Plate Tectonics: Ridges, Transform Faults and Subduction Zones

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Plate Tectonics: Ridges, Transform Faults and Subduction Zones"

Transcription

1 Plate Tectonics: Ridges, Transform Faults and Subduction Zones Goals of this exercise: 1. review the major physiographic features of the ocean basins 2. investigate the creation of oceanic crust at mid-ocean ridges 3. explore different types of plate boundaries 4. examine the origin of the arc-trench gap in subduction zones Introductory material After World War II, detailed surveys of the ocean floor revealed complex topography that required geologists to rethink completely their concepts about the structure of the ocean basins. Prior to this pioneering oceanographic work, the ocean floors were assumed to be simple flat plains that collected sediment over the vastness of geologic time. The new oceanographic surveys revealed the topography to be incredibly diverse, consisting of mountain ranges and deep trenches that dwarfed anything seen on land. By the mid-1960s the extent of these submarine features had been mapped, and six major topographic features were defined: mid-ocean ridges, fracture zones/transform faults, seamounts, trenches, abyssal plains and continental margins. The single largest topographic feature on the planet is the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system. This huge mountain range extends for 65,000 km and cuts across all major ocean basins. At its widest, the MOR is nearly 1500 km across and reaches heights of 3 km above the ocean floor. One perplexing discovery was that of linear features that are generally oriented at right angles to the ridge and that offset the MOR system. Some of these structures extend nearly half the way across the ocean basins. Among the unusual features of these structures were: Significant differences in sea-floor elevation across them Termination at continental margins Confinement of seismic activity to the region between offset ridge crests Offset of magnetic lineations across the structures Significantly different ages of ocean floor on adjacent sides of a structure In 1965 J. Tuzo Wilson interpreted these features as transform faults. Wilson s concept of the transform fault was a keystone in the development of plate tectonic theory. The abyssal plains occur in the deep parts of ocean basins and represent regions where oceanic sediment covers the topographic roughness of the ocean floor. Abyssal plains are much more common and better developed in the Atlantic than in the Pacific Ocean. Deep-sea trenches occur along the coasts of many continental landmasses. They are filled with large quantities of sediment eroded from the continent, as well as material scraped off of a descending plate. Trenches that are located far from continents (where ocean crust descends beneath an oceanic plate) are very deep and contain little sediment. The deepest spot measured on Earth is in the Marianas Trench near the Philippines it is 11,021 meters (36,160 feet) below sea level. Trenches may extend for thousands of kilometers along the sea floor; they are km (25-75 miles) wide and are associated with both earthquakes and volcanoes. Note figures in this lab are reproduced with permission from Houghton Mifflin Company.

2 Plate Tectonics Ridges, Transform Faults, and Subduction zones Name: Date: Activity 1: Ridges, Isochrons and the Creation of Oceanic Crust 1. Figure PT-1 shows a ridge at three different times after spreading began i.e., 30 my, 60 my and 100 my. a. Along the bottom of each map, mark the mid-ocean ridge with an R. b. Draw arrows (above or below the isochrones) the show the direction of plate motion. c. Place an O above the isochron the represents the oldest crust. d. Write a Y above the isochron that represents the youngest crust. 2. What does the spacing of the isochrons tell us about the spreading rate? 3. If the full spreading rate of the ridge is 2.5 cm/yr, and the ridge has been spreading for 100 my, what is the total length of new crust added to the ocean floor? Full spreading rate refers to crustal addition on both sides of the active MOR, whereas half-spreading rate (a term more commonly used) refers only to crustal addition on one of the ocean plates. Activity 2: Magnetic Reversals and Ocean Floor Magnetic Anomalies Using your knowledge of how magnetic anomalies form (we will go over this concept in class) and this figure putlinkhere, answer the following questions. a. Near what major geologic feature of the Earth s surface is older oceanic crust always located? b. What is the age of the oldest oceanic crust found on Earth? c. How does this age compare with the oldest continental rocks? d. Assuming that the Earth is 4.6 billion years old, what percentage of Earth history is recorded by the rocks of the ocean basins? e. Why are there no old rocks found on the ocean floor? f. When did the North Atlantic Ocean basin begin to open up?

3 Figure PT-1

4 g. Estimate the maximum age of volcanic rocks on Iceland using the magnetic striping of the ocean floor. h. With these answers in mind, what can you say about Iceland when the North Atlantic Ocean began to form? i. When did the South Atlantic Ocean basin begin to form? Activity 3. Transform Faults and Fracture Zones Figure PT-2 shows the ocean floor around a ridge at three different periods of sea-floor spreading. Stage 1 corresponds to the appearance of the ocean floor at the onset of spreading. Stage 2 represents the ocean floor 15 my after spreading began. Stage 3 shows the ocean floor after 30 my of spreading. Remember that the transform fault is located between the active ridge axes, whereas the fracture zone extends away from the ridge crest across the ocean floor. 1. Record the following on the Stage 1, 2 and 3 maps: a. Mark the ridge with an R. b. Mark the fracture zone(s) with x and the transform fault(s) with a plus sign (+). c. For the ridge segments, mark the direction of spreading with arrows. d. Use arrows to show the motion of the plate segments on both sides of the fracture zones and the transform fault. 2. How does the distance between the ridges change as spreading progresses? 3. How does the length of the transform fault vary with time? 4. How does the length of the fracture zones vary with time? 5. Where in this system are the plates moving past one another? 6. What type of geologic event would you expect to occur in this region? 7. Why are fracture zones aseismic (lacking earthquakes)? 8. Where in the region would you sample the youngest submarine lava flows?

