# ELE2110A Electronic Circuits

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Chinese University of Hong Kong Department of Electronic Engineering Second Term 07/08 ELE2110A Electronic Circuits Prof. Pun Kong Pang Lecture 01-1

2 Course Information Homepage: Lecture notes will be uploaded weekly. Newsgroup: cuhk.ee.2110a Prerequisite: ELE 1110 Tutors: Chan Chi Fat/Chen Yan/Ko Chi Tung Li Chunxiao/Zheng Yanqi Lecture: Wednesday 9:30am 11:15am, ELB LT3 Friday 10:30am 11:15am, ERB LT Lecture 01-2

3 Assignments: 20% Assessment Scheme Test: 30% Three tests; The two highest marks will be counted for each student. Final Examination: 50% Lecture 01-3

4 Books Textbook: Microelectronic Circuit Design, 3e, by Jaeger and Blalock (McGraw Hill 2007) Reference books: Microelectronic Circuits, 5e, by Sedra/Smith (Oxford 2004) Electronic circuit analysis and design, 2e, by D.A. Neamen (McGraw-Hill 2001) Lecture 01-4

5 Circuit theories and skills that you have learned KCL and KVL Nodal and Mesh analysis Linearity and Superposition Source transformation Thevenin and Norton theorems Maximum power transfer AC analysis You should already be able to analyze circuits that consist of R, C and L, i.e., passive circuits. Lecture 01-5

6 In this course, you will learn Microelectronic devices that can provide gain (active) Basic semiconductor physics Operation principles, terminal I-V equations and circuit models of PN-junction diode MOS transistor BJT transistor Analysis techniques Decompose a signal to DC and AC components DC analysis Small signal AC analysis Diode circuits Rectifiers DC-DC converters Clipping & Clamping ckts BJT & MOS transistor ckts Single transistor amplifiers Differential pair Multi-stage amplifiers Logic circuits Feedback principles Topologies Stability analysis Lecture 01-6

7 Problem-Solving Approach 1. Make a clear problem statement. 2. List known information and given data. 3. Define the unknowns required to solve the problem. 4. List assumptions. 5. Develop an approach to the solution. 6. Perform the analysis based on the approach. 7. Check the results. 1. Has the problem been solved? Have all the unknowns been found? 2. Is the math correct? 8. Evaluate the solution. 1. Do the results satisfy reasonableness constraints? 2. Are the values realizable? 9. Use computer-aided analysis to verify hand analysis. Lecture 01-7

8 ELE 2110A Electronic Circuits Week 1: Introduction & Basic Semiconductor Physics Lecture 01-8

9 Topics to cover Application of electronic circuits Evolution of electronic devices Convention of signal notations Basic semiconductor physics Reading Assignment: Chap of Jaeger & Blalock Lecture 01-9

10 Application of Electronic Circuits Communication Telephone circuits A major driving force of the development of electronic circuits in early 20 th century Wireless communication circuits Telegraph, radio, analog television, HDTV, mobile phone, Computer Software functions are executed by electronic circuits (logic gates) Consumer electronics Digital camera, ipod, WII, Hi-Fi amplifier, Others, such as biomedical signal acquisition, automobile electronics Lecture 01-10

11 Devices in Electronic Circuits Passive components cannot provide power gain e.g., resistor, capacitor, inductor Active devices can provide power gain and must draw power from a supply e.g., Vacuum tube devices, silicon transistors Enable signal amplification which is a key technology for the success of long distance telephony Lecture 01-11

12 Vacuum Tube Vacuum tube diode and triode were invented in 1904 and 1906 respectively Vacuum tube triode is an extremely important invention, because it enables electronic amplification to take place Differential pair K2-W Op-amp built with Vacuum tube (Source: T.H.Lee, IEEE SSCS News, Fall 2007) Lecture 01-12

13 Vacuum Tube Early FM radios, television sets, digital computers were built with vacuum tubes In modern era, vacuum tubes still find applications in Hi-Fi amplifiers Lecture 01-13

14 The Start of the Modern Electronics Era Bardeen, Shockley, and Brattain at Bell Labs - Brattain and Bardeen invented the bipolar transistor in The first germanium bipolar transistor. Roughly 50 years later, electronics account for 10% (4 trillion dollars) of the world GDP. Lecture 01-14

15 Invention of Integrated Circuits Kilby and Noyce from Texas Instruments made in 1958 the world s first IC, consisting of 6 transistors. Lecture 01-15

16 Evolution of Electronics Vacuum Tubes Discrete Transistors SSI and MSI Integrated Circuits VLSI Surface-Mount Circuits Lecture 01-16

17 Moore s Law Moore s Law: the number of transistors per chip doubles about every 18 months. Has been valid for the past 40 years. Picture source: inter.com Lecture 01-17

18 Device Becomes Ever Smaller Smaller features lead to more transistors per unit area (higher density) and higher speed Lecture 01-18

19 Electrical Signal Types An analog signal takes on continuous values. It can be a voltage, current, or sometimes charge. A digital signal appears at discrete levels. Usually we use binary signals which utilize only two levels: 0 and Lecture 01-19

