# Making Accurate Voltage Noise and Current Noise Measurements on Operational Amplifiers Down to 0.1Hz

 To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports HTML5 video

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Making Accurate Voltage Noise and Current Noise Measurements on Operational Amplifiers Down to 0.1Hz"

## Transcription

2 T is the temperature in Kelvin (73.15 Ambient C). R is the resistance (Ω) B is the bandwidth in Hz. Note: Bandwidth is 1Hz for all measurements and not shown in all Equations presented in the Application Note. Internal Noise of the DUT Figure 1 shows the internal noise of an Op Amp referenced to the amplifiers inputs. Measurements Referenced To the Input are referred to as RTI. To generate this curve, the external noise has been removed from the final values shown along with any gain the measurement circuits may have added. The internal noise of an amplifier has two distinct frequency ranges. At very low frequencies, the noise amplitude is inversely proportional to frequency and is referred to as the 1/f noise. At frequencies above the corner frequency, the noise amplitude is essentially flat. Equation 3 is used to calculate the total noise voltage Referenced To the Output for the basic Op Amp in Figure. Measurements referenced to the output are referred to as RTO. e t = e n ( R S ) ( R 1 R ) 4kT( R S R 1 R ) A V e t = Total voltage noise RTO at a given frequency. e n = RTI voltage-noise of DUT at a given frequency. R 1 R = R 1 R /(R 1 R )]Ω = RTI current-noise of the DUT at a given frequency. k = Boltzmann s constant (1.38 x 10-3 J/K). T = Ambient temp in Kelvin (73.15 Ambient C). A V = Gain of Op Amp (1 R 1 /R ). (EQ. 3) Procedure to Improve the DSA s Effective Noise Floor Figure 3 shows the noise floor of the HP35670A DSA measured with the input grounded. From this graph, the minimum noise floor is around 0nV/ Hz. A technique to improve the measurement noise floor of the test platform is to add a Post Amplifier to gain the noise being measured above the noise floor of the DSA. Figure 4 shows the final test platform schematic which includes the DSA, HA-5147 PA, DUT and the AC coupling of the DUT offset and the PA offset voltage. Note: the HA-5147 was cherry picked for its low (11nV/ Hz at 0.1Hz) 1/f noise performance. CORNER FREQUENCY FIGURE 1. AMPLIFIER INTERNAL VOLTAGE NOISE (RTI) vs FREQUENCY R S R 1/F NOISE REGION e n - - SHOT NOISE OR WHITE NOISE FLAT BAND REGION R 1 DUT FIGURE. OP AMP NOISE MODEL e t A V = 1 R 1 /R FIGURE 3. NOISE FLOOR OF THE HP35670A DYNAMIC SIGNAL ANALYZER Intersil Corporation reserves the right to make changes in circuit design, software and/or specifications at any time without notice. Accordingly, the reader is cautioned to verify that the Application Note or Technical Brief is current before proceeding. For information regarding Intersil Corporation and its products, see AN January 19, 011

3 SW1 R R g R S R 1 R g x 10 - DUT A V = A DUT R 4 10 C 1 141µF R C - 141µF PA HA-5147 R R 5 6 0k 0k A V = A PA DSA HP35670A measurements down to 0.1Hz. For frequencies above 100Hz, environmental noise was not a factor for our given lab conditions. DSA NOISE FLOOR FIGURE 4. COMPLETE LOW NOISE TEST PLATFORM SCHEMATIC The minimum gain of the PA is the gain that overcomes the noise floor of the DSA down to 0.1Hz frequency. Figure 5 shows the noise floor of the HP35670A DSA (pink curve), the RTO noise voltage of the PA with the gain set to 6 (blue curve), and the RTO noise voltage of the PA with the gain set to 101 (green curve). Notice that the gain of 6 is not enough and the PA s RTO noise voltage is swamped out by the DSA s noise floor for frequencies less than 10Hz. Setting the PA s gain to 101 is enough to overcome the DSA noise floor by 0dB at 1kHz and 3.3 db at 0.1Hz. PA NOISE (RTI) AT A V = 101 FIGURE 6. EFFECTIVE RTI 3nV/ Hz NOISE FLOOR OF THE PA AND DSA PA NOISE (RTO) AT A V = 101 PA NOISE (RTO) AT A V = 6 HA-5147 TESTED OUTSIDE FARADAY CHAMBER HA-5147 TESTED INSIDE FARADAY CHAMBER DSA NOISE FLOOR FIGURE 5. SETTING THE GAIN OF THE POST AMPLIFIER TO OVERCOME THE RTO DSA NOISE FLOOR Figure 6 shows the RTI noise voltage of our PA set to a gain of 101 (green trace) and the original DSA noise floor (pink trace) repeated for comparison purposes. By referencing the PA noise to the input, (dividing by A v = 101) we are now able to effectively measure a flat band RTI noise of 3nV/ Hz, which is the noise floor of our HA Faraday Cage to Remove Environmental Noise Figure 7 shows the result of testing an HA-5147 (A v = 101) inside and outside our Faraday cage. The Faraday cage enables us to maintain a noise floor of 3nV/ Hz over an additional decade of frequency in the flat band region. For frequencies below 100Hz, the improvement in the noise floor is critical in making noise FIGURE 7. EFFECTS OF FARADAY CAGE ON LOW FREQUENCY ENVIRONMENTAL BOISE AC Coupling of the Post Amp and the DUT The output of the PA and DUT need to be AC coupled to avoid over-driving the DSA s input or railing the output of the PA, as a result of the DC offset caused by VOS and Ib (reference Figure 4). The subsequent measurements were performed on the PA and DSA to minimize any errors before measuring any noise on the DUT. Initially, the test platform used the internal AC coupling of the HP35670A DSA. Test results at frequencies below 10Hz were artificially low, when compared to the expected results for HA-5147 at 1Hz. The cause of the error was determined to be the internal AC coupling circuitry of our DSA. Figure 8 shows the effective roll-off in gain of the DSA s internal AC coupling circuit (red trace) compared to the roll-off in gain when using an external AC coupling 3 AN January 19, 011

