# Sample Exercise 12.1 Calculating Packing Efficiency

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Sample Exercise 12.1 Calculating Packing Efficiency"

## Transcription

1 Sample Exercise 12.1 Calculating Packing Efficiency It is not possible to pack spheres together without leaving some void spaces between the spheres. Packing efficiency is the fraction of space in a crystal that is actually occupied by atoms. Determine the packing efficiency of a face-centered cubic metal. Solution Analyze We must determine the volume taken up by the atoms that reside in the unit cell and divide this number by the volume of the unit cell. Plan We can calculate the volume taken up by atoms by multiplying the number of atoms per unit cell by the volume of a sphere, 4 r 3 /3. To determine the volume of the unit cell, we must first identify the direction along which the atoms touch each other. We can then use geometry to express the length of the cubic unit cell edge, a, in terms of the radius of the atoms. Once we know the edge length, the cell volume is simply a 3. Solve As shown in Figure 12.12, a face-centered cubic metal has four atoms per unit cell. Therefore, the volume occupied by the atoms is For a face-centered cubic metal the atoms touch along the diagonal of a face of the unit cell:

2 Sample Exercise 12.1 Calculating Packing Efficiency Therefore, a diagonal across a face of the unit cell is equal to 4 times the atomic radius, r. Using simple trigonometry, and the identity cos (45 ) =, we can show that Finally, we calculate the packing efficiency by dividing the volume occupied by atoms by the volume of the cubic unit cell, a 3 : Practice Exercise Determine the packing efficiency by calculating the fraction of space occupied by atoms in a body-centered cubic metal. Answer: 0.68 or 68%

3 Sample Exercise 12.2 Calculating the Empirical Formula and Density of an Ionic Solid The unit cell of a binary compound of copper and oxygen is shown here. Given this image and the ionic radii r Cu+ = 0.74 Å and r O 2 = 1.26 Å, (a) determine the empirical formula of this compound, (b) determine the coordination numbers of copper and oxygen, (c) estimate the length of the edge of the cubic unit cell, and (d) estimate the density of the compound. Solution Analyze and Plan There are four parts to this problem. (a) To determine the empirical formula we need to determine how many of each type of ion there are per unit cell. (b) If we can visually determine the coordination number of one of the ions, we can use Equation 12.1 to determine the coordination number of the other ion. (c) To estimate the length of the unit cell edge we must first determine the direction along which the ions touch. We can then use ionic radii and trigonometry to estimate the size of the unit cell. (d) Because density is an intensive property, the density of the unit cell is the same as the density of a bulk crystal. To calculate the density we must divide the mass of the atoms per unit cell by the volume of the unit cell.

4 Sample Exercise 12.2 Calculating the Empirical Formula and Density of an Ionic Solid Solve (a) There are four copper ions and one oxygen ion located completely inside the unit cell. In addition there are eight oxygen ions on the corners of the unit cell. Therefore, the number of oxygen ions per unit cell is 1 + 8(1/8) = 2. Given the fact that there are four copper ions and two oxygen ions per unit cell the empirical formula is Cu 2 O. This is copper(i) oxide. (b) It is easier to see the coordination environments of atoms within the unit cell because we do not have to visualize the atoms in neighboring unit cells. In this example we see that the oxygen ion at the center of the unit cell is tetrahedrally coordinated by four copper ions. The copper ions appear to have two oxygen neighbors, but we can double check this conclusion using Equation 12.1: This result matches our expectations from inspection of the picture.

5 Sample Exercise 12.2 Calculating the Empirical Formula and Density of an Ionic Solid (c) In this structure the ions touch along the body diagonal of the unit cell. This is shown more clearly in the following figure, where the atoms in the front half of the unit cell have been removed for clarity: Starting in the lower right-hand corner of the unit cell, the distance from the center of the oxygen ion at the corner of the unit cell to the center of the oxygen at the body center of the unit cell is r(o 2 ) + 2r(C u+ ) + r(o 2 ) = 2r(O 2 ) + 2r(Cu + ). Twice this distance is equal to the body diagonal, y. y = 2[2r(Cu + ) + 2r(O 2 )] = 4[r(Cu + ) + r(o 2 )] = 4[0.74 Å Å] = 8.00 Å Using trigonometry and the Pythagorean theorem, it can be shown that the body diagonal of a cube is times longer than the edge of the cube, a. We can use this relationship to determine the edge length of the unit cell:

