ES Chapter 10 Review. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

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1 Name: Class: Date: ES Chapter 10 Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Scientists used the pattern of alternating normal and reversed polarity in rocks to create the geomagnetic a. time scale. c. reversal time scale. b. sea-floor time scale. d. normal time scale. 2. What is the crack in the ocean floor through which magma rises? a. a ridge c. a rift b. a rip d. a rent 3. How does sediment that is closer to a mid-ocean ridge compare to sediment that is farther away? a. It is larger. c. It is older. b. It is smaller. d. It is younger. 4. Magnetic patterns on the ocean floor were puzzling because they a. showed alternating bands of normal and reversed polarity. b. indicated that all ocean rocks had reversed polarity. c. were not symmetrical. d. contradicted the idea of sea-floor spreading. 5. Wegener s hypothesis of continental drift was finally confirmed by a. fossils from the same reptile found on two continents. b. evidence supporting the idea of sea-floor spreading. c. continental coastlines that fit together. d. the formation of mountain ranges such as the Andes. 6. Tectonic plates can include a. only asthenosphere. c. only continental crust. b. only oceanic crust. d. both oceanic and continental crust. 7. The Pacific Ring of Fire is a. a mid-ocean ridge. c. a zone of active volcanoes. b. a chain of volcanic islands. d. a rift valley. 8. The Himalaya Mountains were formed in a collision at a a. divergent boundary. c. transform boundary. b. convergent boundary. d. fracture zone. 9. An example of a transform boundary is the a. San Andreas Fault in California. b. Nazca plate on the west coast of South America. c. Eurasian plate at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. d. island arc of Japan. 10. The force exerted by the leading edge of a subducting plate is a. convection. c. ridge push. b. tectonic plate drag. d. slab pull. 1

2 Name: 11. What often forms when large terranes and continents collide? a. small volcanic islands c. small coral islands b. cratons d. major mountain chains 12. Madagascar has unique species of plants and animals because a. continent movements separated populations of organisms. b. it was part of both Africa and India. c. it became attached to Africa 165 million years ago. d. tectonic plate movements melted the global ice sheet. 13. Modern climates are a result of past movements of a. populations of organisms. c. heat in Earth s interior. b. tectonic plates. d. rain and snow. 14. North America and Eurasia were formed when a rift separated the continent of a. Pangaea. c. Laurasia. b. Gondwanaland. d. Panthalassa. 15. In 150 million years, where may Los Angeles be in relation to San Francisco s current location? a. south of it c. north of it b. west of it d. east of it 16. According to Wegener, what happened about 250 million years ago? a. The South America and Nazca plates collided. b. The supercontinent began breaking into smaller continents. c. Magma rose to Earth s surface and solidified. d. The continents drifted to their present locations. 17. Which of the following was NOT a piece of evidence Wegener found to support his hypothesis? a. debris from glaciers in southern Africa b. mountains of similar age in North America and Scotland c. tracks of continents plowing through ocean floor rock d. identical Mesosaurus fossils in South America and Africa 18. The study of paleomagnetism was key in proving Wegener s hypothesis because a. it provided evidence of sea-floor spreading. b. it proved that fossils in Africa and South America were identical. c. it indicated that tropical swamps covered areas that are now cold. d. it showed that mountains were formed by continental drift. 19. The theory that explains why and how continents move is called a. continental drift. c. plate tectonics. b. paleomagnetism. d. sea-floor spreading. 20. Frequent earthquakes in an area may indicate a. tectonic plate boundaries. c. mantle convection. b. sea-floor spreading. d. reversed polarity. 21. Convection, ridge push, and slab pull work together to produce a. continental lithosphere. c. earthquakes. b. constant tectonic plate motion. d. fracture zones. 2