5 Figure PT-2 (Ignore the dashed and dotted lines they are there to help you but apparently are somewhat confusing!)

6 Activity 4. Subduction Zones and the Arc-Trench Gap 1. Figure PT-3 is a cross section of a subduction zone. We will use it to investigate the factors that determine the width of the arc-trench gap and formulate a scientific model relating these dips and the arc-trench gap. This model can be used to predict plate dip and seismicity based on the width of the arc-trench gap. a. Draw a straight line (representing the top of the subducting plate) from the trench to each subduction angle shown on the bottom and the right-hand side of the diagram. b. Noting that the volcanic arc is located 100 km above the subducting plate, project the position of each volcanic arc to the Earth s surface. Mark the position with a V and a subscript indicating the dip angle e.g., V 10 for the slab dipping 10 o. c. Mark the earthquake pattern along each plate by showing shallow earthquakes (0-100 km) with an S, intermediate ones ( km) with an I, and deep earthquakes (>200 km) with a D. d. Using the following directions, transfer the location of the volcanic arc and the earthquake distribution pattern to maps of the ocean floor shown in figure PT-4. i. Measure the horizontal distance from the trench to the volcanic line in figure PT-3. Draw a line of circles on figure PT-4 showing the location of the arc volcanoes. ii. iii. Measure the distance to the intermediate-deep earthquake boundary. Indicate this location on figure PT-4. Indicate the distribution of each type of earthquake on figure PT-4. Figure PT-3

7 Figure PT-4

8 2. Using the maps you have drawn in figure PT-4, it is possible to construct a scientific model that can predict features of subduction zones when you do not know the subsurface structure. a. Measure the width of the arc-trench gap for each subduction angle and enter these values in figure PT-5. Connect the data points with a smooth curve. b. From this plot, estimate the dip of the subducting plate if the arc-trench gap is 175 km. 3. How does the dip of the subduction zone influence the arc-trench gap? 4. Where are most subduction zones located globally? 5. Why is this distribution so important in terms of planning for geologic hazards? Figure PT-5

TECTONICS ASSESSMENT

TECTONICS ASSESSMENT Tectonics Assessment / 1 TECTONICS ASSESSMENT 1. Movement along plate boundaries produces A. tides. B. fronts. C. hurricanes. D. earthquakes. 2. Which of the following is TRUE about the movement of continents?

More information

Continental Drift: An Idea Before Its Time

Continental Drift: An Idea Before Its Time Continental Drift: An Idea Before Its Time Alfred Wegener (1880 1930) Continental drift hypothesis: The world's continents are in motion and have been drifting apart into different configurations over

More information

How Did These Ocean Features and Continental Margins Form?

How Did These Ocean Features and Continental Margins Form? 298 10.14 INVESTIGATION How Did These Ocean Features and Continental Margins Form? The terrain below contains various features on the seafloor, as well as parts of three continents. Some general observations

More information

Earth Systems Science Lab 8 - Plate Tectonics

Earth Systems Science Lab 8 - Plate Tectonics Earth Systems Science Lab 8 - Plate Tectonics Name Introduction: An important reason why Earth is so unique is that it is geologically alive. Our planet s internal heat engine drives the motion of its

More information

Plate Tectonics Chapter 2

Plate Tectonics Chapter 2 Plate Tectonics Chapter 2 Does not include complete lecture notes. Continental drift: An idea before its time Alfred Wegener First proposed his continental drift hypothesis in 1915 Published The Origin

More information

Chapter Overview. Bathymetry. Measuring Bathymetry. Echo Sounding Record. Measuring Bathymetry. CHAPTER 3 Marine Provinces

Chapter Overview. Bathymetry. Measuring Bathymetry. Echo Sounding Record. Measuring Bathymetry. CHAPTER 3 Marine Provinces Chapter Overview CHAPTER 3 Marine Provinces The study of bathymetry charts ocean depths and ocean floor topography. Echo sounding and satellites are efficient bathymetric tools. Most ocean floor features

More information

1. Notice that there are two predominate colors on this map. What are the elevations represented by these two primary colors on this map?

1. Notice that there are two predominate colors on this map. What are the elevations represented by these two primary colors on this map? Geology 101 Plate Tectonics Study Guide Addendum Part I: Observations- Four maps of world are positioned around the room. Answer the questions associated with each map and record your general observations

More information

Plate Tectonics Review

Plate Tectonics Review 1. Recent volcanic activity in different parts of the world supports the inference that volcanoes are located mainly in 1) the centers of landscape regions 2) the central regions of the continents 3) zones

More information

PLATE TECTONICS. The Basic Premise of Plate Tectonics

PLATE TECTONICS. The Basic Premise of Plate Tectonics PLATE TECTONICS The Basic Premise of Plate Tectonics The lithosphere is divided into plates that move relative to one another, and relative to the earth s asthenosphere. Movement occurs at very slow (cm/yr)

More information

Earth and Space Science. Semester 2 Exam Review. Part 1. - Convection currents circulate in the Asthenosphere located in the Upper Mantle.

