There are numerous seams on the surface of the Earth

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "There are numerous seams on the surface of the Earth"

Transcription

1 Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift

2 There are numerous seams on the surface of the Earth

3 Questions and Topics 1. What are the theories of Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift? 2. What is the evidence that Continents move? 3. What are the forces that drive plate tectonics? 4. What happens at the boundaries between plates? 5. How do the different types of plate boundaries impact the regional geology and geomorphology? 6. How has continental drift affected the positions of the continents over time?

4 Answers 1. Large crustal plates at the Earth s surface move about, colliding with one another. 2. There is geographic, geomagnetic, paleontologic and other evidence that this occurs 3. Convection in the mantle is the main driver of plate movement 4. Neighboring plates move relative to one another, causing earthquakes and volcanic eruptions 5. Active plate boundaries produce mountains and trenches 6. Continents have changed position

5 Plate Tectonics Tectonics Movement of Earth s crust Plate tectonics Movement of discrete segments of Earth s crust in relation to one another 5

6 Continental Drift Alfred Wegener ( ) Proposed that all of the continents were once part of a large supercontinent - Pangaea Based on: Similarities in shorelines Distinctive rock and fossil groups found in Africa & South America

7 Continental drift maps by Wegner (1915)

8 Wegener s Pangea Modern reconstruction of Pangea Continental drift maps by Wegner (1915)

9 Continental Drift Wegner mechanism for drift was not credible Less dense silicic rocks (the continents) plowed through more dense ocean floor Earth s rotation was driving force Other scientists didn t buy it

10 What is the evidence for Continental Drift? Evidence for Continental Drift Paleontological Similarity of fossils on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean Plants and land dwelling animals No mechanism to transport across ocean Glossopteris on all southern continents Divergence of species following break-up

11 Paleontological evidence

12 Evidence for Continental Drift Rock type & structures Distinct and similar rock types and geologic structures on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean Cape fold belt and equivalent S.Africa & Argentina Appalachian Mtns and equivalent U.S., Canada, Scotland & Norway Only occur in rocks > 145 mya!!!!!!!!!

13 Rock type & structure evidence

14

15 Evidence for Continental Drift Glaciation Late Paleozoic glaciation Covered large portions of the southern continents Distinct glacial deposit No evidence for glaciation on northern continents at this time

16 Next homework is to recreate this figure P r e c a m b r i a n Eon P h a n e r o z o i c Proterozoic Archean Hadean Era Period Age (Myrs) Epoch C e n o z o i c M e s o z o i c P a l e o z o i c Geologic Time Scale Tertiary Quaternary Cretaceous Jurassic Triassic Permian Pennsylvanian Mississippian Devonian Silurian Ordivician Cambrian Neogene Paleocene Age of the Earth 4600 Myrs (4.6 Byrs) Source: Geological Society of America (1999) Holocene Pleistocene Pliocene Miocene Oligocene Eocene Paleocene

17 Reconstruction from glacial deposits

18 Evidence for Continental Drift Paleoclimate Evidence of extreme changes in climate as compared to the present Coal deposits in Antarctica Evidence from evaporite deposits, eolian deposits & coral reefs Paleoclimate reconstruction shows strange patterns unless continents are moved

19 Fig Paleoclimate evidence

20 Paleomagnetism Magnetization of ancient rocks at the time of their formation Declination Angle that a compass needle makes with the line running to the geographic north pole Rocks lock in this orientation at formation 20

21 Reconstruction from paleomagnetic data

22 Geology of the Ocean Floor Paleomagnetism Fe rich rocks are weakly magnetized by the Earth s magnetic field as minerals form Orientation of magnetic field is preserved Magnetic field orientation varies with position on Earth s surface

23 Modern Plate Tectonic Theory Original evidence for continental drift was from continental rocks Technological advances in the 1950 s and 1960 s allowed investigation of the sea floor Geophysics & paleomagnetism provided new data

24 Geology of the Ocean Floor Topography of the ocean basins Basins are divided by a large ridge system, which is continuous around the entire globe Central rift valley within the ridge

25

26 Geology of the Ocean Floor Physical properties Composed of basalt Younger in age than most continental rocks Oceanic crust is thinner than continental No evidence of crustal deformation folded mountains

27 Crustal Properties Crust Density Composition Thickness Age continental ~2.8 g/cm 3 Felsic Thick: km Old: up to 4 Byrs oceanic ~3.2 g/cm 3 Mafic Thin: 2-10 km Young: <200 Mys

28 Geology of the Ocean Floor Seafloor spreading proposed by Hess (1960) Considered new data on ocean floor Proposed mechanisms of: Mantle convection Rifting and volcanism along ridge system Continents pushed along w/ spreading seafloor Recycling of oceanic crust by subduction

29 Fig Models of plate tectonic motion

30

31 Geology of the Ocean Floor Vine & Matthews (1963) tested Hess s hypothesis using magnetism Magnetic polarity reversals recorded in ocean floor basalt Magma cools forming new crust Polarity at time of cooling preserved Old crust pushed aside

32 Geology of the Ocean Floor Magnetic polarity stripes in ocean crust parallel ridges Symmetrical on either side of the ridge Polarity chrons give age of seafloor Increases away from ridge Rates of plate motion may be calculated