20 Almost everything is digital now, why analog? The real or physical world is analog. Egg shell analogy: Lecture 01-20

21 Notational Conventions Total signal = DC component + AC (time varying) component (V or I ) i = I + C C i c Lecture 01-21

22 Basic Semiconductor Physics Lecture 01-22

23 Topics to cover Semiconductor materials Energy band models Charge carries: electrons and holes Types of semiconductors Types of currents in semiconductors Reading Assignment: Chap 2 of Jaeger & Blalock Lecture 01-23

24 Semiconductor Materials Semiconductors have a resistivity between 10-3 and 10 5 [Ω-cm] Ge is the first semiconductor used. Silicon is today s most important semiconductor materials low cost easily oxidized to form SiO 2 insulating layers high bandgap energy can be used in higher-temperature applications GaAs and InP are popular for opto-electronic applications. SiGe and GaAs are good for RF applications Lecture 01-24

25 Covalent Bond Model Silicon diamond lattice unit cell. Corner of diamond lattice showing four nearest neighbor bonding. View of crystal lattice along a crystallographic axis. Lecture 01-25

26 Silicon Covalent Bond Model Near absolute zero, all bonds are complete. Each Si atom contributes one electron to each of the four bond pairs. Increasing temperature adds energy to the system and breaks bonds in the lattice, generating electron-hole pairs. Lecture 01-26

27 Semiconductor Energy Band Model E C and E V are energy levels at the edge of the conduction and valence bands. Electron participating in a covalent bond is in a lower energy state in the valence band. This diagram represents 0 K. Thermal energy breaks covalent bonds and moves the electrons up into the conduction band. Lecture 01-27

28 Bandgap Energy Semiconductor Carbon (diamond) Silicon Germanium Tin Gallium arsenide Gallium nitride Indium phosphide Boron nitride Silicon carbide Cadmium selenide Bandgap Energy E G [ev] Bandgap energy is the minimum energy needed to free an electron by breaking a covalent bond in the semiconductor crystal. Lecture 01-28

29 Free Electron Density in Intrinsic Semiconductor Intrinsic semiconductor = pure semiconductor The density of free electrons in an intrinsic semiconductor is: n 2 i 3 E = B exp G T kt [cm E G = semiconductor bandgap energy in [ev] (electron volts) k = Boltzmann s constant, 8.62 x 10-5 [ev/k] T = absolute termperature, [K] B = material-dependent parameter, 1.08 x [K -3 cm -6 ] for Si -6 ] n i cm -3 for Silicon at room temperature Lecture 01-29

30 A Second Charge Carrier - Hole A vacancy is left when a covalent bond is broken The vacancy is left with an effective charge of +q The vacancy is called a hole A hole moves when the vacancy is filled by an electron from a nearby broken bond. This motion of charge carrier is called hole current Hole density p for intrinsic semiconductor is p = n i pn = 2 n i The pn product above holds when a semiconductor, not limited to intrinsic ones, is in thermal equilibrium (when no external excitation is applied) Lecture 01-30

31 Concept of a Hole Lecture 01-31

32 Drift Current When an electric field is applied to a material, charged particles will move or drift. Carrier drift velocity v [cm/s] is proportional to electric field E [V/cm] at low fields: v n = -µ n E and v p = µ p E, where v n and v p = electron and hole velocity [cm/s], µ n and µ p = electron and hole mobility [cm 2 / V s] µ p < µ n since holes are localized to move through the covalent bond structure, while electrons can move freely in the crystal The resulting current is called drift current. Lecture 01-32

33 Drift Current The current through a unit area is defined as the current density: j = Qv [(C/cm 3 )(cm/s)] = [A/cm 2 ] where j = current density [A/cm 2 ] Q = charge density (amount of charge in a unit volume) v = velocity of charge in an electric field Drift current densities: j drift n = Q n v n = (-qn)(- µ n E) = qn µ n E [A/cm 2 ] j drift p = Q p v p = (+qp)(+ µ p E) = qp µ p E [A/cm 2 ] j T drift = j n + j p = q(n µ n + p µ p )E = σe This defines electrical conductivity: σ = q(n µ n + p µ p ) [1/(Ω cm)] Resistivity ρ is the reciprocal of conductivity: ρ = 1/σ [Ω cm] Lecture 01-33

34 Semiconductor Doping Doping is the process of adding very small wellcontrolled amounts of impurities into a pure semiconductor Doping enables the control of the resistivity and other properties over a wide range of values For silicon, impurities are from columns III and V of the periodic table Lecture 01-34

35 Donor Impurities in Silicon Phosphorous (or other column V element) atom replaces silicon atom in crystal lattice Since phosphorous has five outer shell electrons, there is now an extra electron in the structure Material is still charge neutral, but very little energy is required to free the electron for conduction since it is not participating in a bond Lecture 01-35

36 Acceptor Impurities in Silicon Boron (column III element) has been added to silicon There is now an incomplete bond pair, creating a vacancy for an electron Little energy is required to move a nearby electron into the vacancy As the hole propagates, charge is moved across the silicon Lecture 01-36