4 circuit (blue trace). The curves were generated by taking 3 measurements, with the goal of detecting amplitude loss. The input signal was a mv P-P sine wave. The 1st measurement was with the DSA DC coupled to get the base line. The nd was measured using the DSA s internal AC coupling and the 3rd was with an external AC coupling. The AC loss was determined by the ratio of the AC amplitude to the DC amplitude (normalized to zero). noise floor in the flat band range to 0.3nV/ Hz, which meets our requirement of 10dB higher than the systems noise floor. Before committing to running the full battery of sweeps to average out the readings, we 1st run a single sweep (SW1, Figure 4 closed) to verify the 1/f noise is not being swamped out by the 100nV/ Hz noise floor of the test platform at 0.1Hz. If so, then the gain of the DUT needs to be increased to insure the measurement is not that of the test system s noise floor. DSA INTERNAL DC COUPLED WITH EXTERNAL AC HIGH-PASS FILTER (0.05Hz) INPUT/OUTPUT AC COUPLED 1 MIN SETTLE TIME DSA INTERNAL AC COUPLED INPUT/OUTPUT AC COUPLED 30 MIN SETTLE TIME The built-in AC coupler of the DSA (Agilent 35670A) is inadequate at frequencies below 1Hz. A high pass filter, made up of a 141µF capacitor and a 0k resistor, is used instead FIGURE 8. EFFECT OF DSA s INTERNAL AC COUPLING vs EXTERNAL AC COUPLING ON THE PA s LOW FREQUENCY GAIN The results show the gain of the signal cannot be considered constant for frequencies below 10Hz when AC coupled via the DSA or 0.5Hz when externally AC coupled with the C and R 6 in Figure 4. This error in gain accounted for the lower than expected calculated noise. The final solution was to go with the external AC coupling (DSA DC coupled) and account for the drop in the gain by performing gain measurements for each frequency of the PA across the entire frequency range. Through software, the individual gain values were subsequently used in the calculation for the RTI current and voltage noise of the DUT for each frequency plotted in the curve. Figure 9 shows the final optimized noise floor of the PA-DSA (blue trace) and the effect of the RC time constant of the external AC coupling circuit (pink trace). Because of the long RC time constant of the external filter (0kΩ and 141µF) we need to allow time for the coupling circuit to settle out before starting to test. The pink curve is the noise measurement of the HA minute after power is applied to the PA. The blue trace is the same measurement after waiting 30 minutes for the circuit to settle out. Determining the Required Gain of the DUT The optimized noise floor of the PA-DSA is 100nV/ Hz at 0.1Hz and 3nV/ Hz in the flat-band range (Figure 9). Measuring the noise of an amplifier like the ISL8190 (Bipolar inputs, 1nV/ Hz), is achieved by gaining up the output of the DUT by 10. This will lower the effective FIGURE 9. EFFECTIVE RTI NOISE FLOOR OF THE PA-DSA WITH EXTERNAL AC COUPLING Considerations for Choosing the Series Resistor to Measure the Current Noise The goal of selecting the value for R S is to make it as large as possible to raise the DUT s input current noise (dropped across R S ) above the background and R S voltage noise, all without driving the DUT s output voltage into the rails or limiting the noise bandwidth of the amplifier. Reference the section titled Measurement Algorithm for the details of the process to measure current noise and then voltage noise of the DUT. Figure 10 illustrates the voltage noise power relationship between the 4kTR S and the product of R S in (reference Equations 4 and 5). Johnson Voltage Noise of R S : V n = 4kTR S V n = 4kTR S (EQ. 4) Johnson Current Noise contribution of R S : V n = R S in (EQ. 5) Figure 10 can be used as a tool for selecting the value of the R S resistor. The almost diagonal curve in Figure 10 is the 4kTR S Johnson noise. The other parallel lines are the (R S I n ) current noise contributions. A good starting point is to choose a value of R S that results in the current noise contribution being larger than the Johnson noise contribution. 4 AN January 19, 011

