# Figure 1. Diode circuit model

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Semiconductor Devices Non-linear Devices Diodes Introduction. The diode is two terminal non linear device whose I-V characteristic besides exhibiting non-linear behavior is also polarity dependent. The non-linear, and polarity characteristics of the diode make for a very interesting and useful device albeit at the expense of added complexity of circuit design and analysis. The basic circuit symbol of the diode is shown on Figure 1. Unlike the resistor, whose two terminal leads are equivalent, the behavior of the diode depend on the relative polarity of its terminals. Anode Id + Vd - Cathode Figure 1. Diode circuit model The conventional voltage polarity across the diode terminals and the current direction through the diode are also indicated on Figure 1. Depending on the polarity of the voltage Vd the diode is said to be: Forward Biased, (Vd >0), Anode voltage is greater than the Cathode voltage, or Reverse Biased, (Vd<0), Cathode voltage is greater than the Anode voltage /6.071 Spring 2006, Chaniotakis and Cory 1

2 Diode Models. Ideal Diode model Consideration and analysis of the ideal diode, gives us the opportunity to conceptualize the fundamental characteristics of these non-linear devices and to assist us in the analysis of circuits containing diodes. Of course the discussion of device modeling refers to the mathematical/graphical representation of the current/voltage (I-V) characteristic of the device. The I-V characteristic and the symbol of the ideal-diode is as shown on Figure 2. Id short circuit Reverse-Bias Region Forward-Bias Region Id open circuit (a) Vd + Vd - (b) Figure 2. I-V characteristic (a) and symbol (b) of the ideal diode. When a reverse bias voltage is applied the current through the diode is zero. When the current becomes greater than zero the voltage drop across the diode is zero. The non-linear character of the device is apparent from the examination of Figure 2. This simplified model gives a global picture of the diode behavior but it does not represent important details of this element. Next we discuss the real (full) model of a diode /6.071 Spring 2006, Chaniotakis and Cory 2

3 Full diode model The diode is a semiconductor device constructed from silicon or other elements from column IV of the periodic table. These materials like Si and Ge are poor conductors of electricity. By doping Si with small amounts of an element from column III (eg. Boron B) or column V (e.g. phosphorous P) the conductivity greatly increases. The change in conductivity is associated with the freedom of electrons to move through the material. The electrons in Si are tightly bound because of the crystal lattice structure. Adding for example phosphorous (from column V) adds another electron to the crystal structure. This extra electron is not required to maintain the crystal structure and thus it has considerable freedom to move from site to site within the material. Materials doped with elements in column V are known as n type semiconductors indicating the freely moving negative charge the electron. If Si is now doped with elements from column III (Ba, Al, Ga) the crystal structure has a deficit of one electron. This deficit of electrons looks like a net positive charge and it is called a hole. Electrons within the material can easily move to fill this hole leaving behind new holes at the places where they started from. The creation and thus the motion of these holes looks like a flow of a net positive charge. Therefore, materials doped with elements from column III are known as p type semiconductors indicating a net positive charge the hole. A diode is constructed by fabricating p and n regions in Si as shown schematically on Figure 3(a). The symbol of the diode and the corresponding arrangement of the p and n regions is shown on Figure 3(b). The boundary between the p and the n regions is called the p-n junction. Id p region n region + Vd - (a) Id + Vd - (b) Figure /6.071 Spring 2006, Chaniotakis and Cory 3

4 The mathematical function that describes the relationship between the voltage Vd, and the diode current Id of a diode (the full model) is, Vd Id = Is exp 1 VT (1.1) where the parameters Is and VT are constants characterizing the diode. Is is called the reverse saturation current and it is independent of the diode voltage Vd. For silicon 12 kt diodes Is = 10 A or less. The parameter VT (k = Boltzmann s constant, T = the q temperature and q = the electronic charge) is called the thermal voltage. At room temperature V T = 26 mv. A typical Id versus Vd relationship for a silicon diode is shown on Figure 4. The current increases exponentially with the voltage. A small change in the voltage increases the current by orders of magnitude as may be seen from Figure 5 where the I-V plot is presented in a logarithmic scale. Note that we have drawn a vertical line at Vd=0.7 Volts to indicate the relative insensitivity of the voltage drop across the diode for large currents. We will use this feature to develop a simplified model of the diode later on. Figure 4. Typical I-V characteristic of a Silicon diode /6.071 Spring 2006, Chaniotakis and Cory 4

5 Figure 5. Semi-log plot of typical I-V characteristic of a Silicon diode. 11 For bias voltages less than 100mV the current is less than 10 A and may be neglected in most, but not all, applications. Also for Vd > 200 mv the mathematical expression relating Id to Vd may be simplified by neglecting the Is term Vd Id Is exp (1.2) V Figure 6 shows again the I-V characteristic in a range where the reverse bias characteristics are visible. T Figure 6. Typical I-V characteristic of a Silicon diode /6.071 Spring 2006, Chaniotakis and Cory 5