37 Energy Band Model for Doped Semiconductors Semiconductor with donor or n- type dopants. The donor atoms have free electrons with energy E D. Since E D is close to E C, (about ev for phosphorous), it is easy for electrons in an n-type material to move up into the conduction band. Semiconductor with acceptor or p-type dopants. The donor atoms have unfilled covalent bonds with energy state E A. Since E A is close to E V, (about ev for boron), it is easy for electrons in the valence band to move up into the acceptor sites and complete covalent bond pairs. Lecture 01-37

38 Doped Silicon Carrier Concentrations If n > p, the material is n-type. If p > n, the material is p-type. The carrier with the larger density is the majority carrier, the smaller is the minority carrier N D = donor impurity concentration [atoms/cm 3 ] N A = acceptor impurity concentration [atoms/cm 3 ] Typical doping ranges are /cm 3 to /cm 3 Charge neutrality requires q(n D + p - N A -n) = 0 It can also be shown that pn = n i 2 even for doped semiconductors in thermal equilibrium Lecture 01-38

39 Doped Silicon Carrier Concentrations For n-type silicon: Substituting p=n i2 /n into q(n D + p - N A -n) = 0 yields n 2 -(N D -N A )n - n i2 = 0. Solving for n n = (N D N A ) ± (N D N A ) 2 + 4n i 2 For (N D -N A ) >> 2n i, n (N D -N A ). 2 and p = n i 2 Highly temp. dependent n Similarly, for p-type silicon we have: Temperature INdependent p = (N A N D ) ± (N A N D ) 2 + 4n i 2 2 and n = n 2 i p For (N A -N D ) >> 2n i, p (N A -N D ). Lecture 01-39

40 Mobility in Doped Silicon Mobility drops as doping level increases due to Impurity atoms have different size than silicon and hence disrupt the periodicity of crystal lattice Impurity atoms represents localized charges. N T = N A +N D Lecture 01-40

41 Example: Resistivity of Doped Silicon Problem: Calculate the resistivity of silicon doped with a density N D =2x10 15 cm -3. What is the material type? Classify the sample as an insulator, semiconductor or conductor. Approach: Use N D to find n and p and µ n and µ p ; substitute these values into the expression for σ. Assumptions: N A =0. Assume room temperature with n i =10 10 cm -3 Analysis: n p = = N D n n 2 i = 2 10 = cm -3 /( ) = 5 10 Because n > p, the silicon is n-type. From previous slide, we have σ = q µ 2 µ n = 1260 cm /V s µ p = cm -3 cm 2 /V s ( nµ n + p p ) = [(1260)(2 10 ) + (460)(5 10 )] = ( Ω cm) -1 ρ = 1/ σ = 2.48 ( Ω cm) This silicon sample is a semiconductor. Lecture 01-41

42 Diffusion Current In the presence of a concentration gradient, free carriers have a natural tendency of moving from high concentration regions to low concentration regions. The resulted current is called diffusion current. This current is proportional to the concentration gradient: j j diff p diff n = = ( + q) D ( q) D p n p x n x = qd = + qd n p p x n x [A/cm [A/cm 2 2 ] ] The proportionality constants D p and D n are called the hole and electron diffusivities. Lecture 01-42

43 Lecture Total Current in a Semiconductor Total current is the sum of drift and diffusion current: Mobility and Diffusivity are related by Einsteins s relationship: = + = x p qd p q x n qd n q p p T p n n T n µ µ E j E j 1 1 = + = x p p V p q x n n V n q T p T p T n T n µ µ E j E j voltage) (Thermal T p p n n V q kt D D = = = µ µ VT 25 mv at room temp.

### 3. Diodes and Diode Circuits. 3. Diodes and Diode Circuits TLT-8016 Basic Analog Circuits 2005/2006 1

3. Diodes and Diode Circuits 3. Diodes and Diode Circuits TLT-8016 Basic Analog Circuits 2005/2006 1 3.1 Diode Characteristics Small-Signal Diodes Diode: a semiconductor device, which conduct the current

### Solid-State Physics: The Theory of Semiconductors (Ch. 10.6-10.8) SteveSekula, 30 March 2010 (created 29 March 2010)

Modern Physics (PHY 3305) Lecture Notes Modern Physics (PHY 3305) Lecture Notes Solid-State Physics: The Theory of Semiconductors (Ch. 10.6-10.8) SteveSekula, 30 March 2010 (created 29 March 2010) Review

### Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductors, Fermi-Dirac Distribution Function, the Fermi level and carrier concentrations

ENEE 33, Spr. 09 Supplement I Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductors, Fermi-Dirac Distribution Function, the Fermi level and carrier concentrations Zeynep Dilli, Oct. 2008, rev. Mar 2009 This is a supplement

### Lecture 2 Semiconductor Physics (I)

Lecture 2 Semiconductor Physics (I) Outline Intrinsic bond model : electrons and holes Generation and recombination Intrinsic semiconductor Doping: Extrinsic semiconductor Charge Neutrality Reading Assignment:

### Doped Semiconductors. Dr. Katarzyna Skorupska

Doped Semiconductors Dr. Katarzyna Skorupska 1 Doped semiconductors Increasing the conductivity of semiconductors by incorporation of foreign atoms requires increase of the concentration of mobile charge