33 Fig Patterns of magnetic reversals

34

35 Age of the sea floor

36 Geology of the Ocean Floor Seafloor sediments support plate tectonic theory Youngest sediments resting directly on basalt near the ridge Sediment just above the basalt gets older moving away from the ridge Accumulation rates of ~3 mm/1000 yr

37 Plate Geography Lithosphere is divided into individual plates Boundaries based on structural features, not land and ocean Plates are outlined by ridges, trenches and young mountain belts Plates are not permanent features

38

39

40 Major tectonic boundaries

41

42 Divergent Plate Margins Oceanic-Oceanic Crust Mid-oceanic ridge with central rift valley Shallow earthquakes, less than 100km Basaltic lavas

43

44

45 The Mid Atlantic Ridge

46 Line of fissures and volcanoes in Iceland

47

48 Rates of Seafloor Spreading FAST SLOW (East Pacific Rise) (Mid Atlantic Ridge) ~10-20 cm/year ~1-2 cm/year Life of a person 100 years 10 meters 1-2 meters Civilization 10,000 years 1 km m Modern Humans 100,000 years 10 km 1-2 km Stone tools 1,000,000 years 100 km km Width of the Pacific Ocean ~ on the order of 10,000 km (16,000 miles) wide. How long would it take to create this much ocean crust.

49 East Pacific Rise Fast spreading

50 Ridges subside and are covered with sediment

51 Composition of the Ocean Crust Seismic surveys suggest oceanic crust is ~7 km thick and comprised of three layers First layer is marine sediment of various composition and thickness (extensively sampled) Second layer is pillow basalt overlying basaltic dikes (extensively sampled) Third layer is thought to be composed of sill-like gabbro intrusions (not directly sampled) Ophiolites are rock sequences in mountain chains on land that are thought to represent slivers of ocean crust and uppermost mantle Composed of layers 1-3 overlying ultramafic rock

52

53 JuandeFucaSmoker.avi

54 Divergent Plate Margins Continental-Continental Crust Rift Valley Shallow earthquakes, less than 100km Basaltic and Rhyolitic volcanism New material rising from the mantle produces basaltic lavas Thinning continental crust melts to produce rhyolitic lavas & instrusions Example: East African Rift Valley

55 East Africa East African system extends 3000 km from Ethiopia to Mozambique Red Sea rift extends from Ethiopia to the Sinai and Dead Sea Complex volcanism throughout Oceanic crust present in SE Red Sea Lakes form in isolated down-dropped blocks Several areas below sea level

56 Fig The Red Sea

57 A transform fault in the Gulf of Aqaba

58 The parting of the Red Sea The Red Sea

59

60 Fig Divergent plate margins

61

62 Convergent Plate Margins Oceanic-Oceanic Seafloor Trench Shallow and deep earthquakes, km deep Andesitic volcanoes in an island arc Example: Japan

63 Ocean-Ocean convergence

64 The Aleutian Island Chain

65 Seismic activity in the Aleutian Islands

66

67 The MarianaTrench

68

69 Oceanic-Oceanic and Oceanic-Continental Subduction

70 Convergent Plate Margins Oceanic-Continental Subduction Zone Shallow and deep earthquakes, km deep Andesitic volcanoes in a continental arc Example: Cascade range

71

72 Ocean-Continent convergence

73 Major tectonic boundaries

74

75

76 Mt. Vesuvius

77 The people of Pompeii; mummified in 5-8 meters of hot ash in A.D. 79

78 The smoldering city of Pierre, Martinique

79 Convergent Plate Margins Continental-Continental Intensely folded and thrust faulted mountain belts Metamorphic rocks dominate Sediments accumulated along continental margin are squeezed Igneous rocks commonly included Granitic magmas Example: The Himalayas

80 Continent-Continent Collision

81 Convergent plate boundaries

82

83 Transform Fault Margins Transform faults are large vertical fractures or faults in the crust Movement along faults is side to side May extend for long distances Example: San Andreas fault and transform faults in the ocean

84 Fig Basin & Range Province

85 Juan de Fuca plate

86 Fig b. Landforms along the San Andreas

87

88

89 Rates of Plate Motion Two ways to look at plate motion Relative velocity the movement of one plate relative to another Age of seafloor / distance from ridge Absolute velocity compares plate movement to a fixed position Use hotspots as fixed points of reference Rates vary from 1 to 20 cm/yr

90 Fig Rates of plate motion around the world

91 Where do we see deep earthquakes? What is happening there?

92 Tectonic Mechanisms Convection of heat from the core and mantle drives tectonics Convection cells bring new material to the surface Old crust is pushed away from ridges Subduction carries cool crust back into the mantle

93 Fig Models of plate tectonic motion

94

95

Continental Drift. Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) Proposed that all of the continents were once part of a large supercontinent - Pangaea Based on:

Continental Drift. Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) Proposed that all of the continents were once part of a large supercontinent - Pangaea Based on: Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift Continental Drift Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) Proposed that all of the continents were once part of a large supercontinent - Pangaea Based on: Similarities in shorelines

More information

Geol 101: Physical Geology PAST EXAM QUESTIONS LECTURE 4: PLATE TECTONICS II

Geol 101: Physical Geology PAST EXAM QUESTIONS LECTURE 4: PLATE TECTONICS II Geol 101: Physical Geology PAST EXAM QUESTIONS LECTURE 4: PLATE TECTONICS II 4. Which of the following statements about paleomagnetism at spreading ridges is FALSE? A. there is a clear pattern of paleomagnetic

