Atomic Calculations. 2.1 Composition of the Atom. number of protons + number of neutrons = mass number

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1 2.1 Composition of the Atom Atomic Calculations number of protons + number of neutrons = mass number number of neutrons = mass number - number of protons number of protons = number of electrons IF positive and negative charges cancel, the atom Charge = 0

2 2.1 Composition of the Atom Selected Properties of the Three Basic Subatomic Particles Name Charge Mass(amu) Mass (grams) Electrons (e) x x Protons (p) X Neutrons (n) x 10-24

3 2.1 Composition of the Atom Determining the Composition of an Calculate the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in each of the following: B Fe Atom

4 2.1 Composition of the Atom Isotopes - atoms of the same element having different masses contain same number of protons 4 contain different numbers of neutrons Isotopes of Hydrogen Hydrogen (Hydrogen - 1) Isotopes Deuterium (Hydrogen - 2) Tritium (Hydrogen - 3)

5 2.1 Composition of the Atom Isotopic Calculations Isotopes of the same element have identical chemical properties Some isotopes are radioactive Find chlorine on the periodic table What is the atomic number of chlorine? 17 What is the mass given This is not the mass number of an isotope

6 2.1 Composition of the Atom Atomic Mass What is this number, 35.34? The atomic mass - the weighted average of the masses of all the isotopes that make up chlorine Chlorine consists of chlorine-35 and chlorine-37 in a 3:1 ratio Weighted average is an average corrected by the relative amounts of each isotope present in nature

7 2.1 Composition of the Atom Determining Atomic Mass Calculate the atomic mass of naturally occurring chlorine if 75.77% of chlorine atoms are chlorine-35 and 24.23% of chlorine atoms are chlorine-37 Step 1: convert the percentage to a decimal fraction chlorine chlorine-37

8 2.1 Composition of the Atom Step 2: Multiply the decimal fraction by the mass of that isotope to obtain the isotope contribution to the atomic mass. For chlorine-35: x amu = amu For chlorine x amu = amu Step 3: sum these partial weights to get the weighted average atomic mass of chlorine: amu amu = amu

9 2.1 Composition of the Atom Atomic Mass Determination Nitrogen consists of two naturally occurring isotopes 99.63% nitrogen-14 with a mass of amu 0.37% nitrogen-15 with a mass of amu What is the atomic mass of nitrogen?

10 2.1 Composition of the Atom Ions Ions - electrically charged particles that result from a gain or loss of one or more electrons by the parent atom Cation - positively charged result from the loss of electrons 23 Na 23 Na + + 1e - Anion - negatively charged results from the gain of electrons 19 F + 1 e - 19 F -

11 2.2 Development of Atomic Theory Dalton s Atomic Theory - the first experimentally based theory of atomic structure of the atom.

12 Postulates of Dalton s Atomic Theory 2.2 Development of Atomic Theory 1. All matter consists of tiny particles called atoms 2. An atom cannot be created, divided, destroyed, or converted to any other type of atom 3. Atoms of a particular element have identical properties

13 2.2 Development of Atomic Theory 4. Atoms of different elements have different properties 5. Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole-number ratios to produce compounds (stable aggregates of atoms) 6. Chemical change involves joining, separating, or rearranging atoms Postulates 1, 4, 5 and 6 are still regarded as true.

14 2.2 Development of Atomic Theory Evidence for Subatomic Particles: Electrons, Protons and Neutrons Electrons were the first subatomic particles to be discovered using the cathode ray tube Indicated that the particles were negatively charged.

15 Evidence for Protons and 2.2 Development of Atomic Theory Neutrons Protons were the next particle to be discovered, by Goldstein Protons have the same size charge but opposite in sign Proton is 1837 times as heavy as electron Neutrons Postulated to exist in 1920 s but not demonstrated to exist until 1932 Almost the same mass as the proton

16 Evidence for the Nucleus 2.2 Development of Atomic Theory Initial assumed protons and neutrons were uniformly distributed throughout the atom Ernest Rutherford s Gold Foil Experiment lead to the understanding of the nucleus Most alpha particles pass through the foil without being deflected Some particles were deflected, a few even directly back to the source

17 Rutherford s Gold Foil Experiment 2.2 Development of Atomic Theory Most of the atom is empty space The majority of the mass is located in a small, dense region

18 Models of the Atom (a) Thomson (b) Rutherford 2.3 Light, Atomic Structure, and the Bohr Atom

19 2.3 Light, Atomic Structure, and the Bohr Atom Rutherford s atom tiny, dense, positively charged nucleus of protons surrounded by electrons How do we describe the relationship of the electrons to each other and the nucleus? Use the measurement of particle energy rather than position

20 2.3 Light, Atomic Structure, and the Bohr Atom Light and Atomic Structure Spectroscopy - absorption or emission of light by atoms. Used to understand the electronic structure. To understand the electronic structure, we must first understand light, electromagnetic radiation travels in waves from a source speed of 3.0 x 10 8 m/s

21 2.3 Light, Atomic Structure, and the Bohr Atom Wavelengths Light is propagated (moves) as a collection of sine waves Wavelength is the distance between identical points on successive waves Each wavelength travels at the same velocity, but has its own characteristic energy

22 Electromagnetic Spectrum high energy short wavelength low energy long wavelength

23 2.3 Light, Atomic Structure, and the Bohr Atom Bohr Theory Atoms can absorb and emit energy via promotion of electrons to higher energy levels and relaxation to lower levels Energy that is emitted upon relaxation is observed as a single wavelength of light Spectral lines are a result of electron transitions between allowed levels in the atoms

24 2.3 Light, Atomic Structure, and the Bohr Atom The emission spectrum - light of hydrogen emitted when lead to a the substance modern is understanding excited by of energy the source. electronic structure of the atom

25 The Bohr Atom Electrons exist in fixed energy levels surrounding the nucleus Quantization of energy Promotion of electron occurs as it absorbs energy Excited State Energy is released as the electron travels back to lower levels Relaxation

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