# Location and Distance on Earth (Chapter 22 part 1)

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1 GEOLOGY 306 Laboratory Instructor: TERRY J. BOROUGHS NAME: Location and Distance on Earth (Chapter 22 part 1) For this assignment you will require: a calculator, protractor, and a metric ruler, and an atlas of maps (provided for you). Objectives: you should be able to explain the grid system used for locating places and features on Earth; use the Earth s grid system to accurately locate a place or feature; explain the relation between latitude and the angle of the North Star (Polaris) above the horizon; explain the relation between longitude and solar time; determine the shortest route and distance between any two places on Earth s surface. THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS REFER Chapter 22 IN YOUR MANUAL (Read the questions from your manual and place your answers in the following spaces provided.) 1. Complete questions 1 through 7A on the diagrams in your manual, 7 th edition or questions 1 through 6 A, 8 th edition. This will give you the needed practice to move on to question 7B, 7 th edition or 6B, 8 th edition. 7. Part B: Estimate the latitude of the various points associated with question 7B (7 th edition) or 6B (8 th edition). Point A: 30N Latitude Point B: 5S Latitude Point C: Point D: Point E: Point F: Use the index in the back of the Atlas of maps provided by your instructor to complete the following questions from your laboratory manual. 8. Identify the Latitiude of the following locations: Zurich, Switzerland: Cairo, Egypt: Your home city, (identify and locate): Los Angeles, California: 9. The farthest one can be from the equator is (45, 90, or 180) degrees of latitude. Select the best answer. 10. What are the names of the two places on Earth that are farthest from the equator to the north and the south? 11. What are the names of the five special parallels of latitude marked and named on most globes at the following locations? N Latitude: N Latitude: Latitude: S Latitude: S Latitude: 1

2 12. Is the angle of Polaris above the horizon from someone standing a point C, figure 22.3 (45, 90, or 180 degrees)? Select the best answer. 13. Describe the relationship between the angle of Polaris and the angle of Latitude. 14. What is the degree to Polaris for the following locations? Anchorage, AK: degrees, minutes, etc. Calgary, Canada: degrees, minutes, etc. Orlando, Fl: degrees, minutes, etc. Your home city, (identify and locate): degrees, minutes, etc. San Francisco, CA: degrees, minutes, etc. 15. Identify the city that the prime meridian runs through in England! 16. How many degrees of longitude separate each of the meridians on most globes or maps? 17. Identify the Longitude for the following locations on Figure Point A: 30E Longitude Point B: 20W Longitude Point C: Point D: Point E: Point F: 18. Identify the Longitudes of the following locations: Melbourne, Australia: Honolulu, Hawaii: Your home city, (identify and locate): Los Angeles, Ca. 19. The farthest a place can be directly east or west of the prime meridian is (45, 90 or 180 degrees). Select the best answer. 2

3 20. What is the Solar time for an observer located 1 degree West of the Noon Meridian? 21. What is the Solar time for an observer located 4 degrees East of the Noon Meridian? 22. If it is noon, according to Solar time (the Sun is directly above) at 70 W longitude, what is the solar time at each of the following locations? 65 W Longitude: 72 W Longitude 90 W Longitude: 110 E Longitude: 23. The following times represent Greenwich Mean Time or the time at the Prime Meridian in Greenwich, England. Using these times and the fact that the time at your ship s location is Noon (the Sun is directly above you), determine the Longitude of your ship relative to the Prime Meridian. Don t forget to include a direction (either East or West of the Prime Meridian!) Note: drawing a diagram showing the Prime Meridian, the ship s location east or west of the prime meridian, and the difference in hours may be helpful. 6:00 P.M.: 1:00 A.M.: 2:30 P.M.: 24. Using Figure 22.7 (7 th edition) or figure 22.6 (8 th edition) estimate the Latitude and Longitude of the following points. Point A: 30N Latitude, 60E Longitude Point B: Latitude, Longitude Point C: Latitude, Longitude Point D: Latitude, Longitude Point E: Latitude, Longitude 25. Identify the Latitude and Longitude of the following locations: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Latitude, Longitude Krakow, Poland: Latitude, Longitude Moscow, Russia: Latitude, Longitude Perth, Australia: Latitude, Longitude Lima, Peru: Latitude, Longitude 3