### Solid State Detectors = Semi-Conductor based Detectors

Solid State Detectors = Semi-Conductor based Detectors Materials and their properties Energy bands and electronic structure Charge transport and conductivity Boundaries: the p-n junction Charge collection

### Lecture 2 - Semiconductor Physics (I) September 13, 2005

6.012 - Microelectronic Devices and Circuits - Fall 2005 Lecture 2-1 Lecture 2 - Semiconductor Physics (I) September 13, 2005 Contents: 1. Silicon bond model: electrons and holes 2. Generation and recombination

### Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç Gören

H2 - AC to DC Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç Gören ELK 2018 - Contents W01 Basic Concepts in Electronics W02 AC to DC Conversion W03 Analysis of DC Circuits W04 Transistors and Applications (H-Bridge) W05 Op Amps

### Semiconductors, diodes, transistors

Semiconductors, diodes, transistors (Horst Wahl, QuarkNet presentation, June 2001) Electrical conductivity! Energy bands in solids! Band structure and conductivity Semiconductors! Intrinsic semiconductors!

### Chapter No: 14 Chapter: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices And Simple Circuits (ONE MARK QUESTIONS)

Chapter No: 14 Chapter: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices And Simple Circuits (ONE MARK QUESTIONS) 1. What is an electronic device? It is a device in which controlled flow of electrons takes

### CHAPTER 1: Semiconductor Materials & Physics

Chapter 1 1 CHAPTER 1: Semiconductor Materials & Physics In this chapter, the basic properties of semiconductors and microelectronic devices are discussed. 1.1 Semiconductor Materials Solid-state materials

### The Diode. Diode Operation

The Diode The diode is a two terminal semiconductor device that allows current to flow in only one direction. It is constructed of a P and an N junction connected together. Diode Operation No current flows

### The Physics of Energy sources Renewable sources of energy. Solar Energy

The Physics of Energy sources Renewable sources of energy Solar Energy B. Maffei Bruno.maffei@manchester.ac.uk Renewable sources 1 Solar power! There are basically two ways of using directly the radiative

### Understanding the p-n Junction by Dr. Alistair Sproul Senior Lecturer in Photovoltaics The Key Centre for Photovoltaic Engineering, UNSW

Understanding the p-n Junction by Dr. Alistair Sproul Senior Lecturer in Photovoltaics The Key Centre for Photovoltaic Engineering, UNSW The p-n junction is the fundamental building block of the electronic

### Lecture 8: Extrinsic semiconductors - mobility

Lecture 8: Extrinsic semiconductors - mobility Contents Carrier mobility. Lattice scattering......................... 2.2 Impurity scattering........................ 3.3 Conductivity in extrinsic semiconductors............

### Chapter 1. Semiconductors

THE ELECTRON IN ELECTRIC FIELDS Semiconductors If we were to take two parallel plates and connect a voltage source across them as shown in Figure 1, an electric field would be set up between the plates.

### Crystalline solids. A solid crystal consists of different atoms arranged in a periodic structure.

Crystalline solids A solid crystal consists of different atoms arranged in a periodic structure. Crystals can be formed via various bonding mechanisms: Ionic bonding Covalent bonding Metallic bonding Van

### Figure 1. Diode circuit model

Semiconductor Devices Non-linear Devices Diodes Introduction. The diode is two terminal non linear device whose I-V characteristic besides exhibiting non-linear behavior is also polarity dependent. The

### ES 154 Electronic Devices and Circuits

ES 154 Electronic Devices and Circuits Gu-Yeon Wei Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences Harvard University guyeon@eecs.harvard.edu Wei 1 Course Objectives The objective of this course is to provide

### ENEE 313, Spr 09 Midterm II Solution

ENEE 313, Spr 09 Midterm II Solution PART I DRIFT AND DIFFUSION, 30 pts 1. We have a silicon sample with non-uniform doping. The sample is 200 µm long: In the figure, L = 200 µm= 0.02 cm. At the x = 0

### CHAPTER - 45 SEMICONDUCTOR AND SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

1. f = 101 kg/m, V = 1 m CHAPTER - 45 SEMCONDUCTOR AND SEMCONDUCTOR DEVCES m = fv = 101 1 = 101 kg No.of atoms = 101 10 6 10 = 64.6 10 6. a) Total no.of states = N = 64.6 10 6 = 58.5 = 5. 10 8 10 6 b)

### Chapter 5. Second Edition ( 2001 McGraw-Hill) 5.6 Doped GaAs. Solution

Chapter 5 5.6 Doped GaAs Consider the GaAs crystal at 300 K. a. Calculate the intrinsic conductivity and resistivity. Second Edition ( 2001 McGraw-Hill) b. In a sample containing only 10 15 cm -3 ionized

### ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION

Chapter 12: Electrical Properties Learning Objectives... How are electrical conductance and resistance characterized? What are the physical phenomena that distinguish conductors, semiconductors, and insulators?