More information

Fresh water Land dwelling Land dwelling (i) Fern

Fresh water Land dwelling Land dwelling (i) Fern I Plate Tectonic Theory (This is a 2 day outline) A Continental Drift 1 Proposed by Alfred Wegner in 1915 2 Continents are a giant jigsaw puzzle 3 Put together get Pangea ( all land ) a supercontinent

More information

Plate Tectonic Theory

Plate Tectonic Theory Plate Tectonic Theory Not continental drift!! Importance: The unifying theory for all other theories in the Earth sciences Has resulted in a more detailed understanding of Earth history Has enabled geologists

More information

Plate Tectonics Chapter 2

Plate Tectonics Chapter 2 Plate Tectonics Chapter 2 Does not include complete lecture notes. Continental drift: An idea before its time Alfred Wegener First proposed his continental drift hypothesis in 1915 Published The Origin

More information

Changes in Earth s Surface

Changes in Earth s Surface Changes in Earth s Surface Vocabulary For two-column notes, underlines titles are main ideas Scientific Theory of Plate Tectonics Based on Wegener s Hypothesis Sea-floor spreading Continents drifted to

More information

Continental Drift: An Idea Before Its Time

Continental Drift: An Idea Before Its Time Continental Drift: An Idea Before Its Time Alfred Wegener (1880 1930) Continental drift hypothesis: The world's continents are in motion and have been drifting apart into different configurations over

More information

4. Plate Tectonics II (p. 46-67)

4. Plate Tectonics II (p. 46-67) 4. Plate Tectonics II (p. 46-67) Seafloor Spreading In the early 1960s, samples of basaltic ocean crust were dredged up from various locations across the ocean basins. The samples were then analyzed to

More information

Earth s Layered Structure, Earth s Internal Structure, Plate Tectonics

Earth s Layered Structure, Earth s Internal Structure, Plate Tectonics Earth s Layered Structure, Earth s Internal Structure, Plate Tectonics Chs.1&2 Earth s Layered Structure High-velocity impact of debris + radioactive decay => increase in T => Fe & Ni melt & sink => Inner

More information

Plate Tectonics. Earth, 9 th edition Chapter 2

Plate Tectonics. Earth, 9 th edition Chapter 2 1 Plate Tectonics Earth, 9 th edition Chapter 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Plate Tectonics: summary in haiku form Alfred Wegener gave us Continental Drift. Fifty years later... Continental Drift

More information

Rocks and Plate Tectonics

Rocks and Plate Tectonics Name: Class: _ Date: _ Rocks and Plate Tectonics Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is a naturally occurring, solid mass of mineral or

More information

Plate Tectonics. Plate Tectonics The unifying concept of the Earth sciences. Continental Drift

Plate Tectonics. Plate Tectonics The unifying concept of the Earth sciences. Continental Drift Plate Tectonics The unifying concept of the Earth sciences. The outer portion of the Earth is made up of about 20 distinct plates (~ 100 km thick), which move relative to each other This motion is what

More information

Exam #3 - All numbered questions are given equal weight in the multiple choice part.

Exam #3 - All numbered questions are given equal weight in the multiple choice part. Exam #3 - All numbered questions are given equal weight in the multiple choice part. Multiple Choice Mark only one answer for each question. 1) On a global map of earthquakes, the locations of the earthquakes

More information

Key topics today: How do we know about the Earth s interior structure? Earth s layering: By composition

Key topics today: How do we know about the Earth s interior structure? Earth s layering: By composition Solid-earth geology: Plate tectonics, earthquakes, and volcanoes Explain shape and structure of the ocean basins Explain cycle of oceanic opening and closing Explain many aspects of basic marine geology

More information

Ch 9.1 Continental Drift

Ch 9.1 Continental Drift Ch 9 Plate Tectonics 9.1 Continental Drift 9.2 Plate Tectonics 9.3 Actions of Plate Tectonics 9.4Testing Plate Tectonics 9.5 Mechanisms of Plate Motion Ch 9.1 Continental Drift l The proposed radical hypothesis

More information

CHAPTER 2 Plate Tectonics and the Ocean Floor. Plate tectonics or the new global geology

CHAPTER 2 Plate Tectonics and the Ocean Floor. Plate tectonics or the new global geology CHAPTER 2 Plate Tectonics and the Ocean Floor Fig. 2-32 Plate tectonics or the new global geology Thin, rigid blocks move horizontally Interactions of plates build major features of Earth s s crust Fig.

More information

Earth: An Introduc/on to Physical Geology, 10e

Earth: An Introduc/on to Physical Geology, 10e Earth: An Introduc/on to Physical Geology, 10e Tarbuck & Lutgens Plate Tectonics: A Scien/fic Revolu/on Unfolds Earth, 10e - Chapter 2 Hernan Santos University of Puerto Rico Mayagüez Campus Con/nental

More information

Plate Tectonics. The Grand Unifying Theory. Tectonics. Plate Tectonics. Geol 104: Plate tectonics

Plate Tectonics. The Grand Unifying Theory. Tectonics. Plate Tectonics. Geol 104: Plate tectonics Plate Tectonics The Grand Unifying Theory Tectonics Study of the origin and arrangement of broad structural features of Earth s surface. Plate Tectonics Idea that the Earth s surface is divided into a

More information

Plate Tectonics: Big Ideas. Plate Tectonics. Plate Tectonics. The unifying concept of the Earth sciences.