5 Notice in Figure 10, that the current noise contribution (R S I n ) is very small at low resistances in comparison with the dominant 4kTR S noise. At higher values of R S, the squared function of the noise current quickly makes it the dominant noise source. R S VALUES USED FOR BIPOLAR DEVICES R S VALUES USED FOR MOS DEVICES FIGURE 11. SPECTRAL VOLTAGE NOISE DENSITY OF DUT, PA vs R S vs 4kTR S FIGURE 10. TOOL FOR SELECTING R S RESISTANCE VALUE At some point the product R S I n magnitude becomes high enough to raise it above background noise and make it a measurable signal. Preferably, the value of R S should be chosen in a way that R S I n 4kTR S, but that is not always possible. There is an upper limit to the value of R S upon which leakage resistance degrades accuracy of the measurement. This typically occurs for R S values greater than 5MΩ. To measure noise currents in the 10 s of femto amps requires a large number of averages to smooth out the data. The data presented in this Application Note for the ISL8148 went through the process of averaging each frequency measurement 500 times, then repeating this process 10 times and averaging the corresponding measurements to obtain one value per frequency plotted. The theory of this process is not covered in this Application Note, and is the subject of another Application Note. Based on empirical results, the value of the R S resistor depends upon the Bias current (I b ) of the device. For Bipolar input devices with I b in the µa range, R S is 10kΩ and 100kΩ for I b in the pa range. For MOS input devices, R S is 5MΩ with I b in the f A range. The following two graphs further demonstrate the signal to noise improvement in both e n and as R S is increased. Figure 11 shows the spectral voltage noise (e n ) of the DUT (HA-5147, A V = 1) and PA (HA-5147, A V = 101) with different values of R S. The 4kTR S is also plotted to show when the voltage noise level is above the background noise of the 4kTR S value. From this spectrum, the 1kΩ value of R S cannot resolve voltage noise from the 4kTR S, where as the 100kΩ R S generates very clean and accurate results for voltage noise. (R S = 1k) (R S = 10k) (R S = 100k) FIGURE 1. SPECTRAL CURRENT NOISE DENSITY OF DUT, PA vs R S Figure 1 shows the calculated current noise ( ) for three different R S values. The current noise was calculated using Equation 10. From this spectrum, we see the same results as with the voltage noise spectrum in Figure 11. The 1kΩ value of R S cannot resolve current noise from the 4kTR S, where as the 100kΩ R S generates very clean and accurate results for current noise. Measurement Algorithm Now that our Test Platform s noise floor is optimized for our DSA, PA and DUT, it s time to discuss the Test Platform s algorithm. Back in the Basic Equations For Calculating Noise section, Equations 3 was used calculate the total noise voltage referenced to the output for the basic Op Amp in Figure. The total voltage noise of a basic Op Amp is made up of three components: (A) Internal voltage noise of the DUT, (B) External voltage noise as a result of the current noise through the resistors and (C) External Johnson noise of the resistors. Equation 6 is the same as Equation 3 but with the three components of noise replaced with A, B and C. 5 AN January 19, 011

6 Equation 6 will enable the noise equation, for our test platform with two Op Amps, to be easily displayed and discussed. Let: A = Voltage noise contribution from DUT (e n ) B = Current noise contribution from all resistor (R S ) (R 1 R ) C = Johnson noise of all the resistors 4kT(R S R 1 R ). Then the total RTO noise (e t ) is: e t = ( A B C ) A V (EQ. 6) Equations 7 and 8 calculate the RTO noise voltage for our test platform (Figure 4), with R S equal to a resistance between 10kΩ to 5MΩ and 0Ω respectively. e t ( RS) e t ( 0) = = [ A B C ]A DUT APA [ A B C ]A DUT APA [ A B! C! ]A PA [ A B! C! ]A PA (EQ. 7) (EQ. 8) e t (RS) = Is the total RTO noise voltage with R S = 10kΩ to 5MΩ e t (0) = Is the total RTO noise voltage with R S = 0Ω B! = (R 3 R 4 ) C! = 4kTR 3 R 4 A DUT = Gain of DUT A PA = Gain of PA Our procedure for measuring the voltage and current noise is to measure the RTI current noise first, and then use this value in the calculation of the RTI voltage noise. Current noise is measured by converting the DUT s current noise into a voltage noise, via the R S resistor, which is then amplified and measured by the DSA. Measuring the current noise of an Op Amp is a two step process. The theory is to measure the RTO noise voltage with R S equal to the value determined in the Considerations for Choosing the Series Resistor to Measure the Current Noise section, and then R S equal to zero. The noise voltage measured with R S in the circuit is the total noise of the test system plus the noise voltage resulting from the current noise of the DUT. The noise voltage measured with R S equal to zero is just the total noise voltage of the system. Subtracting these two measured values gives the noise voltage resulting from the current noise of the DUT only. Any noise or errors in gains from the test system are cancelled out. Equation 9 is the result of subtracting Equation 8 from Equation 7. Solving Equation 9 for the current noise in results in Equation 10. Equation 10 gives the RTI current noise of the DUT. e t e ( RS) t = [ R ( 0) S in 4kTR S ] A DUT APA (EQ. 9) e t e ( RS) t ( 0) kTR S A DUT APA A DUT APA = (EQ. 10) R S Equation 11 is a modified Equation 8 with the critical noise components added back in to help understand the RTI voltage noise calculation of the DUT. e n is the RTI noise voltage of the DUT and is the RTI current noise, solved for in Equation 10. Equation 1 is the result of solving Equation 11 for the RTI noise voltage e n. The term PA NOISE is the noise contribution from the PA and is equal to [A B! C! ] A PA. This value was characterized back in the Procedure to Improve the DSA s Effective Noise Floor section on page (Figure 5) and will be used to determine the RTI voltage noise (e n ) of the DUT in Equation 1. t( 0) e n ( R S ) ( R 1 R ) = [ 4kT( R EQ )]A DUT APA [ A B! C! ]A PA PA NOISE = [A B! C! ] A PA R EQ = R 1 R /(R 1 R ) R S (Ω) = Current noise calculated in Equation 10. (EQ. 11) e t PA ( 0) NOISE e n = ( R S ) ( R 1 R ) 4kT( R EQ ) A DUT APA (EQ. 1) Figures 13 and 14 illustrate the ISL890 (bipolar inputs) RTI current noise and voltage noise. The current noise measures 3.5pA/ Hz at 10kHz and the voltage noise is 1nV/ Hz. Figures 15 and 16 illustrate the ISL8148 (MOS inputs) RTI current noise and voltage noise. The current noise measures 10fA/ Hz. The typical noise increase, at higher frequencies, you see in a MOS device is swamped out by the high R S and board parasitic causing the noise signal to roll off at the higher frequencies. The voltage noise for the ISL8148 measured 4nV/ Hz. FIGURE 13. RTI CURRENT NOISE OF ISL890 6 AN January 19, 011