### Semiconductor Detectors Calorimetry and Tracking with High Precision

Semiconductor Detectors Calorimetry and Tracking with High Precision Applications 1. Photon spectroscopy with high energy resolution. Vertex detection with high spatial resolution 3. Energy measurement

### VIII.4. Field Effect Transistors

Field Effect Transistors (FETs) utilize a conductive channel whose resistance is controlled by an applied potential. 1. Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) In JFETs a conducting channel is formed of

### FYS3410 - Vår 2015 (Kondenserte fasers fysikk) http://www.uio.no/studier/emner/matnat/fys/fys3410/v15/index.html

FYS3410 - Vår 015 (Kondenserte fasers fysikk) http://www.uio.no/studier/emner/matnat/fys/fys3410/v15/index.html Pensum: Introduction to Solid State Physics by Charles Kittel (Chapters 1-9 and 17, 18, 0,

### Introduction to CMOS VLSI Design

Introduction to CMOS VLSI esign Slides adapted from: N. Weste,. Harris, CMOS VLSI esign, Addison-Wesley, 3/e, 24 Introduction Integrated Circuits: many transistors on one chip Very Large Scale Integration

### Diodes and Transistors

Diodes What do we use diodes for? Diodes and Transistors protect circuits by limiting the voltage (clipping and clamping) turn AC into DC (voltage rectifier) voltage multipliers (e.g. double input voltage)

### INSTITUTE FOR APPLIED PHYSICS Physical Practice for Learners of Engineering sciences Hamburg University, Jungiusstraße 11

INSTITUTE FOR APPIED PHYSICS Physical Practice for earners of Engineering sciences Hamburg University, Jungiusstraße 11 Hall effect 1 Goal Characteristic data of a test semiconductor (Germanium) should

### Semiconductor Physics

10p PhD Course Semiconductor Physics 18 Lectures Nov-Dec 2011 and Jan Feb 2012 Literature Semiconductor Physics K. Seeger The Physics of Semiconductors Grundmann Basic Semiconductors Physics - Hamaguchi

### HIGHER PHYSICS. Electricity. GWC Revised Higher Physics 12/13.

HIGHER PHYSICS Electricity http://blog.enn.com/?p=481 1 GWC Revised Higher Physics 12/13 HIGHER PHYSICS a) MONITORING and MEASURING A.C. Can you talk about: a.c. as a current which changes direction and

### Electrical Properties

Electrical Properties Outline of this Topic 1. Basic laws and electrical properties of metals 2. Band theory of solids: metals, semiconductors and insulators 3. Electrical properties of semiconductors

### Lecture 2: Semiconductors: Introduction

Lecture 2: Semiconductors: Introduction Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Band formation in semiconductors 2 3 Classification of semiconductors 5 4 Electron effective mass 10 1 Introduction Metals have electrical

### Characteristic curves of a solar cell

Related Topics Semi-conductor, p-n junction, energy-band diagram, Fermi characteristic energy level, diffusion potential, internal resistance, efficiency, photo-conductive effect, acceptors, donors, valence

### Theory of Transistors and Other Semiconductor Devices

Theory of Transistors and Other Semiconductor Devices 1. SEMICONDUCTORS 1.1. Metals and insulators 1.1.1. Conduction in metals Metals are filled with electrons. Many of these, typically one or two per

### FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES OF SOLAR CELLS

FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES OF SOLAR CELLS January 31, 2012 The University of Toledo, Department of Physics and Astronomy SSARE, PVIC Principles and Varieties of Solar Energy (PHYS 4400) and Fundamentals of

### Electronics Field-effect transistors

Electronics Field-effect transistors Prof. Márta Rencz, Gergely Nagy BME DED October 7, 2013 The basics of field-effect transistors The operation of field-effect transistors is based on ability of controlling

### David L. Senasack June, 2006 Dale Jackson Career Center, Lewisville Texas. The PN Junction

David L. Senasack June, 2006 Dale Jackson Career Center, Lewisville Texas The PN Junction Objectives: Upon the completion of this unit, the student will be able to; name the two categories of integrated

### BASIC ELECTRONICS TRANSISTOR THEORY. December 2011

AM 5-204 BASIC ELECTRONICS TRANSISTOR THEORY December 2011 DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for Public Release. Distribution is unlimited. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY AUXILIARY RADIO SYSTEM FORT

### COURSE: PHYSICS DEGREE: COMPUTER ENGINEERING year: 1st SEMESTER: 1st

COURSE: PHYSICS DEGREE: COMPUTER ENGINEERING year: 1st SEMESTER: 1st WEEKLY PROGRAMMING WEE K SESSI ON DESCRIPTION GROUPS GROUPS Special room for LECTU PRAC session RES TICAL (computer classroom, audiovisual

### High Open Circuit Voltage of MQW Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaic Structures

High Open Circuit Voltage of MQW Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaic Structures ARGYRIOS C. VARONIDES Physics and EE Department University of Scranton 800 Linden Street, Scranton PA, 18510 United States Abstract:

### Semiconductor p-n junction diodes

Semiconductor p-n junction diodes p n p-n junction formation p-type material Semiconductor material doped with acceptors. Material has high hole concentration Concentration of free electrons in p-type

### Spring 2002 Dawn Hettelsater, Yan Zhang and Ali Shakouri, 05/09/2002

University of California at Santa Cruz Jack Baskin School of Engineering Electrical Engineering Department EE-145L: Properties of Materials Laboratory Lab 7: Solar Cells Spring 2002 Dawn Hettelsater, Yan

### MOSFET DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER (TWO-WEEK LAB)

page 1 of 7 MOSFET DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER (TWO-WEEK LAB) BACKGROUND The MOSFET is by far the most widely used transistor in both digital and analog circuits, and it is the backbone of modern electronics.