Plate Tectonics: Big Ideas. Plate Tectonics. Plate Tectonics. The unifying concept of the Earth sciences. Plate Tectonics: Big Ideas Our understanding of Earth is continuously refined. Earth s systems are dynamic; they continually react to changing influences from geological, hydrological, physical, chemical,

More information

The Ideas of Alfred Wegener. The Scientific Method in Action: Plate Tectonics 8-1

The Ideas of Alfred Wegener. The Scientific Method in Action: Plate Tectonics 8-1 The Scientific Method in Action: Plate Tectonics Early evidence for continental drift: The idea that the continents move is not new. In 1620, shortly after explorers first created maps of the new world,

More information

ES Chapter 10 Review. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

ES Chapter 10 Review. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: ES Chapter 10 Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Scientists used the pattern of alternating normal and reversed

More information

Earth and Space Science. Semester 2 Exam Review. Part 1. - Convection currents circulate in the Asthenosphere located in the Upper Mantle.

Earth and Space Science. Semester 2 Exam Review. Part 1. - Convection currents circulate in the Asthenosphere located in the Upper Mantle. Earth and Space Science Semester 2 Exam Review Part 1 Convection -A form of heat transfer. - Convection currents circulate in the Asthenosphere located in the Upper Mantle. - Source of heat is from the

More information

PLATE TECTONICS. 1. "Tectonics" - is a term that refers to the deformation of the earth's crust.

PLATE TECTONICS. 1. Tectonics - is a term that refers to the deformation of the earth's crust. PLATE TECTONICS I. Introduction A. General 1. The theory of plate tectonics is a recent development in the geological sciences, really accepted by scientific community since the early 1960's. 2. Earlier

More information

Plate Boundaries, evidence to support Plate Tectonics, Mechanisms of Motion

Plate Boundaries, evidence to support Plate Tectonics, Mechanisms of Motion Plate Boundaries, evidence to support Plate Tectonics, Mechanisms of Motion I. Divergent Boundaries A. Moving apart B. Sea Floor spreading at Oceanic Ridges 1. Ridge is a relative term a. 2000-3000 m higher

More information

Unsaved Test, Version: 1 1

Unsaved Test, Version: 1 1 Name: Choose the letter of the best answer. 1. Earth's inner core and outer core are both A. parts of the asthenosphere B. parts of Earth's lithosphere C. completely solid spheres D. made up of hot metals

More information

Chapter 8: Plate Tectonics -- Multi-format Test

Chapter 8: Plate Tectonics -- Multi-format Test Name: Class: Date: ID: A Chapter 8: Plate Tectonics -- Multi-format Test Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the

More information

Chapter 9: Plates and Plate Boundaries. Fig. 9.11

Chapter 9: Plates and Plate Boundaries. Fig. 9.11 Chapter 9: Plates and Plate Boundaries Fig. 9.11 OBJECTIVES Identify the physical and chemical divisions in Earth s outer layers. Understand that the lithospheric plates are buoyant and that this buoyancy

More information

Introduction to Plate Tectonics Plate tectonics

Introduction to Plate Tectonics Plate tectonics Quizlet Magnetic stripes along the seafloor are evidence for a) Earth s magnetic reversals b) Seafloor spreading c) Convection currents in the mantle d) Magnetite's ability to orient with a magnetic field

More information

Objective: Identify the types of plate boundaries and the land features and geologic events that each feature makes.

Objective: Identify the types of plate boundaries and the land features and geologic events that each feature makes. Objective: Identify the types of plate boundaries and the land features and geologic events that each feature makes. Transform boundaries exist where two plates slide past each other. No lithosphere is

More information

Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics Review. Name that Layer...

Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics Review. Name that Layer... Name that Layer... 1 Which layers make up the lithosphere? Multiple answer A B C D crust mantle inner core outer core Why wouldn t the fossil of an ocean fish found on two different continents be good

More information

INTRODUCTION TO PLATE TECTONICS. Alfred Wegener

INTRODUCTION TO PLATE TECTONICS. Alfred Wegener INTRODUCTION TO PLATE TECTONICS Alfred Wegener 12-1 CONTINENTAL DRIFT AN IDEA BEFORE ITS TIME Alfred Wegener first proposed his continental drift hypothesis in 1915 when he published The Origin of Continents

More information

Chapter 2. Plate Tectonics. Plate Tectonics: Learning Goals

Chapter 2. Plate Tectonics. Plate Tectonics: Learning Goals Plate Tectonics Chapter 2 Interactions at depend on the direction of relative plate motion and the type of crust. Which kind of plate boundary is associated with Earthquake activity? A. Divergent Boundary

More information

Section 1: Continental Drift

Section 1: Continental Drift Section 1: Continental Drift Preview Objectives Wegener s s Hypothesis Mid-Ocean Ridges Sea-Floor Spreading Paleomagnetism Wegener Redeemed Continental Drift (Pangaea) Objectives Summarize Wegener s hypothesis

