# Fundamentals of Microelectronics

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1 Fundamentals of Microelectronics CH1 Why Microelectronics? CH2 Basic Physics of Semiconductors CH3 Diode Circuits CH4 Physics of Bipolar Transistors CH5 Bipolar Amplifiers CH6 Physics of MOS Transistors CH7 CMOS Amplifiers CH8 Operational Amplifier As A Black Box 1 Chapter 3 Diode Circuits 3.1 Ideal Diode 3.2 PN Junction as a Diode 3.3 Applications of Diodes 2 1

2 Diode Circuits After we have studied in detail the physics of a diode, it is time to study its behavior as a circuit element and its many applications. CH3 Diode Circuits 3 Diode s Application: Cell Phone Charger An important application of diode is chargers. Diode acts as the black box (after transformer) that passes only the positive half of the stepped-down sinusoid. CH3 Diode Circuits 4 2

3 Diode s Action in The Black Box (Ideal Diode) The diode behaves as a short circuit during the positive half cycle (voltage across it tends to exceed zero), and an open circuit during the negative half cycle (voltage across it is less than zero). CH3 Diode Circuits 5 Ideal Diode In an ideal diode, if the voltage across it tends to exceed zero, current flows. It is analogous to a water pipe that allows water to flow in only one direction. CH3 Diode Circuits 6 3

4 Diodes in Series Diodes cannot be connected in series randomly. For the circuits above, only a) can conduct current from A to C. CH3 Diode Circuits 7 I Characteristics of an Ideal Diode R = 0 I = = R = I = = 0 R R If the voltage across anode and cathode is greater than zero, the resistance of an ideal diode is zero and current becomes infinite. However, if the voltage is less than zero, the resistance becomes infinite and current is zero. CH3 Diode Circuits 8 4

5 Anti-Parallel Ideal Diodes If two diodes are connected in anti-parallel, it acts as a short for all voltages. CH3 Diode Circuits 9 Diode-Resistor Combination The I characteristic of this diode-resistor combination is zero for negative voltages and Ohm s law for positive voltages. CH3 Diode Circuits 10 5

6 Diode Implementation of OR Gate The circuit above shows an example of diode-implemented OR gate. out can only be either A or B, not both. CH3 Diode Circuits 11 Input/Output Characteristics When in is less than zero, the diode opens, so out = in. When in is greater than zero, the diode shorts, so out = 0. CH3 Diode Circuits 12 6

7 Diode s Application: Rectifier A rectifier is a device that passes positive-half cycle of a sinusoid and blocks the negative half-cycle or vice versa. When in is greater than 0, diode shorts, so out = in; however, when in is less than 0, diode opens, no current flows thru R1, out = I R1 = 0. CH3 Diode Circuits 13 Signal Strength Indicator out out, avg = sin ωt = 0 p 1 T = T 0 1 p = T ω out 1 ( t) dt = T [ cos ωt] T / 2 0 T / 2 0 p p = π for sin ωtdt for T 0 t 2 T t T 2 The averaged value of a rectifier output can be used as a signal strength indicator for the input, since out,avg is proportional to p, the input signal s amplitude. CH3 Diode Circuits 14 7

8 Diode s application: Limiter The purpose of a limiter is to force the output to remain below certain value. In a), the addition of a 1 battery forces the diode to turn on after 1 has become greater than 1. CH3 Diode Circuits 15 Limiter: When Battery aries An interesting case occurs when B (battery) varies. Rectification fails if B is greater than the input amplitude. CH3 Diode Circuits 16 8

9 Diode Example Assuming the diodes ideal, find the values of I and in the circuits above In these circuits, it may not be obvious at first sight whether none, one, or both diodes are conducting Make a plausible assumption Proceed with the analysis Check whether the solution is consistent 17 Diode Examples 18 9

10 Terminal Characteristics of Junction Diodes I D Forward Bias I D = I S (exp( D / T )-1) I S exp( D / T ) BD I D D D I S Saturation current (proportional to surface area of pn junction) T =kt/q Thermal voltage k Boltzmann s constant= joules/kelvin T The absolute temperature in kelvins =273+ C q the magnitude of electronic charge = coulomb Three distinct regions 1. D >0 2. D <0 3. D < BD 19 Temperature Dependence of the Diode Forward Characteristics 20 10

11 Different Models for Diode Thus far, Diode models include the ideal model of diode, the exponential, and constant voltage models. CH3 Diode Circuits 21 Input/Output Characteristics with Ideal and Constant-oltage Models The circuit above shows the difference between the ideal and constant-voltage model; the two models yield two different break points of slope. CH3 Diode Circuits 22 11