Earth and Space Science. Semester 2 Exam Review. Part 1. - Convection currents circulate in the Asthenosphere located in the Upper Mantle. Earth and Space Science Semester 2 Exam Review Part 1 Convection -A form of heat transfer. - Convection currents circulate in the Asthenosphere located in the Upper Mantle. - Source of heat is from the

More information

Earth Science Chapter 14 Section 2 Review

Earth Science Chapter 14 Section 2 Review Name: Class: Date: Earth Science Chapter 14 Section Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following is NOT one of the three

More information

CHAPTER 2 Plate Tectonics and the Ocean Floor. Plate tectonics or the new global geology

CHAPTER 2 Plate Tectonics and the Ocean Floor. Plate tectonics or the new global geology CHAPTER 2 Plate Tectonics and the Ocean Floor Fig. 2-32 Plate tectonics or the new global geology Thin, rigid blocks move horizontally Interactions of plates build major features of Earth s s crust Fig.

More information

Plate Tectonics. Introduction. Boundaries between crustal plates

Plate Tectonics. Introduction. Boundaries between crustal plates Plate Tectonics KEY WORDS: continental drift, seafloor spreading, plate tectonics, mid ocean ridge (MOR) system, spreading center, rise, divergent plate boundary, subduction zone, convergent plate boundary,

More information

Exam #3 - All numbered questions are given equal weight in the multiple choice part.

Exam #3 - All numbered questions are given equal weight in the multiple choice part. Exam #3 - All numbered questions are given equal weight in the multiple choice part. Multiple Choice Mark only one answer for each question. 1) On a global map of earthquakes, the locations of the earthquakes

More information

Plate Tectonics. Earth, 9 th edition Chapter 2

Plate Tectonics. Earth, 9 th edition Chapter 2 1 Plate Tectonics Earth, 9 th edition Chapter 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Plate Tectonics: summary in haiku form Alfred Wegener gave us Continental Drift. Fifty years later... Continental Drift

More information

Transform Boundaries

Transform Boundaries Lecture 7 Plates and Mantle Plumes Transform Boundaries Transform boundaries occur where one segment of rigid lithosphere slides horizontally past another in response to stresses in the lithosphere. The

More information

Lab 8A: Investigating Tectonic Plate Boundaries Using Online Geospatial Technology. MAP URL:

Lab 8A: Investigating Tectonic Plate Boundaries Using Online Geospatial Technology. MAP URL: Lab 8A: Investigating Tectonic Plate Boundaries Using Online Geospatial Technology NAME: PERIOD: SCORE: Activity: Discover and investigate tectonic plate boundaries by analyzing maps showing seismic and

More information

There are three basic types of plate margins. I will list them here, and then discuss each of them in turn. These plate margins are:

There are three basic types of plate margins. I will list them here, and then discuss each of them in turn. These plate margins are: PLATE MARGINS As we discussed in class, while there is interesting geology all over the world, much of the most interesting and spectacular events occur where two plates meet. We refer to such regions

More information

Lab 6: Plate Tectonics: Introduction to Relative Plate Motions. Geology 202: Earth s Interior

Lab 6: Plate Tectonics: Introduction to Relative Plate Motions. Geology 202: Earth s Interior Introduction: Lab 6: Plate Tectonics: Introduction to Relative Plate Motions Geology 202: Earth s Interior In plate tectonics, the mantle and the crust of the earth are divided into layers, called the

More information

4. Plate Tectonics II (p. 46-67)

4. Plate Tectonics II (p. 46-67) 4. Plate Tectonics II (p. 46-67) Seafloor Spreading In the early 1960s, samples of basaltic ocean crust were dredged up from various locations across the ocean basins. The samples were then analyzed to

More information

Earth: An Introduc/on to Physical Geology, 10e

Earth: An Introduc/on to Physical Geology, 10e Earth: An Introduc/on to Physical Geology, 10e Tarbuck & Lutgens Plate Tectonics: A Scien/fic Revolu/on Unfolds Earth, 10e - Chapter 2 Hernan Santos University of Puerto Rico Mayagüez Campus Con/nental

More information

Fig. 1. Introduction to Plate Tectonics Courtesy: UCLA, ESS

Fig. 1. Introduction to Plate Tectonics Courtesy: UCLA, ESS Introduction to Plate Tectonics Courtesy: UCLA, ESS The concept of plate tectonics provides a holistic view of how the Earth works. According to the theory, the outermost division of the Earth consists

More information

3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics

3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics CHAPTER 4 3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics SECTION Plate Tectonics BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is the theory of plate tectonics? What

More information

Interactive Plate Tectonics

Interactive Plate Tectonics Interactive Plate Tectonics Directions: Go to the following website and complete the questions below. http://www.learner.org/interactives/dynamicearth/index.html How do scientists learn about the interior

