# Name: Date: Class: Finding Epicenters and Measuring Magnitudes Worksheet

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

2 Earthquakes Living Lab: Finding Epicenters and Measuring Magnitudes Activity Worksheet Example Answers 2

3 Explain: 7. How is an earthquake located? We locate earthquakes by looking at seismogram recordings of seismic waves, P waves and S waves, because they travel at different speeds and thus arrive at seismic stations at different times. P waves travel faster, so they arrive first. S waves travel at about half the speed of P waves, so they arrive later. The time between the arrival of a P wave and the arrival of an S wave, called the S-P time or S- P interval, measured at three seismic stations can be used to triangulate the epicenter location. 8. What is an epicenter? The point on the Earth s surface that is directly above where the earthquake originated, or where the tectonic plates along a fault-line slipped past one another. [In this activity, students find this point through triangulation.] 9. How are S waves and P waves used to determine how far away epicenters are? To locate the epicenter of an earthquake, you must estimate the time interval between the arrivals of the earthquake s P and S waves (the S-P interval) on the seismograms from three different stations. The interval is measured to the closest second and then a graph is used to convert the S-P interval to the epicentral distance. Using information from three stations, the epicenter is triangulated. 10. How does distance from the epicenter affect the S-P time interval? With increasing distance from the earthquake, the time difference between the arrival of the P waves and the arrival of the S waves increases. Put more simply, the higher the time between the S and P waves (the S-P interval), the farther the distance. 11. Describe the process of triangulation to locate an epicenter. Triangulation requires seismic data from three centers. First the distance from each center is calculated using the S-P interval and this distance serves as the radius for a circle around the center. The location where the three circles overlap is the triangulated epicenter. 12. What is the magnitude of an earthquake? Describe it. The magnitude of an earthquake is an estimate of the total amount of energy released during fault rupture. Since the 1930s, earthquakes have been measured using the Richter magnitude scale, and Earthquakes Living Lab: Finding Epicenters and Measuring Magnitudes Activity Worksheet Example Answers 3

4 now big earthquakes are measured using the moment magnitude scale; both scales essentially rank the power (energy release) of the earthquake. 13. What data is used to determine magnitude? The magnitude determination is based on seismic data. A graphical device, called a nomogram, is used to estimate the magnitude from the earthquake s data. A nomogram requires two measurements: the S-P time interval (which yields distance) and the maximum amplitude of the seismic waves. Elaborate: 14. Why might the triangulation method not always produce an exact point (other than any measurement errors)? Triangulation assumes that the seismic waves traveled at the same velocities to all three seismic stations. In reality, ground material composition may differ between stations and the waves may travel at different speeds. As it states on the introduction page, the speed of an earthquake wave is not constant but varies with depth and rock type. Further, S waves can only travel through solids, and not through liquids, which is another factor to consider for stations near bodies of water. 15. How does distance from the epicenter affect the magnitude (height) of the seismograph reading? The magnitude decreases as the distance increases. Thus, the distance must be calculated first, in order to calibrate the magnitude. Magnitude Scale This concept is explained on the Richter nomogram page: a 100 km-away earthquake of magnitude 4 produces 10 mm of amplitude, while a magnitude 5 produces 100 mm of amplitude; 10 and 100 are all powers of 10, a good example of why the magnitude scale is said to be exponential: a change of one unit in magnitude (say from 4 to 5) increases the maximum amplitude by a factor of 10. Evaluate: 16. Some scientists and educators believe seismology (locating, measuring and predicting earthquakes) is a very reliable science and will one day allow us to predict future earthquakes. Other scientists and educators believe seismology is not a very exact science. Write a paragraph (or more) to express your opinion on this topic. Based on what you learned in this activity, is locating and measuring earthquakes a well-defined science? Be sure to include details from the Explore and Elaborate questions. Including some sketches and/or images is helpful, such as an image of a seismograph with key features labeled to support your explanation. Earthquakes Living Lab: Finding Epicenters and Measuring Magnitudes Activity Worksheet Example Answers 4

5 This is an opinion-based question, but expect students to bring in what they know about triangulation/distance calculation, seismograms/nomograms and/or the magnitude scale. 17. How do you think engineers use seismic data? Include specific examples. Engineers use seismic data in many ways: to possibly predict future earthquakes (at least general predictions, not very specific), to design buildings to withstand certain magnitudes, to locate particularly active fault planes, etc. Congratulations you have completed this activity! Feel free to complete the virtual seismologist information at the end of the simulation to get your virtual certificate. For more practice, return to the beginning of the simulation and complete the steps again for one or more of the other locations. Earthquakes Living Lab: Finding Epicenters and Measuring Magnitudes Activity Worksheet Example Answers 5

### 14. Print out the page that shows your Virtual Seismologist Certificate and ANSWERS 15. After getting all 4, turn it into the teacher.