6 When a reverse biased voltage is applied to a diode (i.e when Vd<0) the behavior of the diode exhibits some interesting characteristics. First if the bias voltage is small then the current flowing through the diode is the reverse bias current Is. When the reverse bias voltage reaches a certain value (Vb), the electric field generated across the junction results in a very large reverse bias current. This phenomenon is called breakdown and the corresponding voltage at which is occurs is called the breakdown voltage (Vb) as shown on Figure 7. (The graph shown on Figure 7 does not represent the characteristics of a real diode. It is presented for the visual demonstration of the breakdown region only.) For silicon diodes the breakdown voltage is in the range of Volts. Care must be taken when designing circuits containing diodes not to exceed the breakdown voltage. Figure /6.071 Spring 2006, Chaniotakis and Cory 6

7 Offset voltage model The exponential dependence of Id on Vd results in a highly non-linear system but it also gives us the opportunity to construct a simpler, albeit still non-linear, model for the diode. Such a model is shown graphically on Figure 8. Id slope= 1 R f V g Vd Figure 8. Piecewise linear approximation model of the diode. In this model the voltage Vg corresponds to 0.7 Volts. The slope of the vertical line is very large corresponding to a very small equivalent resistance (Rf) for the diode. Since Rf is very small it may be neglected (Rf=0, slope= ) resulting in the model shown on Figure 9. Id V g Vd Figure 9. Offset diode model (0.7 Volt model) This is an enhanced version of the ideal-diode model presented earlier (see Figure 2) and it is motivated by the full diode model. This model is called the offset diode model (or the 0.7 Volt model). The voltage Vg is called the offset voltage. For silicon diodes Vg=0.7 Volts and for germanium diodes Vg=0.2 Volts /6.071 Spring 2006, Chaniotakis and Cory 7

8 Diode Circuits. Half wave rectifier Let s start with the circuit shown on Figure 10. We will analyze this circuit assuming that the diode is ideal. The input voltage Vin has the sinusoidal form shown on Figure Vd - + Vin R Vo - Figure 10. Diode circuit Figure 11. Sinusoidal signal Vin We see that during the time when Vin>0 the diode is forward biased and so the voltage across this ideal diode is zero. This observation is also represented by the equivalent circuit shown on Figure 12(a), which clearly indicates that the output voltage Vo is equal to the input voltage Vin. Similarly during the time when Vin<0, the diode is reverse biased and so the current flowing through the diode is zero, see equivalent circuit on Figure 12(b), and the output voltage is zero. Id Vin R Vo - + Id=0 Vin R Vo - + (a) (b) Figure 12. Equivalent circuits for Vin>0 (a) and Vin<0 (b) for the ideal diode /6.071 Spring 2006, Chaniotakis and Cory 8

9 The total response of the circuit to the input signal Vin is shown on Figure 13. Note that the presence of the diode alters the output signal in a profound way: it converts an AC (alternating current) input voltage, whose average value over time is zero, into an output voltage whose polarity does not change over time, and which has a non-zero average value. This type of voltage signal is called DC (direct current) since the direction of the current does not change over time. We have just taken the first step in the design of an AC to DC converter. Figure 13. Input signal (top) and equivalent rectified signal (bottom) The output signal Vo is a rectified signal of the input Vin and the circuit that generated this signal, Figure 10, is called Rectifier circuit. Furthermore, since it passes only half of the input signal it is called a Half Wave Rectifier Circuit /6.071 Spring 2006, Chaniotakis and Cory 9

10 Let s now again analyze the behavior of the rectifier circuit with the offset diode model. The circuit is shown on Figure Vd - + Vin R Vo - Figure 14. Half wave rectifier circuit Application of Kirchhoff s voltage law (KVL) to the circuit of Figure 14 gives Vo = Vin Vd. The voltage transfer curve for this circuit is shown on Figure 15 and it is derived from the I-V characteristic of the diode model and Kirchhoff s voltage law. Vo slope=1 Vg Vin Figure 15. Voltage transfer characteristic of the rectifier circuit. From the voltage transfer curve we observe the following: Vo = Vin-Vg for Vin Vg, Vo = 0 for Vin < Vg (Open circuit) Figure 16 shows the response of the rectifier circuit of Figure 14 for Vin = 2sin(40 πt). Note the difference between Vin and Vo. The differences in the output voltage between the full model and the offset diode model are not discernable /6.071 Spring 2006, Chaniotakis and Cory 10

11 Figure 16. Source (Vin) and rectified voltage (Vo) for the circuit of Figure /6.071 Spring 2006, Chaniotakis and Cory 11

12 Full wave rectifier. Rectifiers are used extensively in the conversion of AC signals to DC. In such a circuit the half wave rectifier is not efficient since it wastes half of the signal. A circuit that overcomes this problem is the full wave rectifier which uses four diodes as shown on Figure 17. The diodes are arranged in a bridge configuration. The output voltage is taken across the resistor R. Vin D1 D3 D2 + Vo - R D4 Figure 17. Full wave rectifier circuit First let s consider the response of this circuit using the ideal diode model. We will apply a sinusoidal input signal and detect the output. Let s consider the example with the sinusoidal input signal Vin shown on Figure 18. In order to understand the behavior of this circuit we will look at the direction of current flow during the positive and the negative swing of the input voltage. Figure 18. Input signal to a full wave rectifier /6.071 Spring 2006, Chaniotakis and Cory 12