More information

Introduction to Plate Tectonics Plate tectonics

Introduction to Plate Tectonics Plate tectonics Quizlet Magnetic stripes along the seafloor are evidence for a) Earth s magnetic reversals b) Seafloor spreading c) Convection currents in the mantle d) Magnetite's ability to orient with a magnetic field

More information

Plate Tectonics Lab II

Plate Tectonics Lab II Plate Tectonics Lab II This lab is modified from a UW ESS101 Lab created by Mike Harrell Note: Hand in only the Answer Sheet at the back of this guide to your Instructor Introduction One of the more fundamental

More information

Geol 101: Physical Geology PAST EXAM QUESTIONS LECTURE 4: PLATE TECTONICS II

Geol 101: Physical Geology PAST EXAM QUESTIONS LECTURE 4: PLATE TECTONICS II Geol 101: Physical Geology PAST EXAM QUESTIONS LECTURE 4: PLATE TECTONICS II 4. Which of the following statements about paleomagnetism at spreading ridges is FALSE? A. there is a clear pattern of paleomagnetic

More information

IDS 102 Plate Tectonics Questions

IDS 102 Plate Tectonics Questions IDS 102 Plate Tectonics Questions Part I: Observations- Four maps of world are positioned around the room. Answer the questions associated with each map and record your general observations about the maps.

More information

SCIENCE 10 Unit 4: Earth Science Review

SCIENCE 10 Unit 4: Earth Science Review SCIENCE 10 Unit 4: Earth Science Review Use the following diagram to answer questions 1 and 2. 1. Which location has the youngest crust? A. A B. B C. C D. D 2. Which location is associated with subduction?

More information

Name Chapter 10 Investigation Worksheet

Name Chapter 10 Investigation Worksheet Name Chapter 10 Investigation Worksheet To complete this worksheet, see the instructions in the textbook (Chapter 10 Investigation). Table 1. Identification of Features on the Ocean Floor Different oceanic

More information

Name: Lab: Exploring Patterns in Regional Seismicity. Lev Horodyskyj v1.1 - June 2009

Name: Lab: Exploring Patterns in Regional Seismicity. Lev Horodyskyj v1.1 - June 2009 Name: Lab: Exploring Patterns in Regional Seismicity Lev Horodyskyj LevH@psu.edu; v1.1 - June 2009 Content Objectives - By the end of the exercise, students should be able to: - Describe the basic properties

More information

Chapter 8: Plate Tectonics -- Multi-format Test

Chapter 8: Plate Tectonics -- Multi-format Test Name: Class: Date: ID: A Chapter 8: Plate Tectonics -- Multi-format Test Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the

More information

Hot Spots & Plate Tectonics

Hot Spots & Plate Tectonics Hot Spots & Plate Tectonics Activity I: Hawaiian Islands Procedures: Use the map and the following information to determine the rate of motion of the Pacific Plate over the Hawaiian hot spot. The volcano

More information

11.3 Plate Boundaries In this section, you will learn how movement at the boundaries of lithospheric plates affects Earth s surface.

11.3 Plate Boundaries In this section, you will learn how movement at the boundaries of lithospheric plates affects Earth s surface. 11.3 Plate Boundaries In this section, you will learn how movement at the boundaries of lithospheric plates affects Earth s surface. Moving plates Three types of boundaries Imagine a single plate, moving

More information

Plate Boundaries, evidence to support Plate Tectonics, Mechanisms of Motion

Plate Boundaries, evidence to support Plate Tectonics, Mechanisms of Motion Plate Boundaries, evidence to support Plate Tectonics, Mechanisms of Motion I. Divergent Boundaries A. Moving apart B. Sea Floor spreading at Oceanic Ridges 1. Ridge is a relative term a. 2000-3000 m higher

More information

Plate Tectonics. Structure of the Earth

Plate Tectonics. Structure of the Earth Plate Tectonics Structure of the Earth The Earth can be considered as being made up of a series of concentric spheres, each made up of materials that differ in terms of composition and mechanical properties.

More information

Key topics today: How do we know about the Earth s interior structure? Earth s layering: By composition

Key topics today: How do we know about the Earth s interior structure? Earth s layering: By composition Solid-earth geology: Plate tectonics, earthquakes, and volcanoes Explain shape and structure of the ocean basins Explain cycle of oceanic opening and closing Explain many aspects of basic marine geology

More information

Unit 4 Lesson 2 Plate Tectonics. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 4 Lesson 2 Plate Tectonics. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Puzzling Evidence What evidence suggests that continents move? In the late 1800s, Alfred Wegener proposed his hypothesis of continental drift. According to this hypothesis, the continents once formed a

More information

Assignment #3: Plate Tectonics

Assignment #3: Plate Tectonics Assignment #3: Plate Tectonics Overview: In this assignment we will examine the ideas of continental drift and of sea-floor spreading that lead to the Theory of Plate Tectonics. This assignment is in two

More information

Tectonic plates have different boundaries.