The Process 1. Go to the website: http://www.sciencecourseware.org 2. Click on: GEOLOGY LABS ONLINE 3. Click on VIRTUAL EARTHQUAKE 4. NEXT click on: NEW: A completely revised version of Virtual Earthquake

### Locating the Epicenter and Determining the Magnitude of an Earthquake

Locating the and Determining the Magnitude of an Earthquake Locating the Measuring the S-P time interval There are hundreds of seismic data recording stations throughout the United States and the rest

### Unit 4 Lesson 6 Measuring Earthquake Waves. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Shake, Rattle, and Roll What happens during an earthquake? As plates of the lithosphere move, the stress on rocks at or near the edges of the plates increases. This stress causes faults to form. A fault

### Earth Science Chapter 8 Section 2 Review

Name: Class: Date: Earth Science Chapter 8 Section 2 Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which seismic waves travel most rapidly? a.

### Seismic Waves Practice

1. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which shows models of two types of earthquake waves. Model A best represents the motion of earthquake waves called 1) P-waves (compressional

### Seismic Waves. Epicenter and Focus. Focus. The shaking occurs as the energy travels out. form of waves (like ripples in water). Epicenter.

Seismic Waves When there is movement at a fault, energy is released: The shaking occurs as the energy travels out from the focus in the form of waves (like ripples in water). Epicenter and Fault Line Epicenter

### P-wave compression. propagating wave

Did you feel it? That side to side, up and down, ground-shaking motion felt by many Californians every year, not to mention folks all around the world. The shaking motion is referred to as an earthquake,

### Name: Lab: Earthquake Epicenters Adapted from Exploration in Earth Science, The Physical Setting, United Publishing Company, Inc

Name: Lab: Earthquake Epicenters Adapted from Exploration in Earth Science, The Physical Setting, United Publishing Company, Inc INTRODUCTION: Earthquakes occur when there is movement along a fault. The

### Name Date Class. By studying the Vocabulary and Notes listed for each section below, you can gain a better understanding of this chapter.

CHAPTER 7 VOCABULARY & NOTES WORKSHEET Earthquakes By studying the Vocabulary and Notes listed for each section below, you can gain a better understanding of this chapter. SECTION 1 Vocabulary In your

### EARTHQUAKES. Compressional Tensional Slip-strike

Earthquakes-page 1 EARTHQUAKES Earthquakes occur along faults, planes of weakness in the crustal rocks. Although earthquakes can occur anywhere, they are most likely along crustal plate boundaries, such

### Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Earthquakes and Volcanoes Earthquakes What are earthquakes? Imagine bending a stick until it breaks. When the stick snaps, it vibrates, releasing energy. Earthquakes release energy in a similar way. Earthquakes

### FOURTH GRADE EARTHQUAKES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FOURTH GRADE EARTHQUAKES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FOURTH GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing different structures of volcanoes. DURING: Modeling three types

### Earthquakes and Seismic Waves (pages 51 57)

Earthquakes and Seismic Waves (pages 51 57) Types of Seismic Waves (pages 52 53) Key Concept: Seismic waves carry energy from an earthquake away from the focus, through Earth s interior, and across the

### A Violent Pulse: Earthquakes

A Violent Pulse: Earthquakes What is an Earthquake? Earth shaking caused by a rapid release of energy. tectonic stress build up rock break. energy moves outward as an expanding sphere of waves. waveform

Earthquakes Table of Contents Section 1 What Are Earthquakes? Section 2 Earthquake Measurement Section 3 Earthquakes and Society http://youtu.be/lcvwan8w-jo http://youtu.be/xe7mfz8dnjw Section 1 What Are

### Unit 13: Earthquakes

Unit 13: Earthquakes A. Earthquakes 1. Earthquake vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy 2. Focus The point within Earth where the earthquake starts 3. Epicenter Location on the surface

### Section 8.1 What Is an Earthquake? This section explains what earthquakes and faults are and what causes earthquakes.