13 When Vin is positive, diodes D1 and D4 are forward biased and diodes D2 and D3 are reverse biased and the direction of the current is shown on Figure 19(a). During the negative part of the cycle, diodes D2 and D3 are forward biased and diodes D1 and D4 are reverse biased and the current flow is indicated on Figure 19(b). Note that the current through the resistor R is in the same direction during the entire cycle. This is the basis for the behavior of the full wave rectifier circuit. D1 D2 D1 D2 Vin D3 + Vo - R D4 Vin D3 + Vo - R D4 (a) Figure 19. (b) Figure 20. Output signal of a full wave rectifier with ideal diodes. Now let s consider the more realistic scenario represented by the full diode model. In this case the direction of the current during the positive and the negative cycle is the same as before (see Figure 21). D1 D2 D1 D2 Vin D3 + Vo - R D4 Vin D3 + Vo - R D4 (a) (b) Figure 21. Direction of current in the full wave rectifier during the positive cycle if Vin (a) and during the negative cycle of Vin (b) /6.071 Spring 2006, Chaniotakis and Cory 13

14 The difference in the response becomes apparent by considering the circuit equivalent of the offset model of the diode as shown on Figure 22 for the positive and negative portions of the input signal Vin. From KVL we see that Vo = Vin 2Vg (1.3) Vg Vg Vin + Vo - R Vg Vin + Vo - Vg R (a) (b) Figure 22. Equivalent model of the full wave rectifier during the positive (a) and negative (b) portions of the cycle. The resulting output is rectified during the positive and the negative cycle of the signal Vin and it has the form shown on Figure 23 for a silicon diode characterized by Vg=0.7 Volts. For Vin that have a small amplitude (not much greater than the offset voltage Vg) the rectified signal may only be a small fraction of the input signal. Later in the term we will improve this circuit by designing a superdiode which will have Vg=0 and thus the rectified signal will resemble the one obtained by the ideal diode model (Figure 20). Figure 23. Input and output signals for the full wave rectifier /6.071 Spring 2006, Chaniotakis and Cory 14

15 Obtaining the operating point. Referring to Figure 24, the current Id, when Vin Vg, is Id Vin Vd = (1.4) R Id + Vd - Vin R Vo Figure 24. This is the load line equation for this circuit. The intersection of the load line and the I-V Vd / Vt characteristic curve Id = Is ( e 1) for the device is the operating point for the diode. This operating point is also called the quiescent point or Q-point and it gives the value of the current through the diode and the voltage across the diode. For R = 100 Ω, and Vin = 2V, the load line and resulting operating point is shown on Figure I-V curve Operating Point Q-Point Id (A) 0.01 Operating Current Load Line Operating Voltage Vd (Volts) Figure 25. Load line and operating point of diode in a rectifying circuit /6.071 Spring 2006, Chaniotakis and Cory 15

16 For comparison let s calculate the operating point of the same circuit by using the full I-V model of the diode. The load line equation is still the same but the I-V characteristic will now result in a slightly different operating point. Figure 26 shows the graphical solution. Note the small difference in the solution for the diode current for the two models. This small difference is usually ignored. However, in certain cases where the range of operating conditions is very wide the error associated with the use of the offset model may not be acceptable. Therefore, care should be taken when circuit analysis is performed with simplified models. For our scope the use of the offset model is sufficient and will be used unless stated otherwise operating point Full model Id (A) operating point offset model Vd (Volts) Figure 26. Load line and operating point of diode in a rectifying circuit (full diode model) /6.071 Spring 2006, Chaniotakis and Cory 16

17 Reverse Bias Operation. Zener Diode Operation of the diode in the reverse bias region is limited by the maximum allowable reverse bias voltage. As the reverse bias voltage increases above a certain value the diode breaks down and the current in the reverse bias direction increases rapidly as it is graphically demonstrated on Figure 7. The voltage at which this phenomenon occurs is called the reverse breakdown voltage. For diodes designed to operate in the forward bias region the application of a reverse bias voltage should be avoided. However, reverse breakdown may also be a very useful phenomenon and special diodes, called Zener diodes, are fabricated to exhibit and exploit this property at well defined voltages. These voltages range from a few Volts to hundreds of Volts. The symbol for the Zener diode is shown on Figure 27. I forward I reverse + Vd - Figure 27. Symbol of Zener diode. These diodes are very useful in providing a well defined reference voltage. Operation of these devices, like any other device, is limited by the practical considerations such as power dissipation. Let s consider an example of a voltage regulator circuit using a Zener diode. The circuit is shown on Figure 28. It R1 Iz + Vz IL RLoad - Unregulated source limiting resistor Zener regulator Load Figure 28. Zener voltage regulating circuit As long as the Zener diode is in the reverse breakdown region, the voltage across the load is Vz, the breakdown voltage for the diode. The current through the load RL is then VZ IL = RL For the voltage Vz to be regulated the current IL must be constant. From KCL we have the constraint It = IL + Iz Any excess current is returned via the diode keeping the diode voltage Vz constant /6.071 Spring 2006, Chaniotakis and Cory 17