### Analog Electronics. Module 1: Semiconductor Diodes

Analog Electronics s PREPARED BY Academic Services Unit August 2011 Applied Technology High Schools, 2011 s Module Objectives Upon successful completion of this module, students should be able to: 1. Identify

### Introduction to Organic Electronics

Introduction to Organic Electronics (Nanomolecular Science Seminar I) (Course Number 420411 ) Fall 2005 Organic Field Effect Transistors Instructor: Dr. Dietmar Knipp Information: Information: http://www.faculty.iubremen.de/course/c30

### SMA5111 - Compound Semiconductors Lecture 2 - Metal-Semiconductor Junctions - Outline Introduction

SMA5111 - Compound Semiconductors Lecture 2 - Metal-Semiconductor Junctions - Outline Introduction Structure - What are we talking about? Behaviors: Ohmic, rectifying, neither Band picture in thermal equilibrium

### SEMICONDUCTOR I: Doping, semiconductor statistics (REF: Sze, McKelvey, and Kittel)

SEMICONDUCTOR I: Doping, semiconductor statistics (REF: Sze, McKelvey, and Kittel) Introduction Based on known band structures of Si, Ge, and GaAs, we will begin to focus on specific properties of semiconductors,

### 05 Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs) basics

The first bipolar transistor was realized in 1947 by Brattain, Bardeen and Shockley. The three of them received the Nobel prize in 1956 for their invention. The bipolar transistor is composed of two PN

### ELEC 3908, Physical Electronics, Lecture 15. BJT Structure and Fabrication

ELEC 3908, Physical Electronics, Lecture 15 Lecture Outline Now move on to bipolar junction transistor (BJT) Strategy for next few lectures similar to diode: structure and processing, basic operation,

### Semiconductor I. Semiconductors. germanium. silicon

Basic Electronics Semiconductor I Materials that permit flow of electrons are called conductors (e.g., gold, silver, copper, etc.). Materials that block flow of electrons are called insulators (e.g., rubber,

### Microelectronic Devices and Circuits Lecture 18 - Single Transistor Amplifier Stages - Outline Announcements Exam Two Results -

6.012 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits Lecture 18 Single Transistor Amplifier Stages Outline Announcements Exam Two Results Exams will be returned tomorrow (Nov 13). Review Biasing and amplifier metrics

### Wafer Manufacturing. Reading Assignments: Plummer, Chap 3.1~3.4

Wafer Manufacturing Reading Assignments: Plummer, Chap 3.1~3.4 1 Periodic Table Roman letters give valence of the Elements 2 Why Silicon? First transistor, Shockley, Bardeen, Brattain1947 Made by Germanium

### Conduction in Semiconductors

Chapter 1 Conduction in Semiconductors 1.1 Introduction All solid-state devices, e.g. diodes and transistors, are fabricated from materials known as semiconductors. In order to understand the operation

### Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) or MOS is widely used for implementing digital designs

The MOSFET Introduction Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) or MOS is widely used for implementing digital designs Assets: High integration density and relatively simple manufacturing

### Application Notes FREQUENCY LINEAR TUNING VARACTORS FREQUENCY LINEAR TUNING VARACTORS THE DEFINITION OF S (RELATIVE SENSITIVITY)

FREQUENY LINEAR TUNING VARATORS FREQUENY LINEAR TUNING VARATORS For several decades variable capacitance diodes (varactors) have been used as tuning capacitors in high frequency circuits. Most of these

### CMOS Digital Circuits

CMOS Digital Circuits Types of Digital Circuits Combinational The value of the outputs at any time t depends only on the combination of the values applied at the inputs at time t (the system has no memory)

### Chapter 1 Introduction to The Semiconductor Industry 2005 VLSI TECH. 1

Chapter 1 Introduction to The Semiconductor Industry 1 The Semiconductor Industry INFRASTRUCTURE Industry Standards (SIA, SEMI, NIST, etc.) Production Tools Utilities Materials & Chemicals Metrology Tools

### Unit/Standard Number. High School Graduation Years 2010, 2011 and 2012

1 Secondary Task List 100 SAFETY 101 Demonstrate an understanding of State and School safety regulations. 102 Practice safety techniques for electronics work. 103 Demonstrate an understanding of proper

### The General Properties of Si, Ge, SiGe, SiO 2 and Si 3 N 4 June 2002

The neral Properties of,,, O 2 and 3 N 4 June 2002 Virginia Semiconductor 1501 Powhatan Street, Fredericksburg, VA 22401-4647 USA Phone: (540) 373-2900, FAX (540) 371-0371 www.virginiasemi.com, tech@virginiasemi.com

### Lezioni di Tecnologie e Materiali per l Elettronica

Lezioni di Tecnologie e Materiali per l Elettronica Danilo Manstretta danilo.manstretta@unipv.it microlab.unipv.it Outline Passive components Resistors Capacitors Inductors Printed circuits technologies

### Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997

Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997 1 Purpose To measure and understand the common emitter transistor characteristic curves. To use the base current gain

### Electronics Prof. D.C. Dube Department of Physics Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi

Electronics Prof. D.C. Dube Department of Physics Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi Module No. #06 Power Amplifiers Lecture No. #01 Power Amplifiers (Refer Slide Time: 00:44) We now move to the next

### Field-Effect (FET) transistors

Field-Effect (FET) transistors References: Hayes & Horowitz (pp 142-162 and 244-266), Rizzoni (chapters 8 & 9) In a field-effect transistor (FET), the width of a conducting channel in a semiconductor and,

### MMIC Design and Technology. Fabrication of MMIC

MMIC Design and Technology Fabrication of MMIC Instructor Dr. Ali Medi Substrate Process Choice Mobility & Peak Velocity: Frequency Response Band-Gap Energy: Breakdown Voltage (Power-Handling) Resistivity:

### Field-Effect (FET) transistors

Field-Effect (FET) transistors References: Barbow (Chapter 8), Rizzoni (chapters 8 & 9) In a field-effect transistor (FET), the width of a conducting channel in a semiconductor and, therefore, its current-carrying

### FEATURE ARTICLE. Figure 1: Current vs. Forward Voltage Curves for Silicon Schottky Diodes with High, Medium, Low and ZBD Barrier Heights

PAGE 1 FEBRUARY 2009 Schottky Diodes by Rick Cory, Skyworks Solutions, Inc. Introduction Schottky diodes have been used for several decades as the key elements in frequency mixer and RF power detector

### Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table Learning Outcomes

Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table Learning Outcomes (a) Electronic structure (i) Electromagnetic spectrum and associated calculations Electromagnetic radiation may be described in terms of waves.

### Advanced VLSI Design CMOS Processing Technology

Isolation of transistors, i.e., their source and drains, from other transistors is needed to reduce electrical interactions between them. For technologies

### ANALOG & DIGITAL ELECTRONICS

ANALOG & DIGITAL ELECTRONICS Course Instructor: Course No: PH-218 3-1-0-8 Dr. A.P. Vajpeyi E-mail: apvajpeyi@iitg.ernet.in Room No: #305 Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati,

### Sample Exercise 12.1 Calculating Packing Efficiency

Sample Exercise 12.1 Calculating Packing Efficiency It is not possible to pack spheres together without leaving some void spaces between the spheres. Packing efficiency is the fraction of space in a crystal

### DEGREE: Bachelor in Biomedical Engineering YEAR: 2 TERM: 2 WEEKLY PLANNING

SESSION WEEK COURSE: Electronic Technology in Biomedicine DEGREE: Bachelor in Biomedical Engineering YEAR: 2 TERM: 2 WEEKLY PLANNING DESCRIPTION GROUPS (mark X) SPECIAL ROOM FOR SESSION (Computer class

### Chapter 5. FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTORS (FETs)

Chapter 5 FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTORS (FETs) Chapter 5 FETs 1 FETs is also a three terminal devices. For the FET an electric field is established by the charges present that will control the conduction path

### Physics 551: Solid State Physics F. J. Himpsel

Physics 551: Solid State Physics F. J. Himpsel Background Most of the objects around us are in the solid state. Today s technology relies heavily on new materials, electronics is predominantly solid state.

### Diodes have an arrow showing the direction of the flow.

The Big Idea Modern circuitry depends on much more than just resistors and capacitors. The circuits in your computer, cell phone, Ipod depend on circuit elements called diodes, inductors, transistors,

### Sheet Resistance = R (L/W) = R N ------------------ L

Sheet Resistance Rewrite the resistance equation to separate (L / W), the length-to-width ratio... which is the number of squares N from R, the sheet resistance = (σ n t) - R L = -----------------------

### Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Cells

Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Cells A supplement topic to: Mi ti l S Micro-optical Sensors - A MEMS for electric power generation Science of Silicon PV Cells Scientific base for solar PV electric power generation

### Amplifier Teaching Aid

Amplifier Teaching Aid Table of Contents Amplifier Teaching Aid...1 Preface...1 Introduction...1 Lesson 1 Semiconductor Review...2 Lesson Plan...2 Worksheet No. 1...7 Experiment No. 1...7 Lesson 2 Bipolar

### W03 Analysis of DC Circuits. Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç Gören

W03 Analysis of DC Circuits Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç Gören ELK 2018 - Contents W01 Basic Concepts in Electronics W02 AC to DC Conversion W03 Analysis of DC Circuits (self and condenser) W04 Transistors and

### CHAPTER 10 Fundamentals of the Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor

CHAPTER 10 Fundamentals of the Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor Study the characteristics of energy bands as a function of applied voltage in the metal oxide semiconductor structure known

### Nanoparticle Enhanced Thin Film Solar Cells

Nanoparticle Enhanced Thin Film Solar Cells Solar Cells Solar cells convert visible light to electricity. It is one of the clean sources of energy. In theory a 100 square mile area covered with solar panels