6 Sample Exercise 12.2 Calculating the Empirical Formula and Density of an Ionic Solid (d) Because we now know the number of atoms per unit cell and the size of the unit cell, we are in a position to calculate the density from the atomic weights of copper (65.55 amu) and oxygen (16.00 amu) and the appropriate conversions: Check Copper is often found in the +1 oxidation state, so Cu 2 O is a realistic empirical formula. The densities of most solids fall between the density of lithium (0.5 g/cm 3 ) and that of iridium (22.6 g/cm 3 ), so this value is reasonable. Practice Exercise Estimate the length of the cubic unit cell edge and the density of CsCl (Figure 12.26) from the ionic radii of cesium, 1.81 Å, and chloride, 1.67 Å. Answer: a = 4.02 Å and ρ = 4.31 g/cm 3

7 Sample Exercise 12.3 Qualitative Comparison of Semiconductor Band Gaps Will GaP have a larger or smaller band gap than ZnS? Will it have a larger or smaller band gap than GaN? Solution Analyze The size of the band gap depends on the vertical and horizontal positions of the elements in the periodic table. The band gap will increase when either of the following conditions is met: (1) The elements are located higher up in the periodic table, where enhanced orbital overlap leads to a larger splitting between bonding and antibonding orbitals, or (2) the horizontal separation between the elements increases, which leads to an increase in the electronegativity difference and bond polarity. Plan We must look at the periodic table and compare the relative positions of the elements in each case. Solve Gallium is in the fourth period and group 3A. Phosphorus is in the third period and group 5A. Zinc and sulfur are in the same periods as gallium and phosphorus, respectively. However, zinc, in group 2B, is one element to the left of gallium; sulfur in group 6A is one element to the right of phosphorus. Thus, we would expect the electronegativity difference to be larger for ZnS, which should result in ZnS having a larger band gap than GaP. For both GaP and GaN the more electropositive element is gallium. So we need only compare the positions of the more electronegative elements, P and N. Nitrogen is located above phosphorus in group 5A. Therefore, based on increased orbital overlap,we would expect GaN to have a larger band gap than GaP. Check External references show that the band gap of GaP is 2.26 ev, ZnS is 3.6 ev, and GaN is 3.4 ev.

8 Sample Exercise 12.3 Qualitative Comparison of Semiconductor Band Gaps Practice Exercise Will ZnSe have a larger or smaller band gap than ZnS? Answer: Because zinc is common to both compounds and selenium is below sulfur in the periodic table, the band gap of ZnSe will be smaller than ZnS.

9 Sample Exercise 12.4 Identifying Types of Semiconductors Which of the following elements, if doped into silicon, would yield an n-type semiconductor: Ga, As, or C? Solution Analyze An n-type semiconductor means that the dopant atoms must have more valence electrons than the host material. Silicon is the host material in this case. Plan We must look at the periodic table and determine the number of valence electrons associated with Si, Ga, As, and C. The elements with more valence electrons than silicon are the ones that will produce an n-type material upon doping. Solve Si is in column 4A, and so has four valence electrons. Ga is in column 3A, and so has three valence electrons. As is in column 5A, and so has five valence electrons; C is in column 4A, and so has four valence electrons. Therefore, As, if doped into silicon, would yield an n-type semiconductor. Practice Exercise Suggest an element that could be used to dope silicon to yield a p-type material. Answer: Because Si is in group 4A, we need to pick an element in group 3A. Boron and aluminum are both good choices both are in group 3A. In the semiconductor industry boron and aluminum are commonly used dopants for silicon.

### Unit 12 Practice Test

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Unit 12 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A solid has a very high melting point, great hardness, and

### A. X-ray diffraction B. elemental analysis C. band gap energy measurement based on absorption of light D. none of the above

LED Review Questions 1. Consider two samples in the form of powders: sample A is a physical mixture comprising equal moles of pure Ge and pure Si; sample B is a solid solution of composition Si0.5Ge0.5.

### Horizontal Rows are called Periods. Elements in the same period have the same number of energy levels for ground state electron configurations.