Section 8.1 What Is an Earthquake? This section explains what earthquakes and faults are and what causes earthquakes. Reading Strategy Building Vocabulary As you read this section, write a definition for

### Earthquakes and Volcanoes

chapter 38 Earthquakes and Volcanoes section 1 Earthquakes Before You Read Have you ever experienced an earthquake or perhaps seen an earthquake in a movie or on TV? On the lines below, describe an earthquake.

### Seismic Earthquakes. The most common quakes occur from fault lines

Earthquakes GE 4150- Natural Hazards Slides and images taken from Dr. Jim Diehl, Jason R. Evans, Joanne M. Scott and Benfiled Greig Hazard Research Centre (C471 Geohazards) Tectonic Earthquakes Seismic

### Investigation 3: Seismic Waves

Investigation 3: Seismic Waves Table of Contents: Folder 1: Seismic Waves... 25 Folder 2: Locating Earthquakes... 26 Folder 3: Exploring Earth s Interior... 29 Investigation Summary... 32 Folder 1: Seismic

### EARTHQUAKES. Tommy Her, Ben Lee, James Edwards, Chandler Collier, Brent Dorn, and April Bartholomew (photographer)

EARTHQUAKES Tommy Her, Ben Lee, James Edwards, Chandler Collier, Brent Dorn, and April Bartholomew (photographer) Introduction to Physical Science, EMPACTS Project C. Dianne Phillips, Instructor, NWACC,

### Earthquakes. Earthquakes: Big Ideas. Earthquakes

Earthquakes Earthquakes: Big Ideas Humans cannot eliminate natural hazards but can engage in activities that reduce their impacts by identifying high-risk locations, improving construction methods, and

### How do scientists measure earthquakes?

Name: Source: http://www.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=4892 http://gizmodo.com/5833688/what-do-earthquake-magnitudes-mean http://www.kids-fun-science.com/moment-magnitude-scale.html http://tremor.nmt.edu/faq/how.html

### LESSON PLAN 3. Key Terms and Concepts. compression dip-slip fault epicenter longitudinal Love waves normal slip fault primary waves (P waves)

Learning about faults and seismic waves will give students a deeper understanding of earth tremors and quakes. Key Terms and Concepts Earthquake Science compression dip-slip fault epicenter longitudinal

### Soil Dynamics Prof. Deepankar Choudhury Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay

Soil Dynamics Prof. Deepankar Choudhury Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Module - 3 Wave Propagation - Earthquake waves Lecture - 17 P-waves, S-waves, 3 circle method,

### Geology 112 Earthquakes. Activity 1 Worksheet Introduction to the Course. What is a Fault? What is an Earthquake?

Geology 112 Earthquakes Name Activity 1 Worksheet Introduction to the Course. What is a Fault? What is an Earthquake? Activity 1 Objectives: Introduce student to the topics, requirements and format of

### Earthquake Lab. A. Locate the Epicenter. Name: Lab Section:

Earthquake Lab Name: Lab Section: The goal of this portion of the lab is to learn how recording of earthquakes seismograms are used to locate earthquakes, determine their magnitudes, and to understand

### CHAPTER 4 EARTHQUAKES

CHAPTER 4 EARTHQUAKES Important Concepts 1. An earthquake occurs when movement along a fault zone results in a sudden release of built-up strain energy in the lithosphere. Most earthquakes occur at plate

### The earthquake source

Global seismology: The earthquake source Reading: Fowler p111-140 and Bolt Appendix G Earthquake location Earthquake focus: Latitude, longitude, depth Earthquake epicenter: Latitude, longitude Earthquakes

### Activity #1-HS What is a Seismometer? High School Level

Activity #1-HS What is a Seismometer? High School Level Objective Students will learn that a seismometer detects 3 components of motion and that a seismogram is the record of an earthquake. Background

### Task: Your task is to use earthquake data to map a possible fault line and then evaluate the risk of damage from earthquakes near this fault line.