12 Input/Output Characteristics with a Constant- oltage Model When using a constant-voltage model, the voltage drop across the diode is no longer zero but d,on when it conducts. CH3 Diode Circuits 23 Another Constant-oltage Model Example In this example, since in is connected to the cathode, the diode conducts when in is very negative. The break point where the slope changes is when the current across R1 is equal to the current across R2. CH3 Diode Circuits 24 12

13 Exponential Model I I D1 D2 Iin = I 1+ I Iin = I 1+ I s 2 s1 s1 s 2 In this example, since the two diodes have different crosssection areas, only exponential model can be used. The two currents are solved by summing them with Iin, and equating their voltages. CH3 Diode Circuits 25 Another Constant-oltage Model Example This example shows the importance of good initial guess and careful confirmation. CH3 Diode Circuits 26 13

14 Cell Phone Adapter I x out = 3 = 3 D T I ln I X s out = 3 D,on is used to charge cell phones. However, if Ix changes, iterative method is often needed to obtain a solution, thus motivating a simpler technique. CH3 Diode Circuits 27 Small-Signal Analysis I D = T I D1 Small-signal analysis is performed around a bias point by perturbing the voltage by a small amount and observing the resulting linear current perturbation. CH3 Diode Circuits 28 14

15 Small-Signal Analysis in Detail I D D I = s T I = D1 T di = d I exp D D= D1 D D1 T If two points on the I curve of a diode are close enough, the trajectory connecting the first to the second point is like a line, with the slope being the proportionality factor between change in voltage and change in current. CH3 Diode Circuits 29 Small-Signal Incremental Resistance r d = I Since there s a linear relationship between the small signal current and voltage of a diode, the diode can be viewed as a linear resistor when only small changes are of interest. T D CH3 Diode Circuits 30 15

16 Small Sinusoidal Analysis ( t ) = + 0 p cos ω t I D 0 ( t) = I 0 + I p cos ωt = I s exp + If a sinusoidal voltage with small amplitude is applied, the resulting current is also a small sinusoid around a DC value. CH3 Diode Circuits 31 T I T 0 p cos ωt Cause and Effect In (a), voltage is the cause and current is the effect. In (b), the other way around. CH3 Diode Circuits 32 16

17 Adapter Example Revisited v out 3rd = R + 3r 1 d = 11.5m v ad With our understanding of small-signal analysis, we can revisit our cell phone charger example and easily solve it with just algebra instead of iterations. CH3 Diode Circuits 33 Simple is Beautiful out = I D (3r ) = 0.5mA(3 4.33Ω) = 6.5m d In this example we study the effect of cell phone pulling some current from the diodes. Using small signal analysis, this is easily done. However, imagine the nightmare, if we were to solve it using non-linear equations. CH3 Diode Circuits 34 17

18 Applications of Diode CH3 Diode Circuits 35 Half-Wave Rectifier A very common application of diodes is half-wave rectification, where either the positive or negative half of the input is blocked. But, how do we generate a constant output? CH3 Diode Circuits 36 18

19 Diode-Capacitor Circuit: Constant oltage Model If the resistor in half-wave rectifier is replaced by a capacitor, a fixed voltage output is obtained since the capacitor (assumed ideal) has no path to discharge. CH3 Diode Circuits 37 Diode-Capacitor Circuit: Ideal Model Note that (b) is just like in, only shifted down. CH3 Diode Circuits 38 19

20 Diode-Capacitor With Load Resistor A path is available for capacitor to discharge. Therefore, out will not be constant and a ripple exists. CH3 Diode Circuits 39 Behavior for Different Capacitor alues For large C1, out has small ripple. CH3 Diode Circuits 40 20

21 Peak to Peak amplitude of Ripple out out R ( t) = ( L p ( t) ( p p R D, on D, on D, on t )exp R C L L t R C L T in p C R C f 1 )( ) ( D, on in p 0 t T in D, on p ) R L D, on t C 1 The ripple amplitude is the decaying part of the exponential. Ripple voltage becomes a problem if it goes above 5 to 10% of the output voltage. CH3 Diode Circuits 41 Maximum Diode Current I p 2 p R p 2 R C1 ωin p + ( RLC1ω in + 1) R R p L L p The diode has its maximum current at t1, since that s when the slope of out is the greatest. This current has to be carefully controlled so it does not damage the device. CH3 Diode Circuits 42 21