The Periodic Table Horizontal Rows are called Periods. Elements in the same period have the same number of energy levels for ground state electron configurations. Vertical Rows are called Families or Groups.

### Analog & Digital Electronics Course No: PH-218

Analog & Digital Electronics Course No: PH-218 Lecture 1: Semiconductor Materials Course Instructors: Dr. A. P. VAJPEYI Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India 1 Semiconductors

### The Crystal Structures of Solids

The Crystal Structures of Solids Crystals of pure substances can be analyzed using X-ray diffraction methods to provide valuable information. The type and strength of intramolecular forces, density, molar

### Next, solid silicon is separated from other solid impurities by treatment with hydrogen chloride at 350 C to form gaseous trichlorosilane (SiCl 3 H):

University Chemistry Quiz 5 2014/12/25 1. (5%) What is the coordination number of each sphere in (a) a simple cubic cell, (b) a body-centered cubic cell, and (c) a face-centered cubic cell? Assume the

### Engr Materials Science and Engineering TEST 4 -- Sample Solution

Engr 70 -- Materials Science and Engineering TEST 4 -- Sample Solution Part : Solve each of the following problems completely. 1. In this problem we are asked to show that the minimum cation-to-anion radius

### Module 6 : PHYSICS OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Lecture 34 : Intrinsic Semiconductors

Module 6 : PHYSICS OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Lecture 34 : Intrinsic Semiconductors Objectives In this course you will learn the following Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors. Fermi level in a semiconductor.

### The Atom Atomic Number Mass Number Isotopes

The Atom Atomic Number Mass Number Isotopes 1 Atomic Theory Atoms are building blocks of elements Similar atoms in each element Different from atoms of other elements Two or more different atoms bond in

### 100 Practice Questions for Chem 1C Midterm 1 - Joseph

100 Practice Questions for hem 1 Midterm 1 - Joseph 1. Which of the following statements is incorrect? A) Ionic bonding results from the transfer of electrons from one atom to another. B) Dipole moments

### CHEM 10113, Quiz 7 December 7, 2011

CHEM 10113, Quiz 7 December 7, 2011 Name (please print) All equations must be balanced and show phases for full credit. Significant figures count, show charges as appropriate, and please box your answers!

### 3. What would you predict for the intensity and binding energy for the 3p orbital for that of sulfur?

PSI AP Chemistry Periodic Trends MC Review Name Periodic Law and the Quantum Model Use the PES spectrum of Phosphorus below to answer questions 1-3. 1. Which peak corresponds to the 1s orbital? (A) 1.06

### Periodic Table Questions

Periodic Table Questions 1. The elements characterized as nonmetals are located in the periodic table at the (1) far left; (2) bottom; (3) center; (4) top right. 2. An element that is a liquid at STP is

### Chapter 6. Periodic Relationships Among the Elements

Chapter 6. Periodic Relationships Among the Elements Student: 1. The nineteenth century chemists arranged elements in the periodic table according to increasing A. atomic number. B. number of electrons.

### Ionic and Metallic Bonding

Ionic and Metallic Bonding BNDING AND INTERACTINS 71 Ions For students using the Foundation edition, assign problems 1, 3 5, 7 12, 14, 15, 18 20 Essential Understanding Ions form when atoms gain or lose

### Use the PES spectrum of Phosphorus below to answer questions 1-3.

Use the PES spectrum of Phosphorus below to answer questions 1-3. 1. Which peak corresponds to the 1s orbital? (A) 1.06 (B) 1.95 (C) 13.5 (D) 18.7 (E) 208 2. Which peak corresponds to the valence 3p orbital?