Name Date Per Task: Your task is to use earthquake data to map a possible fault line and then evaluate the risk of damage from earthquakes near this fault line. Materials: Seismograms showing the arrival

### Earthquake Magnitude Calculator for the AS-1 Seismograph 1

Magnitude calculator for the AS-1 Page 1 of 23 Earthquake Magnitude Calculator for the AS-1 Seismograph 1 Lawrence W. Braile and Saptarshi Dasgupta, Purdue University SKIP TO CALCULATORS Introduction:

### Name Crustal Interactions E-Science Date Midterm Review Science Department

Name Crustal Interactions E-Science Date Midterm Review Science Department 1 Base your answer to the following question on the cross section below, which shows the paths of seismic waves traveling from

### Earthquake: A vibration caused by the sudden breaking or frictional sliding of rock in the Earth. Fault: A fracture on which one body of rock slides

Earthquake: A vibration caused by the sudden breaking or frictional sliding of rock in the Earth. Fault: A fracture on which one body of rock slides past another. Focus: The location where a fault slips

### Earth Systems Science Lab 8 - Plate Tectonics

Earth Systems Science Lab 8 - Plate Tectonics Name Introduction: An important reason why Earth is so unique is that it is geologically alive. Our planet s internal heat engine drives the motion of its

### What is an earthquake?

Earthquakes and structural damage (and nifty examples of geophysical forensics) What is an earthquake? An earthquake is the vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy Energy released radiates

### Boston Convention & Exhibition Center April 18, 2015 Room 205B 8:00 am 9:00 am

NCTM Annual Conference Boston Convention & Exhibition Center April 18, 2015 Room 205B 8:00 am 9:00 am Putting the M Back in STEM: The Mathematics of Bridging Design in STEM Lesley University Cambridge,

### NATURAL HAZARDS & NATURAL DISASTERS

NATURAL HAZARDS & NATURAL DISASTERS The World is always changing. Natural disasters are changes which are so great they may cause damage to the shape of the land or to the lives of people and other living

### Lecture 12 Earthquake Magnitude

Lecture 12 Earthquake Magnitude Locating Earthquakes Last time, we learned that we could obtain a rough estimate of the distance in miles to an earthquake epicenter by multiplying the S - P time interval

### Geohazards and Me: What geologic hazards exist near me? Which plate boundary is closest to me?

1 Geohazards and Me: What geologic hazards exist near me? Which plate boundary is closest to me? Movement of the Earth s plates creates great forces that push and reshape the rock in the crust. Sometimes

### DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes

DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes NAME: BLOCK: DATE: 1. Base your answer to the following question on The block diagram below shows the boundary between two tectonic plates. Which

### Earthquakes and the Earth s Interior

Earthquakes and the Earth s Interior San Francisco 1906 Magnitude 7.8 Charleston 1886 California s Notorious San Andreas Fault fault trace Earthquakes are the release of energy stored in rocks. Most earthquakes

### The Sumatra Earthquake and Tsunami December 26, 2004

The Sumatra Earthquake and Tsunami December 26, 2004 2004 by Dave Robison and Steve Kluge (thanks also to Bryce Hand and Michael Hubenthal) Introduction: The incredible damage and tragic loss of life resulting

### Earthquakes. www.earthquakes.bgs.ac.uk

Earthquakes www.earthquakes.bgs.ac.uk Introduction Earthquakes are among the most deadly natural hazards. There are around 100 earthquakes each year of a size that could cause serious damage. They strike

### Magnitude 7.7 SOLOMON ISLANDS

A 7.7 magnitude earthquake struck offshore in the Solomon Islands. The earthquake occurred less than 30 kilometers off the island of Makira, at a depth of 48.7 km (30.3 miles), and 70 kilometers southwest

### Geohazards and Me: What geologic hazards exist near me? Which plate boundary is closest to me?

1 Geohazards and Me: What geologic hazards exist near me? Which plate boundary is closest to me? Movement of the Earth s plates creates great forces that push and reshape the rock in the crust. Sometimes

### The Layered Earth. Unit B Plate Tectonics. Unit D Shaping the Earth. Unit A The Solid Earth. Unit C Minerals and Rocks. Unit E Earthquakes

The Layered Earth: Content Overview The Layered Earth Unit A The Solid Earth Unit B Plate Tectonics Unit C Minerals and Rocks Unit D Shaping the Earth Unit E Earthquakes Unit F Volcanoes Unit G Geologic

### FIFTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FIFTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FIFTH GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Exploring the rocks produced by volcanoes. LAB: Comparing igneous rocks.