7 FIGURE 14. RTI VOLTAGE NOISE OF ISL890 ISL848 NOISE CURRENT CALCULATED NOISE CURRENT DISTORTION CAUSED BY BOARD PARASITICS REACTING WITH A VERY HIGH R S VALUE FIGURE 15. RTI CURRENT NOISE OF ISL8148 Conclusion This Application Note has shown the test platform is capable of accurately measuring RTI noise voltages in the nv/ Hz range and currents in the fa/ Hz range down to 0.1Hz. Things Learned Along the Way 1. The Post amplifier is necessary to improve the effective system noise floor of the DSA.. Measuring voltage noise of a device below 3 nv/ Hz can be accomplished by gaining up the DUT. The gain of the DUT lowers the contribution of the PA-DSA noise. This gain should be just enough to enable the measurement of the DUT s noise at 0.1Hz. 3. The Faraday cage provides another decade of frequency with a noise floor of 3nV/ Hz in the flat band range. This is critical for low frequency noise measurements. 4. The internal AC coupling of the DSA is inadequate for measurements below 1Hz. 5. The external AC coupling network results in having to account for the long time constant before accurate measurements could be made. 6. The series resistor used in the measurement of current noise needs to be as large as possible. The product of R S I n magnitude needs to be high enough to raise it above background noise and make it a measurable signal. Suggested starting point is to make R S I n >= 4kTR S. 7. Current noise measurements in the femto amps require sufficient averaging to be able smooth out the data. References [1] Felice Crupi, Gino Giusi, Carmine Ciofi, Member, IEEE, and Calogero Pace, Enhanced Sensitivity Cross Correlation Method for Voltage Noise Measurements, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 55, No. 4, August 006. [] Paul Lee, Application Note AN-940, Low Noise Amplifier Selection Guide for Optimal Noise Performance, Analog Devices [3] Application Note AN519.1, Operational Amplifier Noise Prediction (All Op Amps), Intersil Corporation, November [4] Derek F. Bowers, IEEE 1989, Minimizing Noise in Analog Bipolar Circuit Design, Precision Monolithics, Inc. [5] Art Kay, Analysis and Measurement of Intrinsic Noise in Op Amp Circuits Part II Introduction to Opamp Noise, Texas Instruments Inc. FIGURE 16. RTI VOLTAGE NOISE OF ISL AN January 19, 011

### Reading: HH Sections 4.11 4.13, 4.19 4.20 (pgs. 189-212, 222 224)

6 OP AMPS II 6 Op Amps II In the previous lab, you explored several applications of op amps. In this exercise, you will look at some of their limitations. You will also examine the op amp integrator and

### Lab 4 Op Amp Filters

Lab 4 Op Amp Filters Figure 4.0. Frequency Characteristics of a BandPass Filter Adding a few capacitors and resistors to the basic operational amplifier (op amp) circuit can yield many interesting analog

### Designing Stable Compensation Networks for Single Phase Voltage Mode Buck Regulators

Designing Stable Compensation Networks for Single Phase Voltage Mode Buck Regulators Technical Brief December 3 TB47. Author: Doug Mattingly Assumptions This Technical Brief makes the following assumptions:.

### R f. V i. ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response

ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response Objective: Design a practical differentiator circuit using common OP AMP circuits. Test the frequency response

### Exercise 4 - Broadband transistor amplifier

ANALOG ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Laboratory work Exercise 4 - Broadband transistor amplifier Task 1: Design a broadband amplifier using a bipolar NPN transistor in a common emitter orientation. For input signal

### Filters and Waveform Shaping

Physics 333 Experiment #3 Fall 211 Filters and Waveform Shaping Purpose The aim of this experiment is to study the frequency filtering properties of passive (R, C, and L) circuits for sine waves, and the

### Application Note Noise Frequently Asked Questions

: What is? is a random signal inherent in all physical components. It directly limits the detection and processing of all information. The common form of noise is white Gaussian due to the many random

### AN-940 APPLICATION NOTE

APPLICATION NOTE One Technology Way P.O. Box 9106 Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A. Tel: 781.329.4700 Fax: 781.461.3113 www.analog.com Low Noise Amplifier Selection Guide for Optimal Noise Performance by

### A Simple Current-Sense Technique Eliminating a Sense Resistor

INFINITY Application Note AN-7 A Simple Current-Sense Technique Eliminating a Sense Resistor Copyright 998 A SIMPE CURRENT-SENSE TECHNIQUE EIMINATING A SENSE RESISTOR INTRODUCTION A sense resistor R S,

### AN-581 APPLICATION NOTE

a AN-58 APPLICATION NOTE One Technology Way P.O. Box 906 Norwood, MA 02062-906 Tel: 78/329-4700 Fax: 78/326-8703 www.analog.com Biasing and Decoupling Op Amps in Single Supply Applications by Charles Kitchin

### AN-937 APPLICATION NOTE

APPLICATION NOTE One Technology Way P.O. Box 906 Norwood, MA 02062-906, U.S.A. Tel: 78.329.4700 Fax: 78.46.33 www.analog.com Designing Amplifier Circuits: How to Avoid Common Problems by Charles Kitchin

### CMOY Headphone Project Electronic Lab Phys 318

Project Overview There are two kinds of circuits that need to be built for the headphone amplifier project. ) A power circuit 2) Two amplifier circuits You will build one of each of these circuits on a

### HIGH SPEED ADC INPUT INTERFACE SOLUTIONS ISL55210 ADDING A LOW POWER, VERY HIGH DYNAMIC RANGE LAST STAGE INTERFACE TO HIGH SPEED ADC S

HIGH SPEED ADC INPUT INTERFACE SOLUTIONS ISL55210 ADDING A LOW POWER, VERY HIGH DYNAMIC RANGE LAST STAGE INTERFACE TO HIGH SPEED ADC S Michael Steffes Sr. Applications Manager June, 2011 SIMPLY SMARTER