### Chapter 6: The Periodic Table Study Guide

Chapter 6: The Periodic Table Study Guide I. General organization of table A. Modern periodic table 1. Increasing atomic number B. 3 major blocks 1. Metals a. Mostly solids at room temperature b. Conduct

### SCPS Chemistry Worksheet Periodicity A. Periodic table 1. Which are metals? Circle your answers: C, Na, F, Cs, Ba, Ni

SCPS Chemistry Worksheet Periodicity A. Periodic table 1. Which are metals? Circle your answers: C, Na, F, Cs, Ba, Ni Which metal in the list above has the most metallic character? Explain. Cesium as the

### B) atomic number C) both the solid and the liquid phase D) Au C) Sn, Si, C A) metal C) O, S, Se C) In D) tin D) methane D) bismuth B) Group 2 metal

1. The elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing A) atomic mass B) atomic number C) molar mass D) oxidation number 2. Which list of elements consists of a metal, a metalloid, and

### Answers and Solutions to Text Problems

Atoms and Elements 2 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems 2.1 a. Cu b. Si c. K d. N e. Fe f. Ba g. Pb h. Sr 2.2 a. O b. Li c. S d. Al e. H f. Ne g. Sn h. Au 2.3 a. carbon b. chlorine c. iodine d. mercury

### Liquids and Solids. AP Chemistry Chapter 10. 9/20/2009 Jodi Grack; Wayzata High School; images used with permission from Zumdahl

Liquids and Solids AP Chemistry Chapter 10 Liquids and Solids Gases are much easier to study because molecules move independent of each other. In liquids and solids forces between molecules become very

### Semiconductors, diodes, transistors

Semiconductors, diodes, transistors (Horst Wahl, QuarkNet presentation, June 2001) Electrical conductivity! Energy bands in solids! Band structure and conductivity Semiconductors! Intrinsic semiconductors!

### Materials Science and Engineering Department MSE , Sample Test #1, Spring 2010

Materials Science and Engineering Department MSE 200-001, Sample Test #1, Spring 2010 ID number First letter of your last name: Name: No notes, books, or information stored in calculator memories may be

### Chem 106 Thursday Feb. 3, 2011

Chem 106 Thursday Feb. 3, 2011 Chapter 13: -The Chemistry of Solids -Phase Diagrams - (no Born-Haber cycle) 2/3/2011 1 Approx surface area (Å 2 ) 253 258 Which C 5 H 12 alkane do you think has the highest

### The Periodic Table. Name: Class: Date: ID: A. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question:

Name: Class: Date:, ID: A The Periodic Table Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question: 1. What are the elements with atomic numbers from 58 to 71 called?

### This is the 11th lecture of this course and the last lecture on the topic of Equilibrium Carrier Concentration.

Solid State Devices Dr. S. Karmalkar Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Lecture - 11 Equilibrium Carrier Concentration (Contd.) This is the 11th

### Untitled Document. 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? 4. Which statement best describes the density of an atom s nucleus?

Name: Date: 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? A. protons and electrons grouped together in a random pattern B. protons and electrons grouped together in an alternating pattern C. a core

### Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table Chapter 13 & 14 Assignment & Problem Set

Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table 2 Study Guide: Things You

### CHAPTER 4 IMPERFECTIONS IN SOLIDS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

4-1 CHAPTER 4 IMPERFECTIONS IN SOLIDS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS Vacancies and Self-Interstitials 4.1 In order to compute the fraction of atom sites that are vacant in copper at 1357 K, we must employ Equation

### Find a pair of elements in the periodic table with atomic numbers less than 20 that are an exception to the original periodic law.

Example Exercise 6.1 Periodic Law Find the two elements in the fifth row of the periodic table that violate the original periodic law proposed by Mendeleev. Mendeleev proposed that elements be arranged

### The Periodic Table: Chapter Problems Periodic Table Class Work Homework Special Groups Class Work Homework Periodic Families Class Work

The Periodic Table: Chapter Problems Periodic Table 1. As you move from left to right across the periodic table, how does atomic number change? 2. What element is located in period 3, group 13? 3. What

### Period 3 elements

3.1.4.2 Period 3 elements 173 minutes 169 marks Page 1 of 17 Q1. (a) Explain why certain elements in the Periodic Table are classified as p-block elements. Illustrate your answer with an example of a p-block

### Definition : Characteristics of Metals :

Metallic Bond Definition : It may be defined as, 1. The force that binds a metal ion to a number of electrons with in its sphere of influence. 2. The attractive force which holds the atoms of two or more

### Chapter 6 Assessment. Name: Class: Date: ID: A. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Chapter 6 Assessment Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When an atom loses an electron, it forms a(n) a. anion. c.