18 In practical situations power considerations must be incorporated in the analysis in order to calculate and design for the maximum current that can flow through the device. We will examine this problem in a homework exercise /6.071 Spring 2006, Chaniotakis and Cory 18

### Diode Circuits. Operating in the Reverse Breakdown region. (Zener Diode)

Diode Circuits Operating in the Reverse Breakdown region. (Zener Diode) In may applications, operation in the reverse breakdown region is highly desirable. The reverse breakdown voltage is relatively insensitive

### 3. Diodes and Diode Circuits. 3. Diodes and Diode Circuits TLT-8016 Basic Analog Circuits 2005/2006 1

3. Diodes and Diode Circuits 3. Diodes and Diode Circuits TLT-8016 Basic Analog Circuits 2005/2006 1 3.1 Diode Characteristics Small-Signal Diodes Diode: a semiconductor device, which conduct the current

### Chapter 3. Diodes and Applications. Introduction [5], [6]

Chapter 3 Diodes and Applications Introduction [5], [6] Diode is the most basic of semiconductor device. It should be noted that the term of diode refers to the basic p-n junction diode. All other diode

### DIODE CIRCUITS LABORATORY. Fig. 8.1a Fig 8.1b

DIODE CIRCUITS LABORATORY A solid state diode consists of a junction of either dissimilar semiconductors (pn junction diode) or a metal and a semiconductor (Schottky barrier diode). Regardless of the type,

### Lab 1 Diode Characteristics

Lab 1 Diode Characteristics Purpose The purpose of this lab is to study the characteristics of the diode. Some of the characteristics that will be investigated are the I-V curve and the rectification properties.

### Supplement Reading on Diode Circuits. http://www.inst.eecs.berkeley.edu/ edu/~ee40/fa09/handouts/ee40_mos_circuit.pdf

EE40 Lec 18 Diode Circuits Reading: Chap. 10 of Hambley Supplement Reading on Diode Circuits http://www.inst.eecs.berkeley.edu/ edu/~ee40/fa09/handouts/ee40_mos_circuit.pdf Slide 1 Diodes Circuits Load

### Diodes and Transistors

Diodes What do we use diodes for? Diodes and Transistors protect circuits by limiting the voltage (clipping and clamping) turn AC into DC (voltage rectifier) voltage multipliers (e.g. double input voltage)

### LAB IV. SILICON DIODE CHARACTERISTICS

LAB IV. SILICON DIODE CHARACTERISTICS 1. OBJECTIVE In this lab you are to measure I-V characteristics of rectifier and Zener diodes in both forward and reverse-bias mode, as well as learn to recognize

### Lab Report No.1 // Diodes: A Regulated DC Power Supply Omar X. Avelar Omar de la Mora Diego I. Romero

Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Occidente (ITESO) Periférico Sur Manuel Gómez Morín 8585, Tlaquepaque, Jalisco, México, C.P. 45090 Analog Electronic Devices (ESI038 / SE047) Dr. Esteban

### V-I CHARACTERISTICS OF DIODE

V-I CHARACTERISTICS OF DIODE RAVITEJ UPPU 1 1. Aim We try to see the Voltage-Current realtion in Diodes and compare the difference between various types of diodes including Zener Diode. 2. Theory The diode

### Basic Electronics Prof. Dr. Chitralekha Mahanta Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati

Basic Electronics Prof. Dr. Chitralekha Mahanta Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati Module: 2 Bipolar Junction Transistors Lecture-2 Transistor

### The D.C Power Supply

The D.C Power Supply Voltage Step Down Electrical Isolation Converts Bipolar signal to Unipolar Half or Full wave Smoothes the voltage variation Still has some ripples Reduce ripples Stabilize the output

### Basic Op Amp Circuits

Basic Op Amp ircuits Manuel Toledo INEL 5205 Instrumentation August 3, 2008 Introduction The operational amplifier (op amp or OA for short) is perhaps the most important building block for the design of

### LABORATORY 10 TIME AVERAGES, RMS VALUES AND THE BRIDGE RECTIFIER. Bridge Rectifier

LABORATORY 10 TIME AVERAGES, RMS VALUES AND THE BRIDGE RECTIFIER Full-wave Rectification: Bridge Rectifier For many electronic circuits, DC supply voltages are required but only AC voltages are available.

### Lecture - 4 Diode Rectifier Circuits

Basic Electronics (Module 1 Semiconductor Diodes) Dr. Chitralekha Mahanta Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati Lecture - 4 Diode Rectifier Circuits

### David L. Senasack June, 2006 Dale Jackson Career Center, Lewisville Texas. The PN Junction

David L. Senasack June, 2006 Dale Jackson Career Center, Lewisville Texas The PN Junction Objectives: Upon the completion of this unit, the student will be able to; name the two categories of integrated

### Dependent Sources: Introduction and analysis of circuits containing dependent sources.

Dependent Sources: Introduction and analysis of circuits containing dependent sources. So far we have explored timeindependent (resistive) elements that are also linear. We have seen that two terminal

### Homework Assignment 03

Question 1 (2 points each unless noted otherwise) Homework Assignment 03 1. A 9-V dc power supply generates 10 W in a resistor. What peak-to-peak amplitude should an ac source have to generate the same

### Diodes. 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Diode equation... 2 1.1.1 Reverse Bias... 2 1.1.2 Forward Bias... 2 1.2 General Diode Specifications...