Tectonic plates have different boundaries. KEY CONCEPT Plates move apart. BEFORE, you learned The continents join and break apart The sea floor provides evidence that tectonic plates move The theory of plate tectonics helps explain how the plates

More information

Ch 9.1 Continental Drift

Ch 9.1 Continental Drift Ch 9 Plate Tectonics 9.1 Continental Drift 9.2 Plate Tectonics 9.3 Actions of Plate Tectonics 9.4Testing Plate Tectonics 9.5 Mechanisms of Plate Motion Ch 9.1 Continental Drift l The proposed radical hypothesis

More information

Plate Tectonics: Big Ideas. Plate Tectonics. Plate Tectonics. The unifying concept of the Earth sciences.

Plate Tectonics: Big Ideas. Plate Tectonics. Plate Tectonics. The unifying concept of the Earth sciences. Plate Tectonics: Big Ideas Our understanding of Earth is continuously refined. Earth s systems are dynamic; they continually react to changing influences from geological, hydrological, physical, chemical,

More information

Chapter 2. Plate Tectonics. Plate Tectonics: Learning Goals

Chapter 2. Plate Tectonics. Plate Tectonics: Learning Goals Plate Tectonics Chapter 2 Interactions at depend on the direction of relative plate motion and the type of crust. Which kind of plate boundary is associated with Earthquake activity? A. Divergent Boundary

More information

Earth. What is a Lithospheric Plate? The Way the Earth Works: Plate Tectonics. Chapter 4 CEEES/SC Portrait of a Planet Fifth Edition

Earth. What is a Lithospheric Plate? The Way the Earth Works: Plate Tectonics. Chapter 4 CEEES/SC Portrait of a Planet Fifth Edition CEEES/SC 10110-20110 The Way the Earth Works: Plate Tectonics Earth Portrait of a Planet Fifth Edition Chapter 4 1 What is a Lithospheric Plate? Continental crust is thicker, less dense, and sits at a

More information

Tectonic plates push together at convergent boundaries.

Tectonic plates push together at convergent boundaries. KEY CONCEPT Plates converge or scrape past each other. BEFORE, you learned Plates move apart at divergent boundaries In the oceans, divergent boundaries mark where the sea floor spreads apart On land,

More information

Plate Tectonics. Plate Tectonics The unifying concept of the Earth sciences. Continental Drift

Plate Tectonics. Plate Tectonics The unifying concept of the Earth sciences. Continental Drift Plate Tectonics The unifying concept of the Earth sciences. The outer portion of the Earth is made up of about 20 distinct plates (~ 100 km thick), which move relative to each other This motion is what

More information

Plate Tectonics Lab. Continental Drift. The Birth of Plate Tectonics

Plate Tectonics Lab. Continental Drift. The Birth of Plate Tectonics Plate Tectonics Lab Continental Drift Take a look at a globe sometime and observe the remarkable fit between South America and Africa. Could they have, in fact, been connected? During the 19th and early

More information

Plate Tectonic Theory

Plate Tectonic Theory Plate Tectonic Theory Not continental drift!! Importance: The unifying theory for all other theories in the Earth sciences Has resulted in a more detailed understanding of Earth history Has enabled geologists

More information

Agents for Development of Earth s Surface. Interactive Dynamic Processes at the Surface

Agents for Development of Earth s Surface. Interactive Dynamic Processes at the Surface The Face of the Earth Agents for Development of Earth s Surface Interactive Dynamic Processes at the Surface Roles of the atmosphere (gases, winds, climate), ocean (rivers, waves, currents) and biology

More information

Fresh water Land dwelling Land dwelling (i) Fern

Fresh water Land dwelling Land dwelling (i) Fern I Plate Tectonic Theory (This is a 2 day outline) A Continental Drift 1 Proposed by Alfred Wegner in 1915 2 Continents are a giant jigsaw puzzle 3 Put together get Pangea ( all land ) a supercontinent

More information

Why is the oldest ocean crust only ~180 Ma? Plate Tectonics, and the Wilson Cycle

Why is the oldest ocean crust only ~180 Ma? Plate Tectonics, and the Wilson Cycle Plate Tectonics, and the Wilson Cycle 1 So, new ocean lithosphere is created at MOR. What happens to old ocean lithosphere? A. Is is conserved, thus the surface area of the Earth is increasing. B. It forms

More information

Bellwork 41: Complete page 156- Questions 1-7, 9-14

Bellwork 41: Complete page 156- Questions 1-7, 9-14 Bellwork 41: Complete page 156- Questions 1-7, 9-14 Write the question and the correct answer only. Homework: Study for unit test: Friday(A)/Monday(B) Complete both sides of worksheet. Homework: Study

More information

1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers.