### Earth and Space Science. Semester 2 Exam Review. Part 1. - Convection currents circulate in the Asthenosphere located in the Upper Mantle.

Earth and Space Science Semester 2 Exam Review Part 1 Convection -A form of heat transfer. - Convection currents circulate in the Asthenosphere located in the Upper Mantle. - Source of heat is from the

### 12.2 Features of Plate Tectonics

12.2 Features of Plate Tectonics Earth is over 1200 km thick and has four distinct layers. These layers are the crust, mantle (upper and lower), outer core, and inner core. Crust outer solid rock layer

### Topic Area: Circles. Definitions. Formulas Distance Formula: D = ( x x ) + ( y ) Equation of a Circle: Activity 8 Algebra II with the Casio fx-9750gii

Where Did That Come From? Teacher Notes Topic Area: Circles NCTM Standards: Use symbolic algebra to represent and explain mathematical relationships. Use geometric models to gain insights into, and answer

### -4- Wa vereflected at core-mantle boundary (e.g. ScS) i

2.3 VELOCITY STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH In the following years, increasingly sophisticated models were developed. It became possible to compute travel time curves for media where velocity varies continously

### Earthquakes. www.earthquakes.bgs.ac.uk. Seismograph stations operated by the British Geological Survey

Seismograph stations operated by the British Geological Survey Earthquakes Photograph supplied by Andy Thompson, Arup Advanced Technology, EEFIT Mission www.earthquakes.bgs.ac.uk Introduction Earthquakes

### Reading GPS Time Series Plots Worksheet

Reading GPS Time Series Plots Worksheet By: Roger Groom and Cate Fox-Lent, UNAVCO Master Teachers in-residence, Shelley Olds, UNAVCO The Global Positioning System, GPS, is used to study the Earth, how

### Body Waves (S&P) - Teacher Notes

Seismic waves are energy waves released during earthquakes. Stress built up during tectonic movement builds up until it overcomes limiting friction and is released as a seismic wave. When seismic waves

### Stressed Out! Lesson Overview

Stressed Out! Lesson Overview GRADE LEVEL: 9-11 TIME ALLOTMENT: Three or four 45-minute class periods OVERVIEW: The rupture that occurs when bending stresses within earth s rock exceeds the strength of

### 4 Deforming the Earth s Crust

CHAPTER 4 4 Deforming the Earth s Crust SECTION Plate Tectonics BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What happens when rock is placed under stress?

### The Dynamic Crust 2) EVIDENCE FOR CRUSTAL MOVEMENT

The Dynamic Crust 1) Virtually everything you need to know about the interior of the earth can be found on page 10 of your reference tables. Take the time to become familiar with page 10 and everything

### 8-3.1 Summarize the three layers of Earth crust, mantle, and core on the basis of relative position, density, and composition.

Earth s Structure and Processes 8-3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of materials that determine the structure of Earth and the processes that have altered this structure. 8-3.1 Summarize

### Exploring plate motion and deformation in California with GPS

Exploring plate motion and deformation in California with GPS Student worksheet Cate Fox-Lent, UNAVCO master teacher; Andy Newman, Georgia Institute of Technology; Shelley Olds, UNAVCO; and revised by

### Class Notes: Plate Tectonics

Name: Date: Period: Tectonics The Physical Setting: Earth Science Class Notes: Tectonics I. Continental Drift Continental Drift -! Pangaea -! Alfred Wegener (1915) German and Proposed the theory of! Hypothesized

### THE 2004 SUMATRA EARTHQUAKE AND INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI: WHAT HAPPENED AND WHY

Page 6 The Earth Scientist THE 2004 SUMATRA EARTHQUAKE AND INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI: WHAT HAPPENED AND WHY Seth Stein and Emile A. Okal Dept of Geological Sciences, Northwestern University, Evanston Illinois

### Earthquake Magnitude

Earthquake Magnitude Earthquake magnitude scales: Logarithmic measure of earthquake size amplitude of biggest wave: Magnitude 6 quake 10 * Magnitude 5 energy: Magnitude 6 quake is about 32 * Magnitude

### Seismographs. Lesson 7. Seismographs recording activity on Kilauea

Seismographs Lesson 7 E arthquakes generate seismic waves that travel all around the world and can be detected by sensitive instruments called seismographs. The earliest instrument to detect earthquakes

### 3. When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source, which is called the. a. epicenter c. fault b. focus d.