### TRENDS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE

Noble gases Period alogens Alkaline earth metals Alkali metals TRENDS IN TE PERIDI TABLE Usual charge +1 + +3-3 - -1 Number of Valence e - s 1 3 4 5 6 7 Electron dot diagram X X X X X X X X X 8 Group 1

### Periodic Table Instructional Background Patterns in Element Properties (History): Elements vary widely in their properties, but in an orderly way.

Periodic Table Instructional Background Patterns in Element Properties (History): Elements vary widely in their properties, but in an orderly way. In 1869, the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev produced

### Name period AP chemistry Unit 2 worksheet Practice problems

Name period AP chemistry Unit 2 worksheet Practice problems 1. What are the SI units for a. Wavelength of light b. frequency of light c. speed of light Meter hertz (s -1 ) m s -1 (m/s) 2. T/F (correct

### Chapter Outline. How do atoms arrange themselves to form solids?

Chapter Outline How do atoms arrange themselves to form solids? Fundamental concepts and language Unit cells Crystal structures Simple cubic Face-centered cubic Body-centered cubic Hexagonal close-packed

### Name: Class: Date: ID: A

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Chapter 5 Assessment Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Mendeleev arranged the elements in his periodic table in

### Condensed Matter Physics Prof. G. Rangarajan Department of Physics Indian Institute of Technology, Madras. Lecture - 36 Semiconductors

Condensed Matter Physics Prof. G. Rangarajan Department of Physics Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Lecture - 36 Semiconductors We will start a discussion of semiconductors one of the most important

### S block elements p block elements and chemical bonding -1

S block elements p block elements and chemical bonding -1 1.Group I elements do not occur free (native state) in the nature because a. They are unstable b. Their compounds with other elements are highly

### 7. 2. KOH (you need an acid or a base, this is a base) 8. 1. 76. All gold atoms have 79 protons and electrons, this is a +3 cation.

IB/SL Chemistry Name ANSWERS Test; Past Chemistry Regents Exams Most Frequently Missed Questions 1. 1. A HIGH PROBABLITY OF FINDING AN ELECTRON 2. 3. +8 (every atom of oxygen in the universe) 3. 2. LOW

### UNIT (2) ATOMS AND ELEMENTS

UNIT (2) ATOMS AND ELEMENTS 2.1 Elements An element is a fundamental substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means into simpler substances. Each element is represented by an abbreviation called

### Chapter 3 Applying Your Knowledge- Even Numbered

Chapter 3 Applying Your Knowledge- Even Numbered 2. Elements in a specific compound are always present in a definite proportion by mass; for example, in methane, CH 4, 12 g of carbon are combined with

### 47374_04_p25-32.qxd 2/9/07 7:50 AM Page 25. 4 Atoms and Elements

47374_04_p25-32.qxd 2/9/07 7:50 AM Page 25 4 Atoms and Elements 4.1 a. Cu b. Si c. K d. N e. Fe f. Ba g. Pb h. Sr 4.2 a. O b. Li c. S d. Al e. H f. Ne g. Sn h. Au 4.3 a. carbon b. chlorine c. iodine d.

### Coordination and Pauling's Rules

Page 1 of 8 EENS 2110 Tulane University Mineralogy Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Coordination and Pauling's Rules This document last updated on 24-Sep-2013 The arrangement of atoms in a crystal structure not

### 8/19/2011. Periodic Trends and Lewis Dot Structures. Review PERIODIC Table

Periodic Trends and Lewis Dot Structures Chapter 11 Review PERIODIC Table Recall, Mendeleev and Meyer organized the ordering the periodic table based on a combination of three components: 1. Atomic Number

### 2. What happens to the number of protons and electrons in atoms across a period on the periodic table?

Name Period Date Honors Chemistry - Periodic Trends Check Your Understanding Answer the following, formulating responses in your own words. (This helps you better understand the concepts) 1. Define shielding

### Directions: Multiple Choice For each of the following questions, choose the answer that best answers the question and place it on your answer sheet.