### ECG-Amplifier. MB Jass 2009 Daniel Paulus / Thomas Meier. Operation amplifier (op-amp)

ECG-Amplifier MB Jass 2009 Daniel Paulus / Thomas Meier Operation amplifier (op-amp) Properties DC-coupled High gain electronic ec c voltage amplifier Inverting / non-inverting input and single output

### LM386 Low Voltage Audio Power Amplifier

Low Voltage Audio Power Amplifier General Description The LM386 is a power amplifier designed for use in low voltage consumer applications. The gain is internally set to 20 to keep external part count

### Use and Application of Output Limiting Amplifiers (HFA1115, HFA1130, HFA1135)

Use and Application of Output Limiting Amplifiers (HFA111, HFA110, HFA11) Application Note November 1996 AN96 Introduction Amplifiers with internal voltage clamps, also known as limiting amplifiers, have

### Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment

3 class days 1. Differential Amplifier Source: Hands-On chapter 8 (~HH 6.1) Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment Difference amplifier. The parts of the pot on either side of the slider serve as R3 and R4. The

### EE320L Electronics I. Laboratory. Laboratory Exercise #10. Frequency Response of BJT Amplifiers. Angsuman Roy

EE320L Electronics I Laboratory Laboratory Exercise #10 Frequency Response of BJT Amplifiers By Angsuman Roy Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Nevada, Las Vegas Objective:

### Chapter 7: AC Transistor Amplifiers

Chapter 7: AC Transistor Amplifiers The transistor amplifiers that we studied in the last chapter have some serious problems for use in AC signals. Their most serious shortcoming is that there is a dead

### EXPERIMENT 1.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF OP-AMP

1.17 EXPERIMENT 1.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF OPAMP 1.2.1 OBJECTIVE 1. To sketch and briefly explain an operational amplifier circuit symbol and identify all terminals 2. To list the amplifier stages in a typical

### TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS AET 8. First Transistor developed at Bell Labs on December 16, 1947

AET 8 First Transistor developed at Bell Labs on December 16, 1947 Objective 1a Identify Bipolar Transistor Amplifier Operating Principles Overview (1) Dynamic Operation (2) Configurations (3) Common Emitter

### Experiment # (7) FSK Modulator

Islamic University of Gaza Faculty of Engineering Electrical Department Experiment # (7) FSK Modulator Digital Communications Lab. Prepared by: Eng. Mohammed K. Abu Foul Experiment Objectives: 1. To understand

### Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation

Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation To be performed during Week 9 (Oct. 20-24) and Week 10 (Oct. 27-31) Due Week 11 (Nov. 3-7) 1 Pre-Lab This Pre-Lab should be completed before attending your regular

### Low Noise, Matched Dual PNP Transistor MAT03

a FEATURES Dual Matched PNP Transistor Low Offset Voltage: 100 V Max Low Noise: 1 nv/ Hz @ 1 khz Max High Gain: 100 Min High Gain Bandwidth: 190 MHz Typ Tight Gain Matching: 3% Max Excellent Logarithmic

### HA-5104/883. Low Noise, High Performance, Quad Operational Amplifier. Features. Description. Applications. Ordering Information. Pinout.

HA5104/883 April 2002 Features This Circuit is Processed in Accordance to MILSTD 883 and is Fully Conformant Under the Provisions of Paragraph 1.2.1. Low Input Noise Voltage Density at 1kHz. 6nV/ Hz (Max)

### TDA2040. 20W Hi-Fi AUDIO POWER AMPLIFIER

20W Hi-Fi AUDIO POWER AMPLIFIER DESCRIPTION The TDA2040 is a monolithic integrated circuit in Pentawatt package, intended for use as an audio class AB amplifier. Typically it provides 22W output power

### LM1036 Dual DC Operated Tone/Volume/Balance Circuit

LM1036 Dual DC Operated Tone/Volume/Balance Circuit General Description The LM1036 is a DC controlled tone (bass/treble), volume and balance circuit for stereo applications in car radio, TV and audio systems.

### ENGR 210 Lab 11 Frequency Response of Passive RC Filters

ENGR 210 Lab 11 Response of Passive RC Filters The objective of this lab is to introduce you to the frequency-dependent nature of the impedance of a capacitor and the impact of that frequency dependence

### Johnson Noise Dec. 23, 1998

Physics 623 Johnson Noise Dec. 23, 1998 Answer the questions 1 through 15 in this writeup before coming to the lab. They will be collected at the beginning of the lab. Read the sections of the text referenced

### Low Noise, Single Supply, Electret Microphone Amplifier Design for Distant Acoustic Signals

Low Noise, Single Supply, Electret Microphone Amplifier Design for Distant Acoustic Signals Donald J. VanderLaan November 26, 2008 Abstract. Modern day electronics are often battery powered, forcing the

### LAB 12: ACTIVE FILTERS

A. INTRODUCTION LAB 12: ACTIVE FILTERS After last week s encounter with op- amps we will use them to build active filters. B. ABOUT FILTERS An electric filter is a frequency-selecting circuit designed

### Understanding Power Impedance Supply for Optimum Decoupling

Introduction Noise in power supplies is not only caused by the power supply itself, but also the load s interaction with the power supply (i.e. dynamic loads, switching, etc.). To lower load induced noise,

### Operational Amplifiers: Part 2. Non-ideal Behavior of Feedback Amplifiers DC Errors and Large-Signal Operation

Operational Amplifiers: Part 2 Non-ideal Behavior of Feedback Amplifiers DC Errors and Large-Signal Operation by Tim J. Sobering Analog Design Engineer & Op Amp Addict Summary of Ideal Op Amp Assumptions

### Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor

Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor INTRODUCTION Capacitors 1 are devices that can store electric charge and energy. Capacitors have several uses, such as filters in DC power supplies and as energy storage