4 26. Identify the major (internationally-known) location (city, lake, mountain peak, etc.) based upon the Latitude and Longitude provided and any of the maps, globes, and atlases provided in the class room. If the location is a city, you should find an exact match for the latitude and longitude in your atlas. If the location is a geographical feature such as a lake or mountain range which covers a larger area, you may find an approximate match rather than an exact match in your atlas N Latitude, W Longitude: N Latitude, E Longitude: S Latitude, E Longitude: 27. Extra credit! Use the following map to complete this question. Use a wall map of the world or world map in an atlas to find the following water bodies, rivers, and mountains. Examine their latitudes and longitudes, and then label each on the world map provided. To conserve space mark only the number or letter of the feature at the appropriate location on the map. The letter or number should be located and written directly on top of the appropriate feature, not off to the side of it!!! Water Bodies A. Pacific Ocean B. Atlantic Ocean C. Indian Ocean D. Arctic Ocean E. Gulf of Mexico F. Mediterranean Sea G. Caribbean Sea H. Persian Gulf I. Red Sea J. Sea of Japan K. Black Sea L. Caspian Sea Rivers North America a. Mississippi b. Colorado c. Missouri d. Ohio South America e. Amazon Europe and Asia f. Volga g. Mekong h. Ganges i. Yangtze Africa and Australia j. Nile k. Congo l. Darling Mountains North America 1. Rocky Mountains 2. Cascade Range 3. Sierra Nevada 4. Appalachian Mountains 5. Black hills 6. Teton Range 7. Adirondack Mountains South America 8. Andes Mountains Europe and Asia 9. Pyrenees Mountains 10. Alps 11. Himalaya Mountains 12. Ural Mountains Africa and Australia 13. Atlas mountains 14. MacDonnell Ranges 4

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6 Geologic Maps and Structures (Chapter 7) (7 th Edition) or (Chapter 8) (8 th edition) For this assignment you will require: metric ruler, protractor, colored pencils and eraser. Objectives: you should be able to explain how geologists describe the orientation of folded rocks and faults using the measurements strike and dip; draw and interpret a simple geologic block diagram; describe the various types of folds and how they form; recognize and diagram anticlines, synclines, domes and basins in both geologic map and cross-sectional views; discuss the formation and types of dip-slip and strike-slip faults; recognize and diagram the various types of faults in both geologic map and cross-sectional views; interpret a simplified geologic map and use it to construct a geologic cross section. TYPES OF STRESS: COMPRESSION TENSION SHEAR Directed pressure/stress toward each other, associated with converging plate margins. Directed pressure/stress away from each other, associated with diverging plate margins. Directed pressure/stress sliding past each other, associated with transform plate margins. TYPES OF STRAIN: ELASTIC: PLASTIC: OR DUCTILE: BRITTLE: Non-permanent deformation, once stress is released, the material returns to its original configuration. Permanent deformation, often ductile curved in appearance. Rigid deformation, where the material will rupture and break. STRIKE AND DIP: STRIKE: DIP: Describes the orientation of the strata relative to the compass directions (N, S, E, W) FOR EXAMPLE: STRIKE: N45W Describes the amount and direction of tilting of the strata. FOR EXAMPLE: DIP: 45N Describe the type of deformation you would expect if you dropped each of the items listed below onto a concrete floor. Elastic, Brittle, or Ductile Deformation Material Type of Deformation Wine Glass Modeling Clay China Plate Tennis Ball Pizza Dough 6