Diodes Contents 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Diode equation................................... 2 1.1.1 Reverse Bias................................ 2 1.1.2 Forward Bias................................ 2 1.2 General

### AN105. Introduction: The Nature of VCRs. Resistance Properties of FETs

Introduction: The Nature of s A voltage-controlled resistor () may be defined as a three-terminal variable resistor where the resistance value between two of the terminals is controlled by a voltage potential

### Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç Gören

H2 - AC to DC Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç Gören ELK 2018 - Contents W01 Basic Concepts in Electronics W02 AC to DC Conversion W03 Analysis of DC Circuits W04 Transistors and Applications (H-Bridge) W05 Op Amps

### III. Reaction Kinetics

III. Reaction Kinetics Lecture 13: Butler-Volmer equation Notes by ChangHoon Lim (and MZB) 1. Interfacial Equilibrium At lecture 11, the reaction rate R for the general Faradaic half-cell reaction was

### Let s examine the response of the circuit shown on Figure 1. The form of the source voltage Vs is shown on Figure 2. R. Figure 1.

Examples of Transient and RL Circuits. The Series RLC Circuit Impulse response of Circuit. Let s examine the response of the circuit shown on Figure 1. The form of the source voltage Vs is shown on Figure.

### Transistors. NPN Bipolar Junction Transistor

Transistors They are unidirectional current carrying devices with capability to control the current flowing through them The switch current can be controlled by either current or voltage ipolar Junction

### Semiconductor Diode. It has already been discussed in the previous chapter that a pn junction conducts current easily. Principles of Electronics

76 6 Principles of Electronics Semiconductor Diode 6.1 Semiconductor Diode 6.3 Resistance of Crystal Diode 6.5 Crystal Diode Equivalent Circuits 6.7 Crystal Diode Rectifiers 6.9 Output Frequency of Half-Wave

### Field-Effect (FET) transistors

Field-Effect (FET) transistors References: Hayes & Horowitz (pp 142-162 and 244-266), Rizzoni (chapters 8 & 9) In a field-effect transistor (FET), the width of a conducting channel in a semiconductor and,

### Fundamentals of Microelectronics

Fundamentals of Microelectronics CH1 Why Microelectronics? CH2 Basic Physics of Semiconductors CH3 Diode Circuits CH4 Physics of Bipolar Transistors CH5 Bipolar Amplifiers CH6 Physics of MOS Transistors

### School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1 School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:223 Principles of Electrical Engineering I Laboratory Experiment #4 Title: Operational Amplifiers 1 Introduction Objectives

### Rectifier circuits & DC power supplies

Rectifier circuits & DC power supplies Goal: Generate the DC voltages needed for most electronics starting with the AC power that comes through the power line? 120 V RMS f = 60 Hz T = 1667 ms) = )sin How

### Power Supplies. 1.0 Power Supply Basics. www.learnabout-electronics.org. Module

Module 1 www.learnabout-electronics.org Power Supplies 1.0 Power Supply Basics What you ll learn in Module 1 Section 1.0 Power Supply Basics. Basic functions of a power supply. Safety aspects of working

### Transistor Amplifiers

Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 1999 Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to develop a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must accept input

### Circuit Analysis using the Node and Mesh Methods

Circuit Analysis using the Node and Mesh Methods We have seen that using Kirchhoff s laws and Ohm s law we can analyze any circuit to determine the operating conditions (the currents and voltages). The

### Lecture 3: DC Analysis of Diode Circuits.

Whites, EE 320 Lecture 3 Page 1 of 10 Lecture 3: DC Analysis of Diode Circuits. We ll now move on to the DC analysis of diode circuits. Applications will be covered in following lectures. Let s consider

### Transistor Biasing. The basic function of transistor is to do amplification. Principles of Electronics

192 9 Principles of Electronics Transistor Biasing 91 Faithful Amplification 92 Transistor Biasing 93 Inherent Variations of Transistor Parameters 94 Stabilisation 95 Essentials of a Transistor Biasing

### LM 358 Op Amp. If you have small signals and need a more useful reading we could amplify it using the op amp, this is commonly used in sensors.

