GEO 101: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Chapter 12: Tectonics, Earthquakes, and Volcanism

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1 GEO 101: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Chapter 12: Tectonics, Earthquakes, and Volcanism Earth s Topographic Regions Crustal Formation Processes Crustal Deformation Processes Orogenesis (Mountain Building) Earthquakes Volcanism

2 Earth s s Topographic Regions Figure 12.3

3 Earth s s Hypsometry Figure 12.2

4 Crustal Formation Processes All continents have a nucleus of ancient crystalline rock on which the continents grows with the addition of crustal fragments and sediments Such nucleus is called Cratons Cratons are commonly stable, and are formed more than 2 billion years ago

5 Crustal Formation Processes Continental Shields: are regions where cratons are exposed at the surface Continental Crust and Terranes: are added to the Cratons through tectonic cycles

6 Terrane Formation

7 Crustal Deformation Processes When the lithospheric plates or crustal blocks move relative to each other, they form different types of structures such as: Folding and Broad Warping (bending of the crusts) Faulting (Breaking, causes offset)

8 Crustal Deformation Processes Stress: forces/ unit area (caused by tectonic forces, gravities, and the weight of the overlying rocks) (Three type of stress: tension, compression, and shear) Strain: The response of rocks to stress (faulting and folding)

9 Stress and Strain Figure 12.7

10 Folding Figure 12.8

11 Three types of faults Normal fault (tension): Hanging wall move downwards relative to footwall Reverse fault (compression): Hanging wall move upwards relative to footwall Strike-slip fault (lateral shearing): Blocks move along the fault plane horizontally Normal Fault Figure 12.11

12 Reverse Fault Figure 12.11

13 Strike-slip Fault Figure 12.11

14 San Andreas Fault Figure 12.12

15 Faulted Landscapes Figure 12.14

16 Orogenesis (Mountain Building) Three Types of Orogenies: Oceanic-continental continental plate collision Andes, Rocky mountains

17 Oceanic-continental continental Collision Figure 12.16

18 Orogenesis (Mountain Building) Three Types of Orogenies: Oceanic-oceanic plate collision Western pacific such as Japan and Indonesia, the Philippines

19 Oceanic-oceanic Collision Figure 12.16

20 Orogenesis (Mountain Building) Three Types of Orogenies: Continental- continental collision Himalayas The Appalachian Mountains

21 Continental-continental Collision Figure 12.16

22 Convergent Margins: India-Asia Collision

23 Orogenesis (Mountain Building) The other type of mountain building: uplifting of Fault-blocks by magmas or by isostatic rebound: Grand Tetons and the Sierra Nevada

24 Teton Range in Wyoming Figure 12.17

25 Earthquakes Expected Quakes and Those of Deadly Surprise: Earthquakes are mostly along faults and plate boundaries Focus, Epicenter, Foreshock, and Aftershock Focus: The place where the motion of seismic waves is initiated (the point where the slip occurs) normally in subsurface

26 Anatomy of an Earthquake Figure 12.20

27 Earthquakes Epicenter: The area at the surface directly above the focus Smaller shocks: before the main earthquake Earthquake Forecast? Aftershock: Smaller shocks after the main earthquake Important for the rescuing arrangement

28 Buildup and Release of Stress Figure Earthquake is recorded by an instrument called: seismograph, and Measurement is charted on: Richter scale Earthquake magnitude: >

29 Seismographs

30 Volcanism Location and Types of Volcanic Activity Effusive Eruptions: Gentle eruptions. Magma contains less gases and is rich in iron and magnesium, thus has low viscosity. Example-- Hawai i Explosive Eruptions: Violent eruptions. Magma contain more gases and silica and has a high viscosity block the conduits causing high pressure buildup. Examples: along subduction zones. Explosive eruptions Effusive eruptions Figure 12.25

31 Chapter 12: Review Tectonics, Earthquakes,and Volcanism Earth s s Topographic Regions Plains High tablelands (Colorado plateau) Hill and low tablelands Mountains Widely spaced mountains Depressions See figure 12.3

32 Chapter 12: Review Tectonics, Earthquakes,and Volcanism Crustal Formation Processes All continents have a nucleus (Cratons( ) of ancient crystalline rock Continental Crust and Terranes are added to the Cratons through tectonic cycles Continental Shields: are regions where cratons are exposed at the surface

33 Chapter 12: Review Tectonics, Earthquakes,and Volcanism Crustal Deformation Processes Crustal blocks are stressed by tectonic forces, gravity, and overlying rocks Stress ( Tension, Compression, Shear) Bending (folding) Breaking of the curst (Faults)

34 Chapter 12: Review Tectonics, Earthquakes,and Volcanism Results Bending (Folding) Breaking of the curst (Faults)

35 Three types of faults Normal fault (tension): Hanging wall move downwards relative to footwall Figure 12.11

36 Reverse Fault Reverse fault (compression): Hanging wall move upwards relative to footwall Figure 12.11

37 Strike-slip Fault Strike-slip fault (lateral shearing): Blocks move along the fault plane horizontally Figure 12.11

38 Anatomy of an Earthquake Figure 12.20

39 Volcanism Figure 12.25

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