### Precision Gain = 10 DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

Precision Gain = DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER FEATURES ACCURATE GAIN: ±.% max HIGH COMMON-MODE REJECTION: 8dB min NONLINEARITY:.% max EASY TO USE PLASTIC 8-PIN DIP, SO-8 SOIC PACKAGES APPLICATIONS G = DIFFERENTIAL

### Lab 8: Basic Filters: Low- Pass and High Pass

Lab 8: Basic Filters: Low- Pass and High Pass Names: 1.) 2.) 3.) Beginning Challenge: Build the following circuit. Charge the capacitor by itself, and then discharge it through the inductor. Measure the

### LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER OBJECTIVES 1. To understand how to amplify weak (small) signals in the presence of noise. 1. To understand how a differential amplifier rejects noise and common

### The Electronic Scale

The Electronic Scale Learning Objectives By the end of this laboratory experiment, the experimenter should be able to: Explain what an operational amplifier is and how it can be used in amplifying signal

### Noise Specs Confusing

Noise Specs Confusing It s really all very simple once you understand it Then here s the inside story on noise for those of us who haven t been designing low noise amplifiers for ten years You hear all

### Frequency Response of Filters

School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II Laboratory Experiment 2 Frequency Response of Filters 1 Introduction Objectives To

### CCD Image Sensor Noise Sources

CCD Image Sensor Noise Sources Image Sensor Solutions Eastman Kodak Company Rochester, New York 14650-2010 August 8, 2001 Revision 1 Introduction: In an ideal digital camera, the noise performance is limited

### www.jameco.com 1-800-831-4242

Distributed by: www.jameco.com 1-800-831-4242 The content and copyrights of the attached material are the property of its owner. LF411 Low Offset, Low Drift JFET Input Operational Amplifier General Description

### Dual High Speed, Implanted BiFET Op Amp AD644

a FEATURES Matched Offset Voltage Matched Offset Voltage Over Temperature Matched Bias Currents Crosstalk 124 db at 1 khz Low Bias Current: 35 pa max Warmed Up Low Offset Voltage: 500 V max Low Input Voltage

### A Low-Noise Preamplifier for Mössbauer Spectroscopy

Ibersensor 010, 911 November 010, Lisbon, Portugal A LowNoise Preamplifier for Mössbauer Spectroscopy J. Alves (1), G. Evans (1), () and L. P. Ferreira () Department of Physics (1) Condensed Matter Physics

### Programmable-Gain Transimpedance Amplifiers Maximize Dynamic Range in Spectroscopy Systems

Programmable-Gain Transimpedance Amplifiers Maximize Dynamic Range in Spectroscopy Systems PHOTODIODE VOLTAGE SHORT-CIRCUIT PHOTODIODE SHORT- CIRCUIT VOLTAGE 0mV DARK ark By Luis Orozco Introduction Precision

### Programmable Single-/Dual-/Triple- Tone Gong SAE 800

Programmable Single-/Dual-/Triple- Tone Gong Preliminary Data SAE 800 Bipolar IC Features Supply voltage range 2.8 V to 18 V Few external components (no electrolytic capacitor) 1 tone, 2 tones, 3 tones

### Low Cost Instrumentation Amplifier AD622

Data Sheet FEATURES Easy to use Low cost solution Higher performance than two or three op amp design Unity gain with no external resistor Optional gains with one external resistor (Gain range: 2 to 000)

### RF Network Analyzer Basics

RF Network Analyzer Basics A tutorial, information and overview about the basics of the RF Network Analyzer. What is a Network Analyzer and how to use them, to include the Scalar Network Analyzer (SNA),

### CURRENT SENSING USING RESISTIVE SHUNTS. Team 5

CURRENT SENSING USING RESISTIVE SHUNTS ECE 480 Design Team 5 Joshua Myers Ryan Laderach Stephen England Kenji Aono 4/1/2011 OUTLINE What is current sensing? Common Methods of Current Sensing High/Low Side

### Agilent AN 1315 Optimizing RF and Microwave Spectrum Analyzer Dynamic Range. Application Note

Agilent AN 1315 Optimizing RF and Microwave Spectrum Analyzer Dynamic Range Application Note Table of Contents 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 7 7 7 7 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 15 1. Introduction What is dynamic range?

### Variable Gain Low Noise Current Amplifier

Features Transimpedance (gain) switchable from 1 x 10 3 to 1 x 10 11 V/A Bandwidth DC/1 Hz... 500 khz Bandwidth switchable to DC... 10 Hz for low noise DC measurements Bandwidth independent of detector

### Precision ANALOG MULTIPLIER

Precision ANALOG MULTIPLIER FEATURES ±0.5% max 4-QUADRANT ACCURACY WIDE BANDWIDTH: 1MHz min, 3MHz typ ADJUSTABLE SCALE FACTOR STABLE AND RELIABLE MONOLITHIC CONSTRUCTION LOW COST APPLICATIONS PRECISION

### Advantages of High Resolution in High Bandwidth Digitizers

Advantages of High Resolution in High Bandwidth Digitizers Two of the key specifications of digitizers are bandwidth and amplitude resolution. These specifications are not independent - with increasing

### Chapter 5. Basic Filters

Chapter 5 Basic Filters 39 CHAPTER 5. BASIC FILTERS 5.1 Pre-Lab The answers to the following questions are due at the beginning of the lab. If they are not done at the beginning of the lab, no points will

### Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997

Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997 1 Purpose To measure and understand the common emitter transistor characteristic curves. To use the base current gain

### Optimizing IP3 and ACPR Measurements

Optimizing IP3 and ACPR Measurements Table of Contents 1. Overview... 2 2. Theory of Intermodulation Distortion... 2 3. Optimizing IP3 Measurements... 4 4. Theory of Adjacent Channel Power Ratio... 9 5.