CHEMISTRY TEST: THE PERIODIC TABLE Directions: Multiple Choice For each of the following questions, choose the answer that best answers the question and place it on your answer sheet. 1. Which of the following

### Chapter 2 Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table

Chapter 2 Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table 2.1 (a) neutron; (b) law of conservation of mass; (c) proton; (d) main-group element; (e) relative atomic mass; (f) mass number; (g) isotope; (h) cation; (i)

### Naming Compunds BASICS Objectives for: Ions, Ionic Compounds & Molecular Compounds

Naming Compunds BASICS Objectives for: Ions, Ionic Compounds & Molecular Compounds 1. periodic table layout and the properties of metals, non-metals, and metalloids 2. mono-atomic ions 3. polyatomic ions

### Periodic Table, Valency and Formula

Periodic Table, Valency and Formula Origins of the Periodic Table Mendelѐѐv in 1869 proposed that a relationship existed between the chemical properties of elements and their atomic masses. He noticed

### Assignments in Science Class X (Term II) IMPORTANT NOTES ANIL TUTORIALS

Assignments in Science Class X (Term II) Periodic Classification of Elements 1. Early chemists classified elements as metals and non-metals on the basis of a set of physical and chemical properties. 2.

### Crystalline solids. A solid crystal consists of different atoms arranged in a periodic structure.

Crystalline solids A solid crystal consists of different atoms arranged in a periodic structure. Crystals can be formed via various bonding mechanisms: Ionic bonding Covalent bonding Metallic bonding Van

### The Periodic Table. Chapter 6

The Periodic Table Chapter 6 Why is the Periodic Table important to me? The periodic table is the most useful tool to a chemist. You get to use it on every test. It organizes lots of information about

### Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductors, Fermi-Dirac Distribution Function, the Fermi level and carrier concentrations

ENEE 33, Spr. 09 Supplement I Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductors, Fermi-Dirac Distribution Function, the Fermi level and carrier concentrations Zeynep Dilli, Oct. 2008, rev. Mar 2009 This is a supplement

### The idea of arranging the elements in the periodic table according to their chemical and physical properties is attributed to. d) Ramsay.

Chemistry I PERIODIC TABLE PRACTICE QUIZ Mr. Scott Select the best answer. 1) The idea of arranging the elements in the periodic table according to their chemical and physical properties is attributed

### CHAPTER5. Multiple Choice Questions NCERT

Multiple Choice Questions 1. Upto which element, the Law of Octaves was found to be applicable (a) Oxygen (b) Calcium (c) Cobalt (d) Potassium 2. According to Mendeleev's Periodic Law, the elements were

### MODERN ATOMIC THEORY AND THE PERIODIC TABLE

CHAPTER 10 MODERN ATOMIC THEORY AND THE PERIODIC TABLE SOLUTIONS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Wavelength is defined as the distance between consecutive peaks in a wave. It is generally symbolized by the Greek

### Question Bank Periodic Table and Periodic Properties

Question Bank Periodic Table and Periodic Properties 1. Name the following with reference to the elements of Modern Periodic Table. (1 26) (a) An alkali metal in period 2. Ans. Lithium (b) A halogen in

### UNIT-3 Classification of elements and periodicity in properties

UNIT-3 Classification of elements and periodicity in properties One mark questions:. For the triad of elements A, B and C if the atomic weights of A and C are 7 and 39. Predict the atomic weight of B..

### Atomic Theory: The Nuclear Model of the Atom

Chapter 5 Atomic Theory: The Nuclear Model of the Atom Section 5.1 Dalton s Atomic Theory Goal 1 Precursors to John Dalton s atomic theory Law of Definite Composition The percentage by mass of the elements

### Lab Manual Supplement

Objectives 1. Learn about the structures of covalent compounds and polyatomic ions. 2. Draw Lewis structures based on valence electrons and the octet rule. 3. Construct 3-dimensional models of molecules

### Chapter 3 Atomic Structure and Properties

Chapter 3 Atomic Structure and Properties Introduction The nuclear atom and quantum theory are the accepted theories for the atom. In this chapter, we demonstrate their utility by using them to explain

### PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS., a Russian scientist is credited with creating the periodic table.

PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS, a Russian scientist is credited with creating the periodic table. Periods tell us how many are in the atoms of each element. Groups help us to know how many electrons are in

### Unit 3.2: The Periodic Table and Periodic Trends Notes

Unit 3.2: The Periodic Table and Periodic Trends Notes The Organization of the Periodic Table Dmitri Mendeleev was the first to organize the elements by their periodic properties. In 1871 he arranged the

### Exam 2 Chemistry 65 Summer 2015. Score:

Name: Exam 2 Chemistry 65 Summer 2015 Score: Instructions: Clearly circle the one best answer 1. Valence electrons are electrons located A) in the outermost energy level of an atom. B) in the nucleus of

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A chemical bond formed between two identical atoms is a(an) bond. A) covalent B) ionic C) molecular

### Chapter 3 Atoms and Elements

Chapter 3 Atoms and Elements 1 Elements Elements are pure substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances by ordinary laboratory processes the building blocks of matter listed on the inside

### Chapter 4 Chemical Composition

Chapter 4 Chemical Composition 4.1 (a) mole; (b) Avogadro s number; (c) empirical formula; (d) solute; (e) molarity; (f) concentrated solution 4. (a) molar mass; (b) percent composition by mass; (c) solvent;

### TEST NAME: Chemistry ES 1.3 TEST ID: GRADE:11 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: My Classroom

TEST NAME: Chemistry ES 1.3 TEST ID: 61960 GRADE:11 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: My Classroom Chemistry ES 1.3 Page 1 of 10 Student: Class: Date: 1. The electron configuration of an

### M. Prakash Academy Weekly workout 6

M. Prakash Academy Weekly workout 6 Periodic properties Q1. According to modern periodic law the properties of elements repeat at regular intervals when the elements are arranged in order of: (a) decreasing

### Ch. 14 The Periodic Table p. 390-406

Name Period PRE-AP 14-1 Development of the Periodic Table Ch. 14 The Periodic Table p. 390-406 Dmitri Mendeleev published the first periodic table in 1869. He organized the elements by atomic mass. He

### Chemical Composition Review Mole Calculations Percent Composition. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8 1

Chemical Composition Review Mole Calculations Percent Composition Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8 1 QUESTION Suppose you work in a hardware store and a customer wants to purchase 500

### Bonds. Bond Length. Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond Energy. Chapter 8. Bonding: General Concepts

Bonds hapter 8 Bonding: General oncepts Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond Energy Bond Length It is the energy required to break a bond. The distance where

### Understanding Chemical Equations

Connections Understanding Chemical Equations Have you ever... Seen the result of mixing baking soda and vinegar? Used friction to light a match? Seen a car eaten through by rust? Chemical equations model

### Page Which element is a noble gas? (1) krypton (3) antimony (2) chlorine (4) manganese

1. Which characteristics describe most nonmetals in the solid phase? (1) They are malleable and have metallic luster. (2) They are malleable and lack metallic luster. (3) They are brittle and have metallic

### Metals Topic Test. Part 1: Multiple Choice Choose the best alternative and indicate your response on the answer sheet

Metals Topic Test Part 1: Multiple Choice Choose the best alternative and indicate your response on the answer sheet 1. The chemical equation for the reaction between aluminium and oxygen is: 4Al (s) +

### Nuclear reactions determine element abundance. Is the earth homogeneous though? Is the solar system?? Is the universe???

Nuclear reactions determine element abundance Is the earth homogeneous though? Is the solar system?? Is the universe??? Earth = anion balls with cations in the spaces View of the earth as a system of anions

### The Advanced Placement Examination in Chemistry. Part I Multiple Choice Questions Part II Free Response Questions Selected Questions from1970 to 2010

The Advanced Placement Examination in Chemistry Part I Multiple Choice Questions Part II Free Response Questions Selected Questions from1970 to 2010 Atomic Theory and Periodicity Part I 1984 1. Which of

### Name PRE-TEST. Directions: Circle the letter indicating whether the following statements are either true ("T") or false ("F").

