Chapter 7 Ionic and Metallic Bonding 7.1 Ions 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds 7.3 Bonding in Metals 1 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. How do you find the

More information