### Lock - in Amplifier and Applications

Lock - in Amplifier and Applications What is a Lock in Amplifier? In a nut shell, what a lock-in amplifier does is measure the amplitude V o of a sinusoidal voltage, V in (t) = V o cos(ω o t) where ω o

### Four quadrant diode front end module for the Virgo Linear Alignment 3/ 30 mw, plus configuration

NI K HEF NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR NUCLEAR AND HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS Four quadrant diode front end module for the Virgo Linear Alignment 3/ 30 mw, plus configuration Find the most recent files and related files

### TDA2040. 20W Hi-Fi AUDIO POWER AMPLIFIER

20W Hi-Fi AUDIO POWER AMPLIFIER DESCRIPTION The TDA2040 is a monolithic integrated circuit in Pentawatt package, intended for use as an audio class AB amplifier. Typically it provides 22W output power

### The Calculation of G rms

The Calculation of G rms QualMark Corp. Neill Doertenbach The metric of G rms is typically used to specify and compare the energy in repetitive shock vibration systems. However, the method of arriving

### Selected Filter Circuits Dr. Lynn Fuller

ROCHESTER INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MICROELECTRONIC ENGINEERING Selected Filter Circuits Dr. Lynn Fuller Webpage: http://people.rit.edu/lffeee 82 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 146235604 Tel (585) 4752035

### PH 210 Electronics Laboratory I Instruction Manual

PH 210 Electronics Laboratory I Instruction Manual Index Page No General Instructions 2 Experiment 1 Common Emitter (CE) Amplifier 4 Experiment 2 Multistage amplifier: Cascade of two CE stages 7 Experiment

### Lab #9: AC Steady State Analysis

Theory & Introduction Lab #9: AC Steady State Analysis Goals for Lab #9 The main goal for lab 9 is to make the students familar with AC steady state analysis, db scale and the NI ELVIS frequency analyzer.

ECE 2C Laboratory Manual 5 Infrared PWM Receiver Overview In this lab you will construct the receiver circuit to complement the PWM transmitter board you assembled last week. This receiver detects, amplifies,

### Understanding the Terms and Definitions of LDO Voltage Regulators

Application Report SLVA79 - October 1999 Understanding the Terms and Definitions of ltage Regulators Bang S. Lee Mixed Signal Products ABSTRACT This report provides an understanding of the terms and definitions

### T = 1 f. Phase. Measure of relative position in time within a single period of a signal For a periodic signal f(t), phase is fractional part t p

Data Transmission Concepts and terminology Transmission terminology Transmission from transmitter to receiver goes over some transmission medium using electromagnetic waves Guided media. Waves are guided

### Class A Amplifier Design

Module 2 Amplifiers Introduction to Amplifier Design What you ll learn in Module 2. Basic design process. Section 2.0 Introduction to Amplifier Design. Section 2.1 DC Conditions. Design a BJT class A common

### Impedance Matching and Matching Networks. Valentin Todorow, December, 2009

Impedance Matching and Matching Networks Valentin Todorow, December, 2009 RF for Plasma Processing - Definition of RF What is RF? The IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms defines

### Harmonics and Noise in Photovoltaic (PV) Inverter and the Mitigation Strategies

Soonwook Hong, Ph. D. Michael Zuercher Martinson Harmonics and Noise in Photovoltaic (PV) Inverter and the Mitigation Strategies 1. Introduction PV inverters use semiconductor devices to transform the

### Electro Optical Components, Inc. High Speed Current Amplifier

Electro Optical Components, Inc. 5460 Skylane Boulevard, Santa Rosa, CA 95403 Toll Free: 855-EOC-6300 www.eoc-inc.com info@eoc-inc.com Datasheet Features Bandwidth DC 400 MHz Rise / Fall Time 1 ns Optimized

### VCO Phase noise. Characterizing Phase Noise

VCO Phase noise Characterizing Phase Noise The term phase noise is widely used for describing short term random frequency fluctuations of a signal. Frequency stability is a measure of the degree to which

### TESTS OF 1 MHZ SIGNAL SOURCE FOR SPECTRUM ANALYZER CALIBRATION 7/8/08 Sam Wetterlin

TESTS OF 1 MHZ SIGNAL SOURCE FOR SPECTRUM ANALYZER CALIBRATION 7/8/08 Sam Wetterlin (Updated 7/19/08 to delete sine wave output) I constructed the 1 MHz square wave generator shown in the Appendix. This

### Part 2: Receiver and Demodulator

University of Pennsylvania Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering ESE06: Electrical Circuits and Systems II Lab Amplitude Modulated Radio Frequency Transmission System Mini-Project Part : Receiver

### Lecture 11: Electrical Noise

EECS 142 Lecture 11: Electrical Noise Prof. Ali M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley Copyright c 2005 by Ali M. Niknejad A. M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 11

### FILTER CIRCUITS. A filter is a circuit whose transfer function, that is the ratio of its output to its input, depends upon frequency.