NAME EARTH SCIENCE CHAPTER 8 1. A fault is. a. a place on Earth where earthquakes cannot occur b. a fracture in the Earth where movement has occurred c. the place on Earth s surface where structures move

### Section 1 Earth: A Unique Planet. Section 2 Energy in the Earth System

Earth as a System Section 2 Energy in the Earth System Section 3 Ecology Describe the size and shape of Earth. Describe the compositional and structural layers of Earth s interior. Identify the possible

### SIXTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

SIXTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SIXTH GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing the structure of different types of volcanoes. LAB: Plotting

### Chapter 9 Earthquakes and Volcanism

Chapter 9 Earthquakes and Volcanism I. Earth s Surface Relief II. Orogenesis III. Earthquakes A. What is an earthquake B. Anatomy of an Earthquake C. Measuring Earthquakes D. Tsunamis Earth s Hypsometry

### stress the amount of force per unit area that acts on a rock strain any change in a rock's shape or volume caused by stress Faults

----------------------------- -------- ------- Section 1 Review! deformation the bending, tilting, and breaking of Earth's crust; the change in the shape of rock in response to stress: fault a break in

### Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering

Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering by Dr. Deepankar Choudhury Professor Department of Civil Engineering IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076, India. Email: dc@civil.iitb.ac.in URL: http://www.civil.iitb.ac.in/~dc/

### sin ( sin(45 )) 70.5

Seismology and Global Waves Chap. 4 HW Answers 1. A swinging door is embedded in a N S oriented wall. What force direction would be required to make the door swing on its hinge?. A ray is travelling in

### 12.510 Introduction to Seismology Spring 2008

MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 12.510 Introduction to Seismology Spring 2008 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms. 04/30/2008 Today s

### 89.325 Geology for Engineers Earthquakes

89.325 Geology for Engineers Earthquakes Name I. Introduction The crust of the earth behaves in a brittle manner. Stress is the force applied to a brittle substance and strain represents the build-up of

### Earthquake source mechanics

Earthquake source mechanics Lecture 6 Seismic moment Earthquake magnitude Richter magnitude scale M = log A( ) - log A 0 ( ) where A is max trace amplitude at distance and A 0 is at 100 km Surface wave

### Determination of source parameters from seismic spectra

Topic Determination of source parameters from seismic spectra Authors Michael Baumbach, and Peter Bormann (formerly GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany); E-mail: pb65@gmx.net

### Summarize each paragraph in this area.

How Does a Seismograph Work? Reading and Worksheet Taken from http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geophysics/ question142.htm A seismograph is the device that scientists use to measure

### Chapter 5: Earthquakes

Chapter 5: Earthquakes 1. Experiencing an Earthquake firsthand 2. The Science of Ghost Forests and Megaearthquakes 3. Faults, Earthquakes, and Plate Tectonics 4. Seismic Waves and Earthquake Detection

### Plate Tectonics: An Online Investigation

Plate Tectonics: An Online Investigation Please visit mrges.com, click on the Labs link, and then on the Plate Tectonics Online Activity link. When you arrive at the module, begin by clicking the ENTER

### EARTH SCIENCE WEB PAGES

EARTH SCIENCE WEB PAGES SCIENTIFIC METHOD Steps of the Scientific Method PowerPoint http://step.nn.k12.va.us/science/6th_science/ppt/scientific_method.ppt PLATE TECTONICS AND FAULTS Plate Tectonics and

### Chapter 6 Earthquakes

Chapter 6 Earthquakes by G.H. Girty, Department of Geological Sciences, San Diego State University Page 1 Introduction Earthquakes are a shaking and vibration of the land surface. Such a phenomenon commonly

### The Severity of an Earthquake - ---- U.S. Department of the Interior/Geological Survey

The Severity of an Earthquake - ---- U.S. Department of the Interior/Geological Survey ----~ Earthquakes can be measured in terms of either the effect of the earthquake (intensity) or of the energy released

### Features of Plate Tectonics

Features of Plate Tectonics Section 12.2 Summary Textbook pages 518 537 Before You Read Earthquakes frequently occur in British Columbia. State what you already know about earthquakes in the lines below.