### Lesson and Lab Activity with Photovoltaic Cells

Lesson and Lab Activity with Photovoltaic Cells Created for CCMR RET I Summer 2004 Dan Delorme Lesson on Photovoltaic Cells In this lesson you will be introduced to the history and theory of Photovoltaic

### Rectifier Applications

HB214/D Rev. 2, Nov-2001 Rectifier Applications Handbook Handbook Reference Manual and Design Guide HB214/D Rev. 2, Nov 2001 SCILLC, 2001 Previous Edition 1997 All Rights Reserved COVER ART The NCP1200

### Basic Laws Circuit Theorems Methods of Network Analysis Non-Linear Devices and Simulation Models

EE Modul 1: Electric Circuits Theory Basic Laws Circuit Theorems Methods of Network Analysis Non-Linear Devices and Simulation Models EE Modul 1: Electric Circuits Theory Current, Voltage, Impedance Ohm

### Lecture 9: Limiting and Clamping Diode Circuits. Voltage Doubler. Special Diode Types.

Whites, EE 320 Lecture 9 Page 1 of 8 Lecture 9: Limiting and Clamping Diode Circuits. Voltage Doubler. Special Diode Types. We ll finish up our discussion of diodes in this lecture by consider a few more

### Solar Cell Parameters and Equivalent Circuit

9 Solar Cell Parameters and Equivalent Circuit 9.1 External solar cell parameters The main parameters that are used to characterise the performance of solar cells are the peak power P max, the short-circuit

### Fundamentals of Microelectronics

Fundamentals of Microelectronics CH1 Why Microelectronics? CH2 Basic Physics of Semiconductors CH3 Diode Circuits CH4 Physics of Bipolar Transistors CH5 Bipolar Amplifiers CH6 Physics of MOS Transistors

### Content Map For Career & Technology

Content Strand: Applied Academics CT-ET1-1 analysis of electronic A. Fractions and decimals B. Powers of 10 and engineering notation C. Formula based problem solutions D. Powers and roots E. Linear equations

### Diode Circuits. Operating in the Reverse Breakdown region. (Zener Diode)

Diode Circuits Operating in the Reverse Breakdown region. (Zener Diode) In may applications, operation in the reverse breakdown region is highly desirable. The reverse breakdown voltage is relatively insensitive

### CHEM 10113, Quiz 7 December 7, 2011

CHEM 10113, Quiz 7 December 7, 2011 Name (please print) All equations must be balanced and show phases for full credit. Significant figures count, show charges as appropriate, and please box your answers!

### Fall 2004 Ali Shakouri

University of California at Santa Cruz Jack Baskin School of Engineering Electrical Engineering Department EE-145L: Properties of Materials Laboratory Lab 5b: Temperature Dependence of Semiconductor Conductivity

### Photovoltaics photo volt Photovoltaic Cells Crystalline Silicon Cells Photovoltaic Systems

1 Photovoltaics Photovoltaic (PV) materials and devices convert sunlight into electrical energy, and PV cells are commonly known as solar cells. Photovoltaics can literally be translated as light-electricity.

### AMPLIFIERS BJT BJT TRANSISTOR. Types of BJT BJT. devices that increase the voltage, current, or power level

AMPLFERS Prepared by Engr. JP Timola Reference: Electronic Devices by Floyd devices that increase the voltage, current, or power level have at least three terminals with one controlling the flow between

### Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 13, 2006

Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 13, 2006 1 Purpose To measure and understand the common emitter transistor characteristic curves. To use the base current gain

### Basic Electronics Learning by doing Prof. T.S. Natarajan Department of Physics Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Basic Electronics Learning by doing Prof. T.S. Natarajan Department of Physics Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Lecture 40 (Field Effect Transistor (FET) (Types, JFET, MOSFET, Complementary MOSFET)

### 6.772/SMA5111 - Compound Semiconductors Lecture 1 - The Compound Semiconductor Palette - Outline Announcements

6.772/SMA5111 - Compound Semiconductors Lecture 1 - The Compound Semiconductor Palette - Outline Announcements Handouts - General Information; Syllabus; Lecture 1 Notes Why are semiconductors useful to

### CONTENTS. Preface. 1.1.2. Energy bands of a crystal (intuitive approach)

CONTENTS Preface. Energy Band Theory.. Electron in a crystal... Two examples of electron behavior... Free electron...2. The particle-in-a-box approach..2. Energy bands of a crystal (intuitive approach)..3.

### Module 7 : I/O PADs Lecture 33 : I/O PADs

Module 7 : I/O PADs Lecture 33 : I/O PADs Objectives In this lecture you will learn the following Introduction Electrostatic Discharge Output Buffer Tri-state Output Circuit Latch-Up Prevention of Latch-Up

### Basic Electronics Prof. Dr. Chitralekha Mahanta Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati

Basic Electronics Prof. Dr. Chitralekha Mahanta Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati Module: 2 Bipolar Junction Transistors Lecture-2 Transistor

### Lecture 22: Integrated circuit fabrication

Lecture 22: Integrated circuit fabrication Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Layering 4 3 Patterning 7 4 Doping 8 4.1 Thermal diffusion......................... 10 4.2 Ion implantation.........................