More information

Chapter 4: Plate Tectonics

Chapter 4: Plate Tectonics Chapter 4: Plate Tectonics 1. Science and Santa Claus 2. Continental Drift 3. Evidence from the Seafloor 4. Plate Tectonics 5. Plate Boundaries Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required

More information

Plate tectonics, Earthquakes and Volcanoes. Key words: lithosphere, continental and oceanic plates, convective movements, plate boundary

Plate tectonics, Earthquakes and Volcanoes. Key words: lithosphere, continental and oceanic plates, convective movements, plate boundary S c i e n c e s Plate tectonics, Earthquakes and Volcanoes Key words: lithosphere, continental and oceanic plates, convective movements, plate boundary The Structure of the Earth The Earth s engine: Convective

More information

Continental Drift, Sea Floor Spreading and Plate Tectonics

Continental Drift, Sea Floor Spreading and Plate Tectonics Page 1 of 13 EENS 1110 Tulane University Physical Geology Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Continental Drift, Sea Floor Spreading and Plate Tectonics This page last updated on 26-Aug-2015 Plate Tectonics is a theory

More information

Convergent Boundaries

Convergent Boundaries Convergent Boundaries Zones where lithospheric plates collide Three major types Ocean - Ocean Ocean - Continent Continent Continent Convergent Boundaries Convergent boundaries may form subduction zones

More information

Bellwork 41: Complete page 156- Questions 1-7, 9-14

Bellwork 41: Complete page 156- Questions 1-7, 9-14 Bellwork 41: Complete page 156- Questions 1-7, 9-14 Write the question and the correct answer only. Homework: Study for unit test: Friday(A)/Monday(B) Complete both sides of worksheet. Homework: Study

More information

There are three basic types of plate margins. I will list them here, and then discuss each of them in turn. These plate margins are:

There are three basic types of plate margins. I will list them here, and then discuss each of them in turn. These plate margins are: PLATE MARGINS As we discussed in class, while there is interesting geology all over the world, much of the most interesting and spectacular events occur where two plates meet. We refer to such regions

More information

The Structure of the Earth and Plate Tectonics

The Structure of the Earth and Plate Tectonics The Structure of the Earth and Plate Tectonics Structure of the Earth The Earth is made up of 3 main layers: Core Mantle Crust Mantle Outer core Inner core Crust The Crust This is where we live! The Earth

More information

PLATE TECTONICS. The Basic Premise of Plate Tectonics

PLATE TECTONICS. The Basic Premise of Plate Tectonics PLATE TECTONICS The Basic Premise of Plate Tectonics The lithosphere is divided into plates that move relative to one another, and relative to the earth s asthenosphere. Movement occurs at very slow (cm/yr)

More information

1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers.

1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers. 1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers. Which statement about the deposition of the sediments best explains why these layers have the curved shape shown? 1) Sediments were

More information

12.2 Features of Plate Tectonics

12.2 Features of Plate Tectonics 12.2 Features of Plate Tectonics Earth is over 1200 km thick and has four distinct layers. These layers are the crust, mantle (upper and lower), outer core, and inner core. Crust outer solid rock layer

More information

1. Notice that there are two predominate colors on this map. What are the elevations represented by these two primary colors on this map?

1. Notice that there are two predominate colors on this map. What are the elevations represented by these two primary colors on this map? Geology 101 Plate Tectonics Study Guide Addendum Part I: Observations- Four maps of world are positioned around the room. Answer the questions associated with each map and record your general observations

More information

3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics

3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics CHAPTER 4 3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics SECTION Plate Tectonics BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is the theory of plate tectonics? What

More information

GEOLOGY MEDIA SUITE Chapter 2

GEOLOGY MEDIA SUITE Chapter 2 UNDERSTANDING EARTH, SIXTH EDITION GROTZINGER JORDAN GEOLOGY MEDIA SUITE Chapter 2 Plate Tectonics The Unifying Theory 2010 W.H. Freeman and Company Interactions at plate boundaries depend on the direction

More information

Tectonic plates push together at convergent boundaries.

Tectonic plates push together at convergent boundaries. KEY CONCEPT Plates converge or scrape past each other. BEFORE, you learned Plates move apart at divergent boundaries In the oceans, divergent boundaries mark where the sea floor spreads apart On land,

More information

Post Assessment. Concept(s)

Post Assessment. Concept(s) Post Assessment Concept(s) Addressed Time Materials Advance preparation The Earth has different layers with different densities, composition and temperatures. Direct and indirect evidence are used to explain

More information

DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes

DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes NAME: BLOCK: DATE: 1. Base your answer to the following question on The block diagram below shows the boundary between two tectonic plates. Which

More information

Use the web link provided in the Earth Science Folder

Use the web link provided in the Earth Science Folder ONLINE ACTIVITY: PLATE TECTONICS Using the web links provided in the Science10 handout folder complete the following activities and answer the questions listed. Use the web link provided in the Earth Science

More information

Plate Tectonics. Continental Drift. Introduction

Plate Tectonics. Continental Drift. Introduction Plate Tectonics Introduction Predecessor of plate tectonics: Continental drift hypothesis What is the theory of plate tectonics? What is a plate? How do we find their edges? How many plates are there?