3 Name: 22. A terrane becomes part of a continent in a process called a. rifting. c. slab pull. b. converging. d. accretion. 23. What is one way tectonic plate movement affects climate? a. It creates mountains that affect wind patterns. b. It changes the location of the equator and the poles. c. It keeps ice sheets from melting. d. It keeps air temperatures constant. 24. Panthalassa was a. the supercontinent that formed before Pangaea. b. one of the continents that formed from Pangaea. c. the large ocean that surrounded Pangaea. d. a body of water cut into the eastern edge of Pangaea. 25. The splitting of Pangaea into two continents is part of a. the process of accretion. c. the process of slab pull. b. a convection cell. d. the supercontinent cycle. 26. The most conclusive proof for continental drift was provided by a. the coastlines of continents on a map. b. evidence of sea-floor spreading. c. identical fossils found on two separate continents. d. changes in climatic patterns. 27. To assign ages to sea-floor rocks, scientists used a. a mid-ocean ridge chart. c. a tectonic plate map. b. the geomagnetic reversal time scale. d. a supercontinent map. 28. Tectonic plates are blocks of a. magma. c. asthenosphere. b. magnetic rock. d. lithosphere. 29. At the center of a mid-ocean ridge is a(n) a. subduction zone. c. rift valley. b. fracture zone. d. deep-ocean trench. 30. An example of a divergent boundary is a. the sea between the Arabian Peninsula and Africa. b. the San Andreas Fault in California. c. the Chilean trench along the west coast of South America. d. the Himalaya Mountains. 31. Where do deep-ocean trenches form? a. in island arcs c. in fracture zones b. at convergent boundaries d. at transform boundaries 3

4 Name: 32. What occurs at a transform boundary? a. Oceanic lithosphere collides with continental lithosphere. b. Magma rises to the surface and forms a mid-ocean ridge. c. Two plates slide past each other horizontally. d. Two plates collide and crumple. 33. Built-up heat from the mantle that weakens lithosphere causes a. cratons. c. accretion. b. rifting. d. atolls. 34. A seamount colliding with a continent and forming a mountain chain on the continent is an example of a. rifting. c. ridge push. b. slab pull. d. accretion. 35. One result of the collision that formed Pangaea was a. the Appalachian Mountains. c. the South Atlantic Ocean. b. the continent of Gondwanaland. d. the Himalaya Mountains. Completion Complete each statement. 36. Scientists used the alternating pattern of normal and reversed polarity in rocks to formulate the. 37. The layer of plastic rock just below the lithosphere is the. 38. The zone of active volcanoes that encircles the Pacific Ocean is known as the. 39. The region along a plate boundary where one plate moves under another plate is called a(n). 40. The supercontinent that formed about 300 million years ago is called. Matching Match each item with the correct statement below. a. magnetic field that points south b. hypothesis that continents were once joined and then broke apart c. process by which new ocean lithosphere forms d. single landmass once formed by the continents e. undersea mountain range 41. sea-floor spreading 42. mid-ocean ridge 43. supercontinent 44. reversed polarity 45. continental drift 4

5 Name: Match each item with the correct statement below. a. outer layer of Earth made up of the upper part of the mantle and the crust b. cycle in which heated material rises and cooler material sinks c. solid layer of plastic mantle rock that flows very slowly d. theory that explains how large pieces of the lithosphere move e. region along a plate boundary where one plate moves under another plate 46. asthenosphere 47. subduction zone 48. plate tectonics 49. lithosphere 50. convection cell Match each item with the correct statement below. a. process by which large landmasses form and break apart over time b. a piece of lithosphere with magnetic properties different from those of its surroundings c. a supercontinent formed about 300 million years ago d. process by which a continent breaks apart e. single large ocean covering Earth 300 million years ago 51. Pangaea 52. terrane 53. Panthalassa 54. supercontinent cycle 55. rifting Match each item with the correct statement below. a. the thin outer shell of Earth that is broken into several blocks b. boundary that forms where two plates collide c. process by which new sea floor forms as magma rises through a rift d. hypothesis that the continents moved to their present positions e. study of the alignment of magnetic minerals in rock f. boundary where two plates slide past one another horizontally g. layer of plastic rock just below the lithosphere h. forming of cracks in weakened continental or oceanic crust i. boundary at which two plates move away from each other j. piece of lithosphere with a unique geologic history 56. paleomagnetism 57. transform boundary 58. asthenosphere 59. continental drift 60. terrane 61. sea-floor spreading 62. rifting 63. convergent boundary 64. lithosphere 