### Volcanoes and Earthquakes. Part 1: Volcanoes

Volcanoes and Earthquakes Part 1: Volcanoes Introduction Earth s crust is made of cool, solid rock. Yet, most of Earth is made of extremely hot rock in the mantle and liquid metal in the core. Sometimes,

### EARTHQUAKES AND SEISMOLOGY

EARTHQUAKES AND SEISMOLOGY Seismology is the study of earthquakes and seismic waves. Seismologists are concern with minimizing earthquakes destructiveness. They do this by assessing seismic risk in different

### FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FOURTH GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing different structures of volcanoes. LAB: Modeling three types

### Wave types. Word Bank TYPES OF WAVE. Student Worksheet 1. Part 1. Transverse Waves. 1 Label the following diagram of a transverse wave:

Student Worksheet 1 Wave types Part 1. Transverse Waves In a transverse wave, the vibrations move at right angles to the direction in which that the longitudinal wave is travelling. Word Bank Amplitude

### SUMMARY OF MAGNITUDE WORKING GROUP RECOMMENDATIONS ON DETERMINING EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDES FROM DIGITAL DATA

B SUMMARY OF MAGNITUDE WORKING GROUP RECOMMENDATIONS ON DETERMINING EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDES FROM DIGITAL DATA The Working Group on Magnitudes (Magnitude WG) of the International Association of Seismology

### Geological Maps 3: Faulted Strata

Geological Maps 3: Faulted Strata Brittle deformation in rocks is characterized by fractures, joints and faults. Fractures and joints can be of any size, orientation or pattern. Some joints form regular

### 2.1 REFRACTION SEISMOLOGY AND THE CRUST

2.1 REFRACTION SEISMOLOGY AND THE CRUST In 1885 all that was known about earth structure was a vague idea that the density inside had to be much greater than the surface. Within 50 years an incredible

### Oxfam Education Lesson 3: Earthquake - definitions Age Range: 7-11 years Time: 1 hour. Outline

Lesson 3: Earthquake - definitions Age Range: 7-11 years Time: 1 hour Outline Pupils will consider what kind of questions about the Haiti earthquake geographical story they have asked: easy to answer,

### Earthquakes and Tsunamis By: Sue Peterson

www.k5learning.com Objective sight words (tectonic plates, terrifying, anxiety-ridden, panic, equipped, imperative, aftershocks, subsided, horrified, urgent, reassemble, disorder, winding, treacherous);

### Magnitude 7.2 GUERRERO, MEXICO

A powerful magnitude-7.2 earthquake shook central and southern Mexico on Friday. The earthquake occurred at a depth of 24 km (15 miles). Its epicenter was in the western state of Guerrero, near the seaside

### 1976 Tangshan earthquake that killed over 250,000 people. Other countries have also recorded vast amounts of death and damage, as seen in Table 1.

Plate Tectonics: Earthquake Epicenter Introduction History Nothing can strike fear in the hearts of people quite like a natural disaster. The awesome power unleashed by a hurricane, tornado, volcano, or

1 of 37 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c0ya4_snbru 2 of 37 What are earthquakes? Earthquakes Earthquakes are vibrations caused by earth movements at plate boundaries and at major fault lines (cracks in

### Name: Date: Period: 1. The Grand Canyon was formed by. It was carved by the. 6. Landmasses that were once separated by oceans, have collided to form

Name: Date: Period: By Jack Erickson and Sylvia Lewandowski Provided by Tasa Graphic Arts, Inc. for The Theory of Plate Tectonics CD-ROM http://www.tasagraphicarts.com/progplate.html 1. The Grand Canyon

### Magnitude 7.0 OFFSHORE EL SALVADOR

A magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck off the Pacific coast of Central America Thursday at a depth of 10.3 kilometers (6.4 miles). Its epicenter was located 149 km (93 miles) south-southwest of Puerto Triunfo

### What is this section called? Credits

Station 1: Age of ocean floor Seafloor spreading is a process of plate tectonics. New oceanic crust is created as large slabs of the Earth's crust split apart from each other and magma moves up to fill

### Exam #3 - All numbered questions are given equal weight in the multiple choice part.

Exam #3 - All numbered questions are given equal weight in the multiple choice part. Multiple Choice Mark only one answer for each question. 1) On a global map of earthquakes, the locations of the earthquakes