More information

Agents for Development of Earth s Surface. Interactive Dynamic Processes at the Surface

Agents for Development of Earth s Surface. Interactive Dynamic Processes at the Surface The Face of the Earth Agents for Development of Earth s Surface Interactive Dynamic Processes at the Surface Roles of the atmosphere (gases, winds, climate), ocean (rivers, waves, currents) and biology

More information

Pre/Co- Requisite Challenge for Field Courses

Pre/Co- Requisite Challenge for Field Courses Pre/Co- Requisite Challenge for Field Courses In order to register for any field course through Earth and Planetary Sciences, a student must satisfy one of the following requirements: 1) Be currently enrolled

More information

plate tectonics: sea floor spreading; plate motions!

plate tectonics: sea floor spreading; plate motions! plate tectonics: sea floor spreading; plate motions! plate tectonics! Earth s surface composed of! lithospheric plates! Asia! float or ride on! top of asthenosphere! Arabia! move relative to interior!

More information

SCIENCE 10 Unit 4: Earth Science Review

SCIENCE 10 Unit 4: Earth Science Review SCIENCE 10 Unit 4: Earth Science Review Use the following diagram to answer questions 1 and 2. 1. Which location has the youngest crust? A. A B. B C. C D. D 2. Which location is associated with subduction?

More information

Features of Plate Tectonics

Features of Plate Tectonics Features of Plate Tectonics Section 12.2 Summary Textbook pages 518 537 Before You Read Earthquakes frequently occur in British Columbia. State what you already know about earthquakes in the lines below.

More information

Plate Tectonics. Structure of the Earth

Plate Tectonics. Structure of the Earth Plate Tectonics Structure of the Earth The Earth can be considered as being made up of a series of concentric spheres, each made up of materials that differ in terms of composition and mechanical properties.

More information

3. When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source, which is called the. a. epicenter c. fault b. focus d.

3. When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source, which is called the. a. epicenter c. fault b. focus d. NAME EARTH SCIENCE CHAPTER 8 1. A fault is. a. a place on Earth where earthquakes cannot occur b. a fracture in the Earth where movement has occurred c. the place on Earth s surface where structures move

More information

The formation of new continental crust. The reworking (deformation, metamorphism) of old continental crust.

The formation of new continental crust. The reworking (deformation, metamorphism) of old continental crust. http://www.earth.monash.edu/firstyear/0303eschtm 1 of 7 8/21/2003 9:23 AM ESC 1022 Lecture 3: Continental Birth and Evolution through Geologic Time Continental Birth and Evolution through Geologic Time

More information

Fig. 1. Introduction to Plate Tectonics Courtesy: UCLA, ESS

Fig. 1. Introduction to Plate Tectonics Courtesy: UCLA, ESS Introduction to Plate Tectonics Courtesy: UCLA, ESS The concept of plate tectonics provides a holistic view of how the Earth works. According to the theory, the outermost division of the Earth consists

More information

TECTONICS ASSESSMENT

TECTONICS ASSESSMENT Tectonics Assessment / 1 TECTONICS ASSESSMENT 1. Movement along plate boundaries produces A. tides. B. fronts. C. hurricanes. D. earthquakes. 2. Which of the following is TRUE about the movement of continents?

More information

11.3 Plate Boundaries In this section, you will learn how movement at the boundaries of lithospheric plates affects Earth s surface.

11.3 Plate Boundaries In this section, you will learn how movement at the boundaries of lithospheric plates affects Earth s surface. 11.3 Plate Boundaries In this section, you will learn how movement at the boundaries of lithospheric plates affects Earth s surface. Moving plates Three types of boundaries Imagine a single plate, moving

More information

Plate Tectonics: An Online Investigation

Plate Tectonics: An Online Investigation Plate Tectonics: An Online Investigation Please visit mrges.com, click on the Labs link, and then on the Plate Tectonics Online Activity link. When you arrive at the module, begin by clicking the ENTER

More information

Plate tectonics states that the Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into sections, called plates.

Plate tectonics states that the Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into sections, called plates. Notes on Plate Tectonics Plate tectonics states that the Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into sections, called plates. These plates move around the mantle. Plates are composed of the crust and

More information

Mountains Short Study Guide

Mountains Short Study Guide Name: Class: Date: Mountains Short Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A good model for isostasy is. a. a collision

More information

Plate tectonics. The Earth s magnet Normal polarity. The Earth s magnet Reverse polarity. Internal processes: Reading: This week: Ch 3 Next week: Ch 4

Plate tectonics. The Earth s magnet Normal polarity. The Earth s magnet Reverse polarity. Internal processes: Reading: This week: Ch 3 Next week: Ch 4 Internal processes: Plate tectonics The Earth s magnet Normal polarity Magnetic azimuth the compass needle points north Reading: This week: Ch 3 Next week: Ch 4 Magnetic dip at equator: 0 (horizontal)

More information

Plate Tectonics. An outgrowth of the old theory of "continental drift," supported by much data from many areas of geology.