7 Fill in the blanks to formulate a series of handy-dandy rules to help in the interpretation of geologic maps and cross sections. a. The following rules refer to relative ages of sedimentary beds. Choose OLDER" OR YOUNGER" for your answers. When synclines and basin are eroded, the beds exposed in the center are than the beds exposed away from the center. When anticlines and domes are eroded, the beds exposed in the center are than the beds exposed away from the center. b. The following rules refer to beds and contacts between beds, as seen in map view. When folds have been eroded, the contacts between beds, as seen on a horizontal surface, are straight and parallel. Choose plunging or non - plunging. When plunging synclines have been eroded, the contacts between beds, as seen in map view, bend so as to point the direction of plunge. Choose toward or away from. When plunging anticlines have been eroded, the contacts between beds, as seen in map view, bend so as to point the direction of plunge. Choose toward or away from. The outcrop width of a bed as the angle between the surface and the dip of the bed decreases. Choose increases or decreases THE FOLLOWING PROBLEMS USE BLOCK DIAGRAMS REMEMBER STRIKE AND DIP READINGS INCLUDE BOTH AN ANGLE AND COMPASS DIRECTIONS! FOR EXAMPLE STRIKE: N45 W, DIP: 60 N For these 3D diagrams, just estimate the angles involved, e.g. 15, 30, 45, 60, and over 75. Block A 7

8 BLOCK A. 1. Use the Strike and dip symbols to help you identify various features/aspects of this fold. 2. Is this a plunging fold? 3. Identify the strike (of the fold axis and limbs) Identify the dip for EACH of the fold limbs. Remember to include both the approximate dip angle and dip direction! For Example: 45 E and 45 W 4. Identify this fold BLOCK B and 1. Use the Strike and dip symbols to help you identify various features/aspects of this fold. 2. Is this a plunging fold? 3. Identify the strike (of the fold axis and limbs) Identify the dip for EACH of the fold limbs. Remember to include both the approximate dip angle and dip direction! For Example: 45 E and 45 W 4. Identify this fold and Block B Block C 8

9 BLOCK C 1. Use the Strike and dip symbols to help you identify various features/aspects of this fold. 2. Is this a plunging fold? 3. Identify the direction of plunge and the approximate amount of plunge of the fold axis. 4. Identify this fold BE SPECIFIC! BLOCK D 1. Draw the relative movement of the hanging wall and footwall ON THE FRONT (CROSS-SECTIONAL) VIEW using arrows. Identify the dip of the fault surface. Remember to include both the approximate dip angle and dip direction! For Example: 45 E 2. Is the hanging wall moving up or down? 3. Identify this fault. Block D Block E 9

10 BLOCK E 1. Draw the relative movement of the hanging wall and footwall ON THE FRONT (CROSS-SECTIONAL) VIEW using arrows. Identify the dip of the fault surface. Remember to include both the approximate dip angle and dip direction! For Example: 45 E 2. Is the hanging wall moving up or down? 3. Identify this fault. BLOCK F 1. Draw the relative movement of the hanging wall and footwall ON THE FRONT (CROSS-SECTIONAL) VIEW using arrows. Identify the dip of the fault surface. Remember to include both the approximate dip angle and dip direction! For Example: 45 E 2. Is the hanging wall moving up or down? 3. Identify this fault. BE SPECIFIC! Block F Block G 10

11 BLOCK G 1. Draw the relative movement of the fault on the MAP (surface) view using arrows. 2. What is the strike of the fault plane? 3. What is the relative motion on this fault? 4. Identify this fault. BE SPECIFIC! THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS REFER TO Chapter 7 (7 th edition) or Chapter 8 (8 th Edition) IN YOUR MANUAL (Read the questions from your manual and place your answers in the following spaces provided.) 2. Place your answers here rather than on figure 7.5 (7 th edition) or figure 8.4 (8 th edition) of your manual. Left Map: Strike: North Angle of Dip: Direction of Dip: Right Map: Strike: North Angle of Dip: Direction of Dip: 3. Write your answers here regarding fold types in figure 7.16 (7 th edition) or figure 8.12 (8 th edition): Identify the fold in each diagram: Left diagram: Right Diagram: Identify the ages of the rock layers in each of the diagrams: Anticline: Youngest: : Oldest Syncline: Youngest: : Oldest The plane extending through each block diagram is called: The rock layers for the anticline dip the axial plane. The rock layers for the syncline dip the axial plane. The Syncline is symmetrical or asymmetrical? The Anticline is symmetrical or asymmetrical? Are these folds plunging or non-plunging? Rocks exposed at the surface of the syncline get older or younger as you move away from the fold axis? 11