FILTER CIRCUITS Introduction Circuits with a response that depends upon the frequency of the input voltage are known as filters. Filter circuits can be used to perform a number of important functions in

### EXPERIMENT NUMBER 5 BASIC OSCILLOSCOPE OPERATIONS

1 EXPERIMENT NUMBER 5 BASIC OSCILLOSCOPE OPERATIONS The oscilloscope is the most versatile and most important tool in this lab and is probably the best tool an electrical engineer uses. This outline guides

### Linear Output Magnetic Field Sensor AD22151

Linear Output Magnetic Field Sensor AD5 FEATURES Adjustable Offset to Unipolar or Bipolar Operation Low Offset Drift over Temperature Range Gain Adjustable over Wide Range Low Gain Drift over Temperature

Reading accelerometer specifications Wilcoxon Research accelerometer specification sheets follow a standard format. However, specification sheets may vary slightly from one specification to another. The

### What you will do. Build a 3-band equalizer. Connect to a music source (mp3 player) Low pass filter High pass filter Band pass filter

Audio Filters What you will do Build a 3-band equalizer Low pass filter High pass filter Band pass filter Connect to a music source (mp3 player) Adjust the strength of low, high, and middle frequencies

### Obsolete Product(s) - Obsolete Product(s)

14 W hi-fi audio amplifier Features Wide-range supply voltage, up to 36 V Single or split power supply Short-circuit protection to ground Thermal shutdown Description The TDA2030 is a monolithic integrated

### Noise Terminology: An Overview of Noise Terminology and Applications Author: Bob Muro, Applications Engineer

Noise Terminology: An Overview of Noise Terminology and Applications Author: Bob Muro, Applications Engineer Today s Webinar Important noise characteristics Technologies effected by noise Noise applications

### LM 358 Op Amp. If you have small signals and need a more useful reading we could amplify it using the op amp, this is commonly used in sensors.

LM 358 Op Amp S k i l l L e v e l : I n t e r m e d i a t e OVERVIEW The LM 358 is a duel single supply operational amplifier. As it is a single supply it eliminates the need for a duel power supply, thus

### Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers Introduction The operational amplifier (op-amp) is a voltage controlled voltage source with very high gain. It is a five terminal four port active element. The symbol of the op-amp

### LM148/LM248/LM348 Quad 741 Op Amps

Quad 741 Op Amps General Description The LM148 series is a true quad 741. It consists of four independent, high gain, internally compensated, low power operational amplifiers which have been designed to

### APPLICATION BULLETIN

APPLICATION BULLETIN Mailing Address: PO Box 00 Tucson, AZ 87 Street Address: 70 S. Tucson Blvd. Tucson, AZ 870 Tel: (0) 7- Twx: 90-9- Telex: 0-9 FAX (0) 889-0 Immediate Product Info: (800) 8- EXTENDING

### Precision Fully Differential Op Amp Drives High Resolution ADCs at Low Power

Precision Fully Differential Op Amp Drives High Resolution ADCs at Low Power Kris Lokere The op amp produces differential outputs, making it ideal for processing fully differential analog signals or taking

### TL082 Wide Bandwidth Dual JFET Input Operational Amplifier

TL082 Wide Bandwidth Dual JFET Input Operational Amplifier General Description These devices are low cost high speed dual JFET input operational amplifiers with an internally trimmed input offset voltage

### EXPERIMENT 4:- MEASUREMENT OF REACTANCE OFFERED BY CAPACITOR IN DIFFERENT FREQUENCY FOR R-C CIRCUIT

Kathmandu University Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering BASIC ELECTRICAL LAB (ENGG 103) EXPERIMENT 4:- MEASUREMENT OF REACTANCE OFFERED BY CAPACITOR IN DIFFERENT FREQUENCY FOR R-C CIRCUIT

### Precision, Unity-Gain Differential Amplifier AMP03

a FEATURES High CMRR: db Typ Low Nonlinearity:.% Max Low Distortion:.% Typ Wide Bandwidth: MHz Typ Fast Slew Rate: 9.5 V/ s Typ Fast Settling (.%): s Typ Low Cost APPLICATIONS Summing Amplifiers Instrumentation

### In modern electronics, it is important to be able to separate a signal into different

Introduction In modern electronics, it is important to be able to separate a signal into different frequency regions. In analog electronics, four classes of filters exist to process an input signal: low-pass,

### Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. LAB 1 - Introduction to USRP

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Ben-Gurion University of the Negev LAB 1 - Introduction to USRP - 1-1 Introduction In this lab you will use software reconfigurable RF hardware from National

### Understanding Noise Figure

Understanding Noise Figure Iulian Rosu, YO3DAC / VA3IUL, http://www.qsl.net/va3iul One of the most frequently discussed forms of noise is known as Thermal Noise. Thermal noise is a random fluctuation in

### Application of the CA3018 Integrated-Circuit Transistor Array

Authors: G.E. Theriault, A.J. Leidich, and T.H. Campbell Application of the CA3018 Integrated-Circuit Transistor Array The CA3018 integrated circuit consists of four silicon epitaxial transistors produced

### Analog Devices Welcomes Hittite Microwave Corporation NO CONTENT ON THE ATTACHED DOCUMENT HAS CHANGED

Analog Devices Welcomes Hittite Microwave Corporation NO CONTENT ON THE ATTACHED DOCUMENT HAS CHANGED www.analog.com www.hittite.com THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v.113 Frequency Divider Operation

### Wide Bandwidth, Fast Settling Difet OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

Wide Bandwidth, Fast Settling Difet OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER FEATURES HIGH GAIN-BANDWIDTH: 35MHz LOW INPUT NOISE: 1nV/ Hz HIGH SLEW RATE: V/µs FAST SETTLING: 24ns to.1% FET INPUT: I B = 5pA max HIGH OUTPUT

### Using the Texas Instruments Filter Design Database

Application Report SLOA062 July, 2001 Bruce Carter Using the Texas Instruments Filter Design Database High Performance Linear Products ABSTRACT Texas Instruments applications personnel have decades of

### EE 311: Electrical Engineering Junior Lab Active Filter Design (Sallen-Key Filter)

EE 311: Electrical Engineering Junior Lab Active Filter Design (Sallen-Key Filter) Objective The purpose of this experiment is to design a set of second-order Sallen-Key active filters and to investigate

### Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier

Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier 12.1: Introduction to Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp) Operational amplifiers (op-amps) are very high gain dc coupled amplifiers with differential inputs; they are used