Plate Tectonics. An outgrowth of the old theory of continental drift, supported by much data from many areas of geology. Plate Tectonics Plate Tectonic theory was proposed in late 1960s and early 1970s. It is a unifying theory showing how a large number of diverse, seemingly-unrelated geologic facts are interrelated. An

More information

Plate Tectonics. Hi, I am Zed and I am going to take you on a trip learning about Plate Tectonics. And I am Buddy Zed s mascot

Plate Tectonics. Hi, I am Zed and I am going to take you on a trip learning about Plate Tectonics. And I am Buddy Zed s mascot Plate Tectonics Hi, I am Zed and I am going to take you on a trip learning about Plate Tectonics And I am Buddy Zed s mascot Continental Drift Alfred Wegener proposed that continents were not always where

More information

Class Notes: Plate Tectonics

Class Notes: Plate Tectonics Name: Date: Period: Tectonics The Physical Setting: Earth Science Class Notes: Tectonics I. Continental Drift Continental Drift -! Pangaea -! Alfred Wegener (1915) German and Proposed the theory of! Hypothesized

More information

Plate Tectonics Review

Plate Tectonics Review 1. Recent volcanic activity in different parts of the world supports the inference that volcanoes are located mainly in 1) the centers of landscape regions 2) the central regions of the continents 3) zones

More information

How Did These Ocean Features and Continental Margins Form?

How Did These Ocean Features and Continental Margins Form? 298 10.14 INVESTIGATION How Did These Ocean Features and Continental Margins Form? The terrain below contains various features on the seafloor, as well as parts of three continents. Some general observations

More information

Regents Questions: Plate Tectonics

Regents Questions: Plate Tectonics Earth Science Regents Questions: Plate Tectonics Name: Date: Period: August 2013 Due Date: 17 Compared to the oceanic crust, the continental crust is (1) less dense and more basaltic (3) more dense and

More information

Plate Tectonics Short Study Guide

Plate Tectonics Short Study Guide Name: Class: Date: Plate Tectonics Short Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The existence of coal beds in Antarctica

More information

Earth. What is a Lithospheric Plate? The Way the Earth Works: Plate Tectonics. Chapter 4 CEEES/SC Portrait of a Planet Fifth Edition

Earth. What is a Lithospheric Plate? The Way the Earth Works: Plate Tectonics. Chapter 4 CEEES/SC Portrait of a Planet Fifth Edition CEEES/SC 10110-20110 The Way the Earth Works: Plate Tectonics Earth Portrait of a Planet Fifth Edition Chapter 4 1 What is a Lithospheric Plate? Continental crust is thicker, less dense, and sits at a

More information

Convergent Boundaries

Convergent Boundaries Question 13 a. Long columns of hot, less dense rock, rising from deep in the mantle which are responsible for the volcanism at mid-ocean ridge spreading zones such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge b. Long columns

More information

Unit 4 Lesson 2 Plate Tectonics. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 4 Lesson 2 Plate Tectonics. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Puzzling Evidence What evidence suggests that continents move? In the late 1800s, Alfred Wegener proposed his hypothesis of continental drift. According to this hypothesis, the continents once formed a

More information

Plate-Tectonics A review

Plate-Tectonics A review Plate-Tectonics A review Imtiyaz A. Parvez C-MMACS, Bangalore Imtiyaz A. Parvez, C-MMACS 1 The Theory of Continental Drift Alfred Wegener (1912) proposed:- A larger super-continent PANGEA split into smaller

More information

Plate Tectonics. The Theory of Plate Tectonics. The Plate Tectonics Theory

Plate Tectonics. The Theory of Plate Tectonics. The Plate Tectonics Theory Tectonics The Theory of Tectonics The Tectonics Theory When you blow into a balloon, the balloon expands. Its surface area also increases. As more air is added to the balloon, the balloon gets larger.

More information

IDS 102 Plate Tectonics Questions

IDS 102 Plate Tectonics Questions IDS 102 Plate Tectonics Questions Part I: Observations- Four maps of world are positioned around the room. Answer the questions associated with each map and record your general observations about the maps.

More information

Chapter 3 Earth Structure

Chapter 3 Earth Structure Chapter 3 Earth Structure Geologic Structure of Earth - The interior of the Earth is layered. Concentric layers: crust, mantle, liquid outer core and solid inner core. Evidence (indirect) for this structure

More information

Pacific NW Rocks & Minerals Mid Term I: KEY

Pacific NW Rocks & Minerals Mid Term I: KEY Name: Date: (1) 2 pts. Compared to the age of the Earth accepted as correct today, how did seventeenth and eighteenth century proponents of catastrophism envision the Earth's age? A) They believed Earth

More information

Oceanic Crust vs Continental Crust Continental crust made of sial rocks containing silicon and aluminum e.g., granite Oceanic crust made of sima rocks

Oceanic Crust vs Continental Crust Continental crust made of sial rocks containing silicon and aluminum e.g., granite Oceanic crust made of sima rocks Plate Tectonics and the Earth s Interior Chapter 5 Earth s Internal Structure Crust Mantle Core Thin ocean basins ~ 3 miles Crust mountain ranges ~ 30 miles Deepest hole drilled About 7 miles Russia Crust

More information

Plate Tectonics. Introduction. Boundaries between crustal plates

Plate Tectonics. Introduction. Boundaries between crustal plates Plate Tectonics KEY WORDS: continental drift, seafloor spreading, plate tectonics, mid ocean ridge (MOR) system, spreading center, rise, divergent plate boundary, subduction zone, convergent plate boundary,

More information

What is this section called? Credits

What is this section called? Credits Station 1: Age of ocean floor Seafloor spreading is a process of plate tectonics. New oceanic crust is created as large slabs of the Earth's crust split apart from each other and magma moves up to fill

