1 Exploring Earth s Interior

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1 1 Exploring Earth s Interior Crust Mantle Outer Core Crust-to-Mantle Inner Core Cross Section From Surface to Center

2 SCIENCE EXPLORER Focus on Earth Science Prentice-Hall, Inc. 2 Evidence for Continental Drift

3 3 Magnetic Stripes Along the Mid-Ocean Ridge Mid-ocean ridge Rock formed when Earth's magnetic field was normal Oceanic crust Molten material Mantle Rock formed when Earth's magnetic field was reversed

4 4 Sea-Floor Spreading and Subduction Continental crust Old oceanic crust Newly formed oceanic crust Sea-floor spreading Mid-ocean ridge Trench Oceanic crust Old oceanic crust melts Mantle Magma

5 5 Earth s Lithospheric Plates

6 6 Exploring Plate Tectonics Trench Mid-ocean ridge Diverging oceanic plates Trench Rift valley Converging continental plates Oceanic crust Oceanic crust Converging Continental crust oceanic plates Converging oceanic and continental Lithosphere Magma plates Magma Lithosphere Subduction zone

7 7 Continental Drift Since Pangaea 225 million years ago SCIENCE EXPLORER Earth Science Prentice-Hall, Inc million years ago 135 million years ago 65 million years ago Earth today

8 8 Shearing, Tension, and Compression Before stress Shearing Tension Compression

9 9 Strike-Slip, Normal, and Reverse Faults Strike-slip fault Normal fault Reverse fault

10 10 Earthquakes and Seismic Waves P Wave Wave direction S Wave Wave direction

11 11 Exploring an Earthquake-Safe House B. Metal brackets C. Plywood nailed to ceiling joists D. Heavy items removed from walls Prentice-Hall, Inc. A. L-shaped brackets E. Plywood panels SCIENCE EXPLORER Earth Science H. Frame bolted to foundation G. Water heater strapped to wall F. Metal connectors

12 12 Earth s Active Volcanoes

13 Subducting plate SCIENCE EXPLORER Earth Science Prentice-Hall, Inc. 13 Volcanoes at Converging Boundaries Mid-ocean ridge Volcano Island arc Volcano Oceanic crust Continental crust Trench Trench Asthenosphere Subducting plate

14 14 Exploring a Volcano Crater Prentice-Hall, Inc. Vent Side vent Lava Lava flow SCIENCE EXPLORER Earth Science Pipe Magma Magma chamber

15 15 Exploring Volcanic Mountains Shield Volcano Prentice-Hall, Inc. Mauna Loa Cinder Cone Volcano SCIENCE EXPLORER Earth Science Sunset Crater Composite Volcano Mt. Hood

16 16 Properties and Uses of Minerals Name Magnetite Quartz Rutile Sulfur Azurite Microcline Feldspar Hardness Color Black Transparent or Black or Lemon yellow Blue Green, redin a range of reddish brown to yellowish brown brown, pink, colors or white Streak Black Colorless Light brown White Pale blue Colorless Crystal System Cubic Hexagonal Tetragonal Orthorhombic Monoclinic Triclinic Luster Metallic Glassy Metallic or gemlike Greasy Glassy to dull Glassy or earthy Special Properties Magnetic No No No Reacts to acid No Density (g/cm 3 ) Uses A source of iron Used in making Contains titanium, Used in fungicides A source of Used in pottery used to make steel glass and used in aircraft and industrial copper metal glaze and electronic and cars chemicals scouring powder equipment

17 17 Formation of Mineral Deposits on Ocean Floor Cold seawater Chimney Ocean floor Mineral deposits Cracks in oceanic crust Hot mineral solution Magma (heat source)

18 18 Exploring Smelting Iron Ore 1. Ore mixture added. 2. Ore mixture placed in blast furnace. SCIENCE EXPLORER Earth Science Prentice-Hall, Inc. 3. Chemical changes produce iron and carbon dioxide gas. 4. Iron and slag sink to bottom. 5. Molten iron and slag are poured off. Coke Skip hoist Iron ore and limestone Cokelimestoneiron ore mixture Slag Blast furnace Heated air Slag ladle Molten iron Hot metal car

19 19 Formation of Sedimentary Rocks

20 20 Exploring the Rock Cycle Sedimentary Rock Igneous Rock SCIENCE EXPLORER Earth Science Prentice-Hall, Inc. Magma Metamorphic Rock

II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013)

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