LM 358 Op Amp S k i l l L e v e l : I n t e r m e d i a t e OVERVIEW The LM 358 is a duel single supply operational amplifier. As it is a single supply it eliminates the need for a duel power supply, thus

### BJT Characteristics and Amplifiers

BJT Characteristics and Amplifiers Matthew Beckler beck0778@umn.edu EE2002 Lab Section 003 April 2, 2006 Abstract As a basic component in amplifier design, the properties of the Bipolar Junction Transistor

### The full wave rectifier consists of two diodes and a resister as shown in Figure

The Full-Wave Rectifier The full wave rectifier consists of two diodes and a resister as shown in Figure The transformer has a centre-tapped secondary winding. This secondary winding has a lead attached

### Fundamentals of Microelectronics

Fundamentals of Microelectronics H1 Why Microelectronics? H2 Basic Physics of Semiconductors H3 Diode ircuits H4 Physics of Bipolar ransistors H5 Bipolar Amplifiers H6 Physics of MOS ransistors H7 MOS

### Unit/Standard Number. High School Graduation Years 2010, 2011 and 2012

1 Secondary Task List 100 SAFETY 101 Demonstrate an understanding of State and School safety regulations. 102 Practice safety techniques for electronics work. 103 Demonstrate an understanding of proper

### Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers

Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 2005 Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to construct a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must

### Bipolar Junction Transistors

Bipolar Junction Transistors Physical Structure & Symbols NPN Emitter (E) n-type Emitter region p-type Base region n-type Collector region Collector (C) B C Emitter-base junction (EBJ) Base (B) (a) Collector-base

### ANADOLU UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

ANADOLU UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING EEM 102 INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT 9: DIODES AND DC POWER SUPPLY OBJECTIVE: To observe how a diode functions

### Analog & Digital Electronics Course No: PH-218

Analog & Digital Electronics Course No: PH-18 Lec 3: Rectifier and Clipper circuits Course nstructors: Dr. A. P. VAJPEY Department of Physics, ndian nstitute of Technology Guwahati, ndia 1 Rectifier Circuits:

### Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 13, 2006

Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 13, 2006 1 Purpose To measure and understand the common emitter transistor characteristic curves. To use the base current gain

### Scaling and Biasing Analog Signals

Scaling and Biasing Analog Signals November 2007 Introduction Scaling and biasing the range and offset of analog signals is a useful skill for working with a variety of electronics. Not only can it interface

### See Horenstein 4.3 and 4.4

EE 462: Laboratory # 4 DC Power Supply Circuits Using Diodes by Drs. A.V. Radun and K.D. Donohue (2/14/07) Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Kentucky Lexington, KY 40506 Updated

### Regulated D.C. Power Supply

442 17 Principles of Electronics Regulated D.C. Power Supply 17.1 Ordinary D.C. Power Supply 17.2 Important Terms 17.3 Regulated Power Supply 17.4 Types of Voltage Regulators 17.5 Zener Diode Voltage Regulator

### BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS

CHAPTER 3 BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS A bipolar junction transistor, BJT, is a single piece of silicon with two back-to-back P-N junctions. However, it cannot be made with two independent back-to-back

### CIRCUITS LABORATORY. In this experiment, the output I-V characteristic curves, the small-signal low

CIRCUITS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 6 TRANSISTOR CHARACTERISTICS 6.1 ABSTRACT In this experiment, the output I-V characteristic curves, the small-signal low frequency equivalent circuit parameters, and the

### Temperature Sensor Circuit. Report by: Steve Bedford Laboratory Partner: Jaime Lightfoot

Temperature Sensor Circuit Report by: Steve Bedford Laboratory Partner: Jaime Lightfoot EGR 214-905 April 13 th, 2012 Abstract In this paper, the design and implementation of a temperature sensor with

### Precision Diode Rectifiers

by Kenneth A. Kuhn March 21, 2013 Precision half-wave rectifiers An operational amplifier can be used to linearize a non-linear function such as the transfer function of a semiconductor diode. The classic

### Bipolar Junction Transistor Basics

by Kenneth A. Kuhn Sept. 29, 2001, rev 1 Introduction A bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is a three layer semiconductor device with either NPN or PNP construction. Both constructions have the identical

### Chapter 3 Diode Circuits. 3.1 Ideal Diode 3.2 PN Junction as a Diode 3.3 Applications of Diodes

Chapter 3 Diode Circuits 3.1 deal Diode 3.2 PN Junction as a Diode 3.3 Applications of Diodes 1 Diode s Application: Cell Phone Charger An important application of diode is chargers. 充 電 器 Diode acts as

### The 2N3393 Bipolar Junction Transistor

The 2N3393 Bipolar Junction Transistor Common-Emitter Amplifier Aaron Prust Abstract The bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is a non-linear electronic device which can be used for amplification and switching.

### Transistor amplifiers: Biasing and Small Signal Model

Transistor amplifiers: iasing and Small Signal Model Transistor amplifiers utilizing JT or FT are similar in design and analysis. Accordingly we will discuss JT amplifiers thoroughly. Then, similar FT

### Zero voltage drop synthetic rectifier

Zero voltage drop synthetic rectifier Vratislav Michal Brno University of Technology, Dpt of Theoretical and Experimental Electrical Engineering Kolejní 4/2904, 612 00 Brno Czech Republic vratislav.michal@gmail.com,

### FEATURE ARTICLE. Figure 1: Current vs. Forward Voltage Curves for Silicon Schottky Diodes with High, Medium, Low and ZBD Barrier Heights

PAGE 1 FEBRUARY 2009 Schottky Diodes by Rick Cory, Skyworks Solutions, Inc. Introduction Schottky diodes have been used for several decades as the key elements in frequency mixer and RF power detector

### Silicon Controlled Rectifiers

554 20 Principles of Electronics Silicon Controlled Rectifiers 20.1 Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) 20.2 Working of SCR 20.3 Equivalent Circuit of SCR 20.4 Important Terms 20.5 V-I Characteristics of