1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers. 1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers. Which statement about the deposition of the sediments best explains why these layers have the curved shape shown? 1) Sediments were

More information

The Dynamic Crust 2) EVIDENCE FOR CRUSTAL MOVEMENT

The Dynamic Crust 2) EVIDENCE FOR CRUSTAL MOVEMENT The Dynamic Crust 1) Virtually everything you need to know about the interior of the earth can be found on page 10 of your reference tables. Take the time to become familiar with page 10 and everything

More information

DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes

DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes NAME: BLOCK: DATE: 1. Base your answer to the following question on The block diagram below shows the boundary between two tectonic plates. Which

More information

Continental Drift, Sea Floor Spreading and Plate Tectonics

Continental Drift, Sea Floor Spreading and Plate Tectonics Page 1 of 13 EENS 1110 Tulane University Physical Geology Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Continental Drift, Sea Floor Spreading and Plate Tectonics This page last updated on 26-Aug-2015 Plate Tectonics is a theory

More information

Plate Tectonic Boundaries

Plate Tectonic Boundaries Plate Tectonic Boundaries The Crust (The surface) The thin rigid outermost layer of the Earth is the crust. The thinnest crust (oceanic) is 3 miles and the thickest (continental) is 50 miles. The Mantle

More information

Digging Deeper BUILDING FEATURES ON EARTH S SURFACE. Divergent Boundaries and Breaks in Earth s Crust (Rifting)

Digging Deeper BUILDING FEATURES ON EARTH S SURFACE. Divergent Boundaries and Breaks in Earth s Crust (Rifting) Chapter 2 Plate Tectonics Digging Deeper BUILDING FEATURES ON EARTH S SURFACE Divergent Boundaries and Breaks in Earth s Crust (Rifting) In the Investigate, you examined a diagram showing a cross section

More information

Plate Tectonics Short Study Guide

Plate Tectonics Short Study Guide Name: Class: Date: Plate Tectonics Short Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The existence of coal beds in Antarctica

More information

Chapter 4: Plate Tectonics

Chapter 4: Plate Tectonics Chapter 4: Plate Tectonics 1. Science and Santa Claus 2. Continental Drift 3. Evidence from the Seafloor 4. Plate Tectonics 5. Plate Boundaries Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required

More information

Chapter 9: Plates and Plate Boundaries. Fig. 9.11

Chapter 9: Plates and Plate Boundaries. Fig. 9.11 Chapter 9: Plates and Plate Boundaries Fig. 9.11 OBJECTIVES Identify the physical and chemical divisions in Earth s outer layers. Understand that the lithospheric plates are buoyant and that this buoyancy

More information

Use this document for reference. Answer questions on a separate sheet of paper. Introduction to Plate Tectonics

Use this document for reference. Answer questions on a separate sheet of paper. Introduction to Plate Tectonics Use this document for reference. Answer questions on a separate sheet of paper. Introduction to Plate Tectonics In this lab you will learn the basics of plate tectonics, including locations of the plate

More information

Plate Tectonics. The Grand Unifying Theory. Tectonics. Plate Tectonics. Geol 104: Plate tectonics

Plate Tectonics. The Grand Unifying Theory. Tectonics. Plate Tectonics. Geol 104: Plate tectonics Plate Tectonics The Grand Unifying Theory Tectonics Study of the origin and arrangement of broad structural features of Earth s surface. Plate Tectonics Idea that the Earth s surface is divided into a

More information

Using Google Earth to Explore Plate Tectonics

Using Google Earth to Explore Plate Tectonics Using Google Earth to Explore Plate Tectonics Laurel Goodell, Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 laurel@princeton.edu Inspired by, and borrows from, the GIS-based Exploring

More information

Regents Questions: Plate Tectonics

Regents Questions: Plate Tectonics Earth Science Regents Questions: Plate Tectonics Name: Date: Period: August 2013 Due Date: 17 Compared to the oceanic crust, the continental crust is (1) less dense and more basaltic (3) more dense and

More information

NTTI Media-Rich Lesson

NTTI Media-Rich Lesson NTTI NTTI NTTI Media-Rich Lesson Lorrie D. Green NAME Playful Plates LESSON TITLE Fifth Graders GRADE LEVELS 120 Minutes TIME ALLOTMENT OVERVIEW Using a variety of instruments, geologists have measured

More information

4 Deforming the Earth s Crust

4 Deforming the Earth s Crust CHAPTER 4 4 Deforming the Earth s Crust SECTION Plate Tectonics BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What happens when rock is placed under stress?

More information

ES Chapter 10 Review. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

ES Chapter 10 Review. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: ES Chapter 10 Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Scientists used the pattern of alternating normal and reversed

More information

OCEANOGRAPHY Vol.II Morphology of Ocean Floor and Plate Tectonics - Chengsung Wang MORPHOLOGY OF OCEAN FLOOR AND PLATE TECTONICS

OCEANOGRAPHY Vol.II Morphology of Ocean Floor and Plate Tectonics - Chengsung Wang MORPHOLOGY OF OCEAN FLOOR AND PLATE TECTONICS MORPHOLOGY OF OCEAN FLOOR AND PLATE TECTONICS Chengsung Wang National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan, China Keywords: Morphology of sea floor, continental margins, mid-ocean ridges, deep-sea

More information

What is this section called? Credits

What is this section called? Credits Station 1: Age of ocean floor Seafloor spreading is a process of plate tectonics. New oceanic crust is created as large slabs of the Earth's crust split apart from each other and magma moves up to fill

More information

The Structure of the Earth and Plate Tectonics

The Structure of the Earth and Plate Tectonics The Structure of the Earth and Plate Tectonics Structure of the Earth The Earth is made up of 3 main layers: Core Mantle Crust Mantle Outer core Inner core Crust The Crust This is where we live! The Earth

More information

Study Guide Questions Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics

Study Guide Questions Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics Study Guide Questions Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics What evidence did Alfred Wegener present in 1912 to support the idea of continental drift? Why did most geologists at the time dismiss Wegener

More information

Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics Review. Name that Layer...

Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics Review. Name that Layer... Name that Layer... 1 Which layers make up the lithosphere? Multiple answer A B C D crust mantle inner core outer core Why wouldn t the fossil of an ocean fish found on two different continents be good

More information

Continental Drift. Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) Proposed that all of the continents were once part of a large supercontinent - Pangaea Based on:

Continental Drift. Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) Proposed that all of the continents were once part of a large supercontinent - Pangaea Based on: Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift Continental Drift Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) Proposed that all of the continents were once part of a large supercontinent - Pangaea Based on: Similarities in shorelines

More information

Student Notes- Oceanography Plate Tectonics And Ocean Basins

Student Notes- Oceanography Plate Tectonics And Ocean Basins Student Notes- Oceanography Plate Tectonics And Ocean Basins Name Date 1 Vocabulary: Please number and define each term below in a complete sentence on a separate sheet of paper. (those that have a *,

More information

Objective: Identify the types of plate boundaries and the land features and geologic events that each feature makes.

Objective: Identify the types of plate boundaries and the land features and geologic events that each feature makes. Objective: Identify the types of plate boundaries and the land features and geologic events that each feature makes. Transform boundaries exist where two plates slide past each other. No lithosphere is

More information

Earth s Layered Structure, Earth s Internal Structure, Plate Tectonics

Earth s Layered Structure, Earth s Internal Structure, Plate Tectonics Earth s Layered Structure, Earth s Internal Structure, Plate Tectonics Chs.1&2 Earth s Layered Structure High-velocity impact of debris + radioactive decay => increase in T => Fe & Ni melt & sink => Inner

More information

PLATE TECTONICS EXERCISE (Modified from North Seattle Community College online exercise)

PLATE TECTONICS EXERCISE (Modified from North Seattle Community College online exercise) PLATE TECTONICS EXERCISE (Modified from North Seattle Community College online exercise) Introduction: As discussed in our textbook, the speed at which tectonic plates move has been calculated in several

More information

Tectonic processes. 2.1 Where do earthquakes and volcanoes occur?

Tectonic processes. 2.1 Where do earthquakes and volcanoes occur? 2 Tectonic processes In this chapter you will study: how the Earth s crust is broken into different types of tectonic s what type of tectonic activity occurs at the boundaries what can happen during earthquakes

More information

Chapter 9 Oceans: The Last Frontier

Chapter 9 Oceans: The Last Frontier Chapter 9 Oceans: The Last Frontier The Vast World Ocean Earth is often referred to as the blue planet Seventy-one percent of Earth s surface is represented by oceans and marginal seas Continents and islands

More information

Plate tectonics states that the Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into sections, called plates.

Plate tectonics states that the Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into sections, called plates. Notes on Plate Tectonics Plate tectonics states that the Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into sections, called plates. These plates move around the mantle. Plates are composed of the crust and

More information

Name: Date: Period: 1. The Grand Canyon was formed by. It was carved by the. 6. Landmasses that were once separated by oceans, have collided to form

Name: Date: Period: 1. The Grand Canyon was formed by. It was carved by the. 6. Landmasses that were once separated by oceans, have collided to form Name: Date: Period: By Jack Erickson and Sylvia Lewandowski Provided by Tasa Graphic Arts, Inc. for The Theory of Plate Tectonics CD-ROM http://www.tasagraphicarts.com/progplate.html 1. The Grand Canyon

More information

1. You are about to begin a unit on geology. Can anyone tell me what geology is? The study of the physical earth I.

1. You are about to begin a unit on geology. Can anyone tell me what geology is? The study of the physical earth I. PLATE TECTONICS ACTIVITY The purpose of this lab is to introduce the concept of plate tectonics and the formation of mountains. Students will discuss the properties of the earth s crust and plate tectonics.

More information

Marine Geology, Review Questions for Final Exam. Part I

Marine Geology, Review Questions for Final Exam. Part I Marine Geology, 2015 Review Questions for Final Exam Part I Note: Part I covers topics from Origin of the Earth, Ocean, and Atmosphere to Features on Ocean Floor & Continental Margins Tectonic Perspective

More information

Post Assessment. Concept(s)

Post Assessment. Concept(s) Post Assessment Concept(s) Addressed Time Materials Advance preparation The Earth has different layers with different densities, composition and temperatures. Direct and indirect evidence are used to explain

More information

Plate Tectonics II. An In-depth Look at Earthquakes. Faults at divergent boundaries. Earthquakes at divergent bdry s

Plate Tectonics II. An In-depth Look at Earthquakes. Faults at divergent boundaries. Earthquakes at divergent bdry s Plate Tectonics II An In-depth Look at Earthquakes at divergent boundaries shallow only, usually weak at translational boundaries shallow only, often strong at convergent boundaries often strong continent-continent

More information

Fill in the blanks. Reading Skill: Draw Conclusions - questions 1, 3, 4, 6, 10, 12, 16

Fill in the blanks. Reading Skill: Draw Conclusions - questions 1, 3, 4, 6, 10, 12, 16 Earth s Oceans Fill in the blanks Reading Skill: Draw Conclusions - questions 1, 3, 4, 6, 10, 12, 16 What Are Oceans, Seas, and Basins? 1 Most of Earth s water is contained in large bodies of salt water

More information

Name: LAB: Patterns of Crustal Activity Adapted from Exploration in Earth Science, The Physical Setting, United Publishing Company, Inc.