More information

Plate Tectonics II. An In-depth Look at Earthquakes. Faults at divergent boundaries. Earthquakes at divergent bdry s

Plate Tectonics II. An In-depth Look at Earthquakes. Faults at divergent boundaries. Earthquakes at divergent bdry s Plate Tectonics II An In-depth Look at Earthquakes at divergent boundaries shallow only, usually weak at translational boundaries shallow only, often strong at convergent boundaries often strong continent-continent

More information

Chapter 16: Plate Tectonics

Chapter 16: Plate Tectonics Chapter 16: Plate Tectonics Chapter Summary In the early 1900s Alfred Wegener set forth the continental drift hypothesis. One of its major tenets was that a supercontinent called Pangaea began breaking

More information

Plate Tectonics Lab II

Plate Tectonics Lab II Plate Tectonics Lab II This lab is modified from a UW ESS101 Lab created by Mike Harrell Note: Hand in only the Answer Sheet at the back of this guide to your Instructor Introduction One of the more fundamental

More information

Why Study Plate Tectonics?

Why Study Plate Tectonics? Plate Tectonics Plate tectonics is the unifying theory of geology and revolutionized geology cornerstone of Earth-system approach; explains connections between seemingly unrelated geologic phenomena permits

More information

What does this all mean? DIVIDE COLLIDE - SLIDE. There are three types of motion. Mr. Fetch s Earth Science Classroom

What does this all mean? DIVIDE COLLIDE - SLIDE. There are three types of motion. Mr. Fetch s Earth Science Classroom What does this all mean? DIVIDE COLLIDE - SLIDE There are three types of motion. Plates can divide apart and move away from each other. Plates can collide together and move closer. Plates can slide past

More information

Heat Flow. The decay of short-lived radioactive elements (such as aluminum-26) generated heat energy in the early stages of the Earth s formation.

Heat Flow. The decay of short-lived radioactive elements (such as aluminum-26) generated heat energy in the early stages of the Earth s formation. Heat Flow Heat from Earth s Interior Earth s interior heat comes from a combination of the following factors: Original heat from the formation and gravitational compression of the Earth from the solar

More information

Interactive Plate Tectonics

Interactive Plate Tectonics Interactive Plate Tectonics Directions: Go to the following website and complete the questions below. http://www.learner.org/interactives/dynamicearth/index.html How do scientists learn about the interior

More information

Plate Tectonics Lab. Continental Drift. The Birth of Plate Tectonics

Plate Tectonics Lab. Continental Drift. The Birth of Plate Tectonics Plate Tectonics Lab Continental Drift Take a look at a globe sometime and observe the remarkable fit between South America and Africa. Could they have, in fact, been connected? During the 19th and early

More information

Plate Tectonics. Continental Drift

Plate Tectonics. Continental Drift Plate Tectonics Introduction Predecessor of plate tectonics: Continental drift hypothesis What is the theory of plate tectonics? What is a plate? How do we find their edges? How many plates are there?

More information

Earth's Interior. Convection and the Mantle Section 2 Summary. Chapter 4 Plate Tectonics

Earth's Interior. Convection and the Mantle Section 2 Summary. Chapter 4 Plate Tectonics Chapter 4 Plate Tectonics Earth's Interior Earth's surface is constantly changing. Earth looks different today from the way it did millions of years ago. People wonder, "What's inside Earth?" The extreme

More information

6.E.2.2 Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes and Volcanoes

6.E.2.2 Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes and Volcanoes Name: Date: 1. The road shown below was suddenly broken by a natural event. 3. The convergence of two continental plates would produce Which natural event most likely caused the crack in the road? island

More information

Plate Tectonics Practice Questions and Answers Revised August 2007

Plate Tectonics Practice Questions and Answers Revised August 2007 Plate Tectonics Practice Questions and Answers Revised August 2007 1. Please fill in the missing labels. 2. Please fill in the missing labels. 3. How many large plates form the outer shell of the earth?

More information

Earth History: Plate Tectonics. Species and Areas: History of Ideas. Earth History: Plate Tectonics. Earth History: Plate Tectonics

Earth History: Plate Tectonics. Species and Areas: History of Ideas. Earth History: Plate Tectonics. Earth History: Plate Tectonics Species and Areas: History of Ideas How do you choose between dispersalist and vicariance models? Two important scientific advances in the study of earth history and organismal history - revolutionized

More information

Igneous Rocks. Geology 200 Geology for Environmental Scientists

Igneous Rocks. Geology 200 Geology for Environmental Scientists Igneous Rocks Geology 200 Geology for Environmental Scientists Magma Compositions Ultramafic - composition of mantle Mafic - composition of basalt, e.g. oceanic crust. 900-1200 o C, 50% SiO 2 Intermediate

More information

By itutor.com T

By itutor.com T By itutor.com T- 1-855-694-8886 Email- info@itutor.com Plate Boundaries Imagine a single plate, moving in one direction on Earth s surface. One edge of the plate the divergent boundary moves away from

More information

Plate Tectonics and Earth s Structure

Plate Tectonics and Earth s Structure Plate Tectonics and Earth s Structure Chapter Eight: Plate Tectonics Chapter Nine: Earthquakes Chapter Ten: Volcanoes Chapter Eight: Plate Tectonics 8.1 Alfred Wegener s Supercontinent 8.2 Sea Floor Spreading

More information