### Amplifier Teaching Aid

Amplifier Teaching Aid Table of Contents Amplifier Teaching Aid...1 Preface...1 Introduction...1 Lesson 1 Semiconductor Review...2 Lesson Plan...2 Worksheet No. 1...7 Experiment No. 1...7 Lesson 2 Bipolar

### Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

Instructor s Resource Manual to accompany Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Tenth Edition Robert L. Boylestad Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Columbus, Ohio Copyright 2009 by Pearson

### Solid State Detectors = Semi-Conductor based Detectors

Solid State Detectors = Semi-Conductor based Detectors Materials and their properties Energy bands and electronic structure Charge transport and conductivity Boundaries: the p-n junction Charge collection

### Op-Amp Simulation EE/CS 5720/6720. Read Chapter 5 in Johns & Martin before you begin this assignment.

Op-Amp Simulation EE/CS 5720/6720 Read Chapter 5 in Johns & Martin before you begin this assignment. This assignment will take you through the simulation and basic characterization of a simple operational

### More Op-Amp Circuits; Temperature Sensing

ECE 2A Lab #5 Lab 5 More OpAmp Circuits; Temperature Sensing Overview In this lab we will continue our exploration of opamps but this time in the context of a specific application: temperature sensing.

### CHAPTER 10 Fundamentals of the Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor

CHAPTER 10 Fundamentals of the Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor Study the characteristics of energy bands as a function of applied voltage in the metal oxide semiconductor structure known

### CHAPTER 2 POWER AMPLIFIER

CHATER 2 OWER AMLFER 2.0 ntroduction The main characteristics of an amplifier are Linearity, efficiency, output power, and signal gain. n general, there is a trade off between these characteristics. For

### Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997

Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997 1 Purpose To measure and understand the common emitter transistor characteristic curves. To use the base current gain

### Experiment 2 Diode Applications: Rectifiers

ECE 3550 - Practicum Fall 2007 Experiment 2 Diode Applications: Rectifiers Objectives 1. To investigate the characteristics of half-wave and full-wave rectifier circuits. 2. To recognize the usefulness

### LAB 7 MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS

LAB 7 MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS Objective In this experiment you will study the i-v characteristics of an MOS transistor. You will use the MOSFET as a variable resistor and as a switch. BACKGROUND

### Solid-State Physics: The Theory of Semiconductors (Ch. 10.6-10.8) SteveSekula, 30 March 2010 (created 29 March 2010)

Modern Physics (PHY 3305) Lecture Notes Modern Physics (PHY 3305) Lecture Notes Solid-State Physics: The Theory of Semiconductors (Ch. 10.6-10.8) SteveSekula, 30 March 2010 (created 29 March 2010) Review

### Semiconductors, diodes, transistors

Semiconductors, diodes, transistors (Horst Wahl, QuarkNet presentation, June 2001) Electrical conductivity! Energy bands in solids! Band structure and conductivity Semiconductors! Intrinsic semiconductors!

### Series and Parallel Resistive Circuits

Series and Parallel Resistive Circuits The configuration of circuit elements clearly affects the behaviour of a circuit. Resistors connected in series or in parallel are very common in a circuit and act

### Plots, Curve-Fitting, and Data Modeling in Microsoft Excel

Plots, Curve-Fitting, and Data Modeling in Microsoft Excel This handout offers some tips on making nice plots of data collected in your lab experiments, as well as instruction on how to use the built-in

### Electrical Resonance

Electrical Resonance (R-L-C series circuit) APPARATUS 1. R-L-C Circuit board 2. Signal generator 3. Oscilloscope Tektronix TDS1002 with two sets of leads (see Introduction to the Oscilloscope ) INTRODUCTION

### TRANSISTOR/DIODE TESTER

TRANSISTOR/DIODE TESTER MODEL DT-100 Lesson Manual ELENCO Copyright 2012, 1988 REV-G 753115 Elenco Electronics, Inc. Revised 2012 FEATURES Diode Mode: 1. Checks all types of diodes - germanium, silicon,

### Understanding the p-n Junction by Dr. Alistair Sproul Senior Lecturer in Photovoltaics The Key Centre for Photovoltaic Engineering, UNSW

Understanding the p-n Junction by Dr. Alistair Sproul Senior Lecturer in Photovoltaics The Key Centre for Photovoltaic Engineering, UNSW The p-n junction is the fundamental building block of the electronic

### Application Notes FREQUENCY LINEAR TUNING VARACTORS FREQUENCY LINEAR TUNING VARACTORS THE DEFINITION OF S (RELATIVE SENSITIVITY)

FREQUENY LINEAR TUNING VARATORS FREQUENY LINEAR TUNING VARATORS For several decades variable capacitance diodes (varactors) have been used as tuning capacitors in high frequency circuits. Most of these

### Use and Application of Output Limiting Amplifiers (HFA1115, HFA1130, HFA1135)

Use and Application of Output Limiting Amplifiers (HFA111, HFA110, HFA11) Application Note November 1996 AN96 Introduction Amplifiers with internal voltage clamps, also known as limiting amplifiers, have