22 Full-Wave Rectifier A full-wave rectifier passes both the negative and positive half cycles of the input, while inverting the negative half of the input. As proved later, a full-wave rectifier reduces the ripple by a factor of two. CH3 Diode Circuits 43 The Evolution of Full-Wave Rectifier Figures (e) and (f) show the topology that inverts the negative half cycle of the input. CH3 Diode Circuits 44 22

23 Full-Wave Rectifier: Bridge Rectifier The figure above shows a full-wave rectifier, where D1 and D2 pass/invert the negative half cycle of input and D3 and D4 pass the positive half cycle. CH3 Diode Circuits 45 Input/Output Characteristics of a Full-Wave Rectifier (Constant-oltage Model) The dead-zone around in arises because in must exceed 2 D,ON to turn on the bridge. CH3 Diode Circuits 46 23

24 Complete Full-Wave Rectifier Since C1 only gets ½ of period to discharge, ripple voltage is decreased by a factor of 2. Also (b) shows that each diode is subjected to approximately one p reverse bias drop (versus 2p in half-wave rectifier). CH3 Diode Circuits 47 Current Carried by Each Diode in the Full-Wave Rectifier CH3 Diode Circuits 48 24

25 Summary of Half and Full-Wave Rectifiers Full-wave rectifier is more suited to adapter and charger applications. CH3 Diode Circuits 49 oltage Regulator The ripple created by the rectifier can be unacceptable to sensitive load; therefore, a regulator is required to obtain a very stable output. Three diodes operate as a primitive regulator. CH3 Diode Circuits 50 25

26 oltage Regulation With Zener Diode out rd = r + R D 1 in oltage regulation can be accomplished with Zener diode. Since rd is small, large change in the input will not be reflected at the output. CH3 Diode Circuits 51 Line Regulation S. Load Regulation out in rd 1 + rd 2 = r + r + R D1 D2 1 I out = rd 1 + rd 2) L ( R 1 Line regulation is the suppression of change in out due to change in in (b). Load regulation is the suppression of change in out due to change in load current (c). CH3 Diode Circuits 52 26

27 Evolution of AC-DC Converter CH3 Diode Circuits 53 Limiting Circuits The motivation of having limiting circuits is to keep the signal below a threshold so it will not saturate the entire circuitry. When a receiver is close to a base station, signals are large and limiting circuits may be required. CH3 Diode Circuits 54 27

28 Input/Output Characteristics Note the clipping of the output voltage. CH3 Diode Circuits 55 Limiting Circuit Using a Diode: Positive Cycle Clipping As was studied in the past, the combination of resistordiode creates limiting effect. CH3 Diode Circuits 56 28

29 Limiting Circuit Using a Diode: Negative Cycle Clipping CH3 Diode Circuits 57 Limiting Circuit Using a Diode: Positive and Negative Cycle Clipping CH3 Diode Circuits 58 29

30 General oltage Limiting Circuit Two batteries in series with the antiparalle diodes control the limiting voltages. CH3 Diode Circuits 59 Non-idealities in Limiting Circuits The clipping region is not exactly flat since as in increases, the currents through diodes change, and so does the voltage drop. CH3 Diode Circuits 60 30

31 Capacitive Divider = out in out C1 = C + C 1 2 in CH3 Diode Circuits 61 Waveform Shifter: Peak at -2p As in increases, D1 turns on and out is zero. As in decreases, D1 turns off, and out drops with in from zero. The lowest out can go is -2p, doubling the voltage. CH3 Diode Circuits 62 31

32 Waveform Shifter: Peak at 2p Similarly, when the terminals of the diode are switched, a voltage doubler with peak value at 2p can be conceived. CH3 Diode Circuits 63 oltage Doubler The output increases by p, p/2, p/4, etc in each input cycle, eventually settling to 2 p. CH3 Diode Circuits 64 32

33 Current thru D 1 in oltage Doubler CH3 Diode Circuits 65 Another Application: oltage Shifter CH3 Diode Circuits 66 33

34 oltage Shifter (2 D,ON ) CH3 Diode Circuits 67 Diode as Electronic Switch Diode as a switch finds application in logic circuits and data converters. CH3 Diode Circuits 68 34

35 Junction Feedthrough out Cj / 2 = C /2+ C j 1 in For the circuit shown in part e) of the previous slide, a small feedthrough from input to output via the junction capacitors exists even if the diodes are reverse biased Therefore, C1 has to be large enough to minimize this feedthrough. CH3 Diode Circuits 69 35

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