12 Rocks exposed at the surface of the anticline get older or younger as you move away from the fold axis? 4. Using Figure 7.21 (7 th edition) or figure 8.16 (8 th edition), you should observe the blocks of rock on either side of the fault and indicate the relative ages of the surface rocks on either side of the fault trace. One side will be older and the other side will be younger. Keep in mind that the fault will dip toward the Hanging wall, which will also be above the fault surface. The block that is below the fault surface will be the Foot wall. Using this information complete the following questions. a. On an eroded normal fault, the rocks at the surface on the direction of the dip (side in which the fault is dipping and/or the Hanging wall side) are the (youngest or oldest) surface rocks? Pick one. b. On an eroded reverse fault, the rocks at the surface on the direction of the dip (side in which the fault is dipping and/or the Hanging wall side) are the (youngest or oldest) surface rocks? Pick one. 5. Is the fault illustrated in figure 7.23 or figure 8.19 (8 th edition) a (right-lateral or left-lateral) strikeslip fault? Pick one. The following questions refer to figure 7.25 (7 th edition) or figure 8.22 (8 th edition) a geologic map of the Devils Fence, Montana area. 6. What is the verbal and fractional scale of the Devils Fence map? You may have to convert your verbal scale to a fractional scale. Verbal Scale: 1 inch = Miles Fractional Scale: : 7. Identify the Oldest and youngest sedimentary rocks by the Name and geologic age (not numerical age) Youngest: Name: Geologic Age (name): Oldest: Name: Geologic Age (name): 8. Are the intrusive igneous rocks near the center of the structure in (younger or older) than the adjacent sedimentary rocks? Pick one. 9. Examine the strike and dip of the rock units on the Devils Fence Geologic map. Draw in several large arrows on the map, pointing in the direction of dip of several of the rock units. A) Do the rock layers indicated near the center of the map in section 14 dip toward the (northwest or southeast)? Pick one. B) The same rocks in section 14 are also found in section 18. Do the rocks in section 18 dip toward the (East or West)? Pick one A: B: 12

13 10. What is the approximate angle of dip of the rock units in section section 2? Angle of Dip: 11. Are the rocks getting (older or younger) away from the center of the fold? Pick one. 12. Is this geologic structure a (non-plunging or plunging) (Anticline or Syncline)? Pick the best combination of answers. 13. List two lines of evidence that you used to determine the type of structure identified above. Evidence: Additional Extra credit questions: (Summary / Report Page): 1. Use figure 7.27 (7 th edition) or figure 8.23 (8 th edition) in your manual and provide the strike and dip of the igneous intrusion (7 th edition) or limestone layer (8 th edition). Strike: North Angle and direction of dip: 2. What type of stress, (compression or tension) was responsible for producing the geologic structure in figure 7.25 (7 th edition) or figure 8.22 (8 th edition)? Pick one. 3. With reference to the axial plane, where are the youngest rocks located in an eroded anticline? 4. Label the hanging wall and the footwall on each of the two faults illustrated in figure 7.29 (6 th edition) or figure 7.31 (7 th edition) or 8.27 (8 th edition). On each photo, draw arrows showing the relative movement of both sides of the fault. Determine if the hanging wall is going up or down for each photo. Name the type of fault illustrated in each photo and describe the forces or stresses that produced it. Is the hanging wall going up or down for figure A: Figure B: A. Name: Stress / Forces: B. Name: Stress / Forces: 13

14 BLOCK H 1. Draw and identify the fold axis on this fold. (Use appropriate symbols) 2. Are the folds in this diagram plunging or non-plunging? 3. Identify this fold 4. On the fault, is the hanging wall moving up or down? 5. What is the strike and approximate dip of the fault? 6. Identify the fault Block H The End!! 14

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