1 PRETEST Directions: Circle the letter indicating whether the following statements are either true ("T") or false ("F"). T F 1. Chemical elements with similar chemical properties are referred to as a

### Lecture 2 Semiconductor Physics (I)

Lecture 2 Semiconductor Physics (I) Outline Intrinsic bond model : electrons and holes Generation and recombination Intrinsic semiconductor Doping: Extrinsic semiconductor Charge Neutrality Reading Assignment:

### Applied Quantum Mechanics for Electrical Engineers Workshop II Energy Band Model and Doping

Applied Quantum Mechanics for Electrical Engineers Workshop II Energy Band Model and Doping 95 pts Objective: Explore the effect of doping on the energy band diagram and the carrier concentration. Instructions:

### Chemical Reactions Packet 2 Bonding-REG.

Chemical Reactions Packet 2 Bonding-REG. Ms. Rabenda Name: Period: 1 Lewis Dot Diagram Notes Illustrates the number of valence electrons. Valence electrons = Placed around the symbol of the element Helps

### Simple vs. True. Simple vs. True. Calculating Empirical and Molecular Formulas

Calculating Empirical and Molecular Formulas Formula writing is a key component for success in chemistry. How do scientists really know what the true formula for a compound might be? In this lesson we

### Chapter 13 The Chemistry of Solids

Chapter 13 The Chemistry of Solids Jeffrey Mack California State University, Sacramento Metallic & Ionic Solids Crystal Lattices Regular 3-D arrangements of equivalent LATTICE POINTS in space. Lattice

### 11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms. Chapter Outline. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties

11 Chemical Bonds The Formation of Compounds from Atoms Chapter Outline 11.1 11.2 Lewis Structures of Atoms 11.3 The Ionic Bond Transfer of Electrons from One Atom to Another 11.4 Predicting Formulas of

### The Periodic Table of The Elements

The Periodic Table of The Elements Elements are like a collection As more and more elements were discovered it became more important to organize and classify them Between the late 1700 s and mid 1800 s

### Chapter 2. Section 2.1 The Formation of Ionic and Covalent Bonds Solutions for Selected Review Questions Student Edition page 63

Chapter 2 Chemical Bonding Section 2.1 The Formation of Ionic and Covalent Bonds Solutions for Selected Review Questions Student Edition page 63 10. Review Question (page 63) Predict whether the bond between

Copyright 2014 Edmentum - All rights reserved. AP Chemistry Blizzard Bag 2014-2015 Interaction of Matter 1. Phosphorus and oxygen can combine to form the phosphate ion (PO4 3- ). How many electrons must

### b) What is the trend in melting point as one moves up the group in alkali metals? Explain.

Problem Set 2 Wed May 25, 2011 1. What is the rough trend in the number of oxidation states available to the elements (excluding the noble gases) as you move a) to the right and b) down the periodic table?

### neutrons are present?

AP Chem Summer Assignment Worksheet #1 Atomic Structure 1. a) For the ion 39 K +, state how many electrons, how many protons, and how many 19 neutrons are present? b) Which of these particles has the smallest

### UNIT 1 THE SOLID STATE VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (1 MARKS)

UNIT 1 THE SOLID STATE VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (1 MARKS) Q-1. How many spheres are in contact with each other in a single plane of a close packed structure? A-1. Six(6). Q-2.Name the two closest

### CHAPTER 3 THE STRUCTURE OF CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

CHAPTER THE STRUCTURE OF CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS Fundamental Concepts.6 Show that the atomic packing factor for HCP is 0.74. The APF is just the total sphere volume-unit cell volume ratio.

### Chapter 3: Structure of Metals and Ceramics. Chapter 3: Structure of Metals and Ceramics. Learning Objective

Chapter 3: Structure of Metals and Ceramics Chapter 3: Structure of Metals and Ceramics Goals Define basic terms and give examples of each: Lattice Basis Atoms (Decorations or Motifs) Crystal Structure

### Mendeleev s s Periodic Table. Dmitri Mendeleev

The Periodic Table History Russian scientist Dmitri Mendeleev taught chemistry in terms of properties. Mid 1800 - molar masses of elements were known. Wrote down the elements in order of increasing mass.

### Chapter 2 Atoms and the Periodic Table

Chapter 2 1 Chapter 2 Atoms and the Periodic Table Solutions to In-Chapter Problems 2.1 Each element is identified by a one- or two-letter symbol. Use the periodic table to find the symbol for each element.

### MAE 20 Winter 2011 Assignment 2 solutions

MAE 0 Winter 0 Assignment solutions. List the point coordinates of the titanium, barium, and oxygen ions for a unit cell of the perovskite crystal structure (Figure.6). In Figure.6, the barium ions are