### GenTech Practice Questions

GenTech Practice Questions Basic Electronics Test: This test will assess your knowledge of and ability to apply the principles of Basic Electronics. This test is comprised of 90 questions in the following

### V out. Figure 1: A voltage divider on the left, and potentiometer on the right.

Living with the Lab Fall 202 Voltage Dividers and Potentiometers Gerald Recktenwald v: November 26, 202 gerry@me.pdx.edu Introduction Voltage dividers and potentiometers are passive circuit components

### Module 2. DC Circuit. Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur

Module DC Circuit Lesson 4 Loop Analysis of resistive circuit in the context of dc voltages and currents Objectives Meaning of circuit analysis; distinguish between the terms mesh and loop. To provide

### Fundamental Characteristics of Thyristors

A1001 Introduction The Thyristor family of semiconductors consists of several very useful devices. The most widely used of this family are silicon controlled rectifiers (SCRs), Triacs, SIDACs, and DIACs.

### Efficient and reliable operation of LED lighting is dependent on the right choice of current-limiting resistor

Efficient and reliable operation of LED lighting is dependent on the right choice of current-limiting resistor Phil Ebbert, VP of Engineering, Riedon Inc. Introduction Not all resistors are the same and

### SINGLE-SUPPLY OPERATION OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

SINGLE-SUPPLY OPERATION OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS One of the most common applications questions on operational amplifiers concerns operation from a single supply voltage. Can the model OPAxyz be operated

### Using the Impedance Method

Using the Impedance Method The impedance method allows us to completely eliminate the differential equation approach for the determination of the response of circuits. In fact the impedance method even

### AC Transport constant current vs. low impedance modes

Application Note 184-42 AC Transport constant current vs. low impedance modes The AC Transport option offers the user the ability to put the current source in a low output impedance mode. This mode is

### Field Effect Transistors

506 19 Principles of Electronics Field Effect Transistors 191 Types of Field Effect Transistors 193 Principle and Working of JFET 195 Importance of JFET 197 JFET as an Amplifier 199 Salient Features of

### Properties of electrical signals

DC Voltage Component (Average voltage) Properties of electrical signals v(t) = V DC + v ac (t) V DC is the voltage value displayed on a DC voltmeter Triangular waveform DC component Half-wave rectifier

### ENGR-4300 Electronic Instrumentation Quiz 4 Spring 2011 Name Section

ENGR-4300 Electronic Instrumentation Quiz 4 Spring 2011 Name Section Question I (20 points) Question II (20 points) Question III (20 points) Question IV (20 points) Question V (20 points) Total (100 points)

### BJT Circuit Configurations

BJT Circuit Configurations V be ~ ~ ~ v s R L v s R L V Vcc R s cc R s v s R s R L V cc Common base Common emitter Common collector Common emitter current gain BJT Current-Voltage Characteristics V CE,

### AP-1 Application Note on Remote Control of UltraVolt HVPS

Basics Of UltraVolt HVPS Output Voltage Control Application Note on Remote Control of UltraVolt HVPS By varying the voltage at the Remote Adjust Input terminal (pin 6) between 0 and +5V, the UV highvoltage

### Type SA-1 Generator Differential Relay

ABB Automation Inc. Substation Automation and Protection Division Coral Springs, FL 33065 Instruction Leaflet 41-348.11C Effective: November 1999 Supersedes I.L. 41-348.11B, Dated August 1986 ( ) Denotes

### Application Report SLOA030A

Application Report March 2001 Mixed Signal Products SLOA030A IMPORTANT NOTICE Texas Instruments and its subsidiaries (TI) reserve the right to make changes to their products or to discontinue any product

### Fundamentals of Signature Analysis

Fundamentals of Signature Analysis An In-depth Overview of Power-off Testing Using Analog Signature Analysis www.huntron.com 1 www.huntron.com 2 Table of Contents SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION... 7 PURPOSE...

### Theory of Transistors and Other Semiconductor Devices

Theory of Transistors and Other Semiconductor Devices 1. SEMICONDUCTORS 1.1. Metals and insulators 1.1.1. Conduction in metals Metals are filled with electrons. Many of these, typically one or two per

### Lecture Notes: ECS 203 Basic Electrical Engineering Semester 1/2010. Dr.Prapun Suksompong 1 June 16, 2010

Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology Thammasat University School of Information, Computer and Communication Technology Lecture Notes: ECS 203 Basic Electrical Engineering Semester 1/2010 Dr.Prapun

### Frequency Response of Filters

School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II Laboratory Experiment 2 Frequency Response of Filters 1 Introduction Objectives To

### 1. Introduction and Chapter Objectives

Real Analog Circuits 1 Chapter 1: Circuit Analysis Fundamentals 1. Introduction and Chapter Objectives In this chapter, we introduce all fundamental concepts associated with circuit analysis. Electrical

### BJT Ebers-Moll Model and SPICE MOSFET model

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering mperial College London EE 2.3: Semiconductor Modelling in SPCE Course homepage: http://www.imperial.ac.uk/people/paul.mitcheson/teaching BJT Ebers-Moll