Name: LAB: Patterns of Crustal Activity Adapted from Exploration in Earth Science, The Physical Setting, United Publishing Company, Inc. Name: LAB: Patterns of Crustal Activity Adapted from Exploration in Earth Science, The Physical Setting, United Publishing Company, Inc. INTRODUCTION: Studies of tectonics have shown that crustal activities

More information

Plate tectonics. The Earth s magnet Normal polarity. The Earth s magnet Reverse polarity. Internal processes: Reading: This week: Ch 3 Next week: Ch 4

Plate tectonics. The Earth s magnet Normal polarity. The Earth s magnet Reverse polarity. Internal processes: Reading: This week: Ch 3 Next week: Ch 4 Internal processes: Plate tectonics The Earth s magnet Normal polarity Magnetic azimuth the compass needle points north Reading: This week: Ch 3 Next week: Ch 4 Magnetic dip at equator: 0 (horizontal)

More information

MEMORANDUM OF ASSESSMENT Module 1: The Earth s Structure. 1. The diagram below shows a section of the earth s structure:

MEMORANDUM OF ASSESSMENT Module 1: The Earth s Structure. 1. The diagram below shows a section of the earth s structure: 1. The diagram below shows a section of the earth s structure: a. According to the sketch above give the name of each of the layers, which we have described. 1. The Crust 2. The mantle 3. The outer core

More information

Unsaved Test, Version: 1 1

Unsaved Test, Version: 1 1 Name: Choose the letter of the best answer. 1. Earth's inner core and outer core are both A. parts of the asthenosphere B. parts of Earth's lithosphere C. completely solid spheres D. made up of hot metals

More information

Investigation 6: What happens when plates collide?

Investigation 6: What happens when plates collide? Tectonics Investigation 6: Teacher Guide Investigation 6: What happens when plates collide? In this activity, students will use the distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes in a Web GIS to learn about

More information

Plate Tectonics: An Online Investigation

Plate Tectonics: An Online Investigation Plate Tectonics: An Online Investigation Please visit mrges.com, click on the Labs link, and then on the Plate Tectonics Online Activity link. When you arrive at the module, begin by clicking the ENTER

More information

Geologic Processes, Part 3: Plate Tectonics

Geologic Processes, Part 3: Plate Tectonics IDS 102 Name Background: Plate Tectonics and Continental drift Geologic Processes, Part 3: Plate Tectonics In 1912 a scientists named Alfred Wegener's suggested that the world s continent were once connected

More information

6.E.2.2 Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes and Volcanoes

6.E.2.2 Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes and Volcanoes Name: Date: 1. The road shown below was suddenly broken by a natural event. 3. The convergence of two continental plates would produce Which natural event most likely caused the crack in the road? island

More information

Changes in Earth s Surface

Changes in Earth s Surface Changes in Earth s Surface Vocabulary For two-column notes, underlines titles are main ideas Scientific Theory of Plate Tectonics Based on Wegener s Hypothesis Sea-floor spreading Continents drifted to

More information

Name. Your Mission: To become familiar with the major plate boundaries through exploration of plate tectonic features using Google Earth.

Name. Your Mission: To become familiar with the major plate boundaries through exploration of plate tectonic features using Google Earth. Name Geophysics Earth Sci. Computer of Earthquakes Applications GEOL 5303 using Google Earth Lab 3: Plate Tectonics Your Mission: To become familiar with the major plate boundaries through exploration

More information

Name Crustal Interactions E-Science Date Midterm Review Science Department

Name Crustal Interactions E-Science Date Midterm Review Science Department Name Crustal Interactions E-Science Date Midterm Review Science Department 1 Base your answer to the following question on the cross section below, which shows the paths of seismic waves traveling from

More information

LESSON PLAN 2. Key Terms and Concepts. continental crust convection currents convergent plates divergent plates. Purposes. Objectives.

LESSON PLAN 2. Key Terms and Concepts. continental crust convection currents convergent plates divergent plates. Purposes. Objectives. LESSON PLAN 2 Plates of the World Earthquakes 6 8 Young people will understand where most seismic activity occurs and why by learning about the plates of the earth. Key Terms and Concepts Earthquake Science

More information

Step 2: Learn where the nearest divergent boundaries are located.

Step 2: Learn where the nearest divergent boundaries are located. What happens when plates diverge? Plates spread apart, or diverge, from each other at divergent boundaries. At these boundaries new ocean crust is added to the Earth s surface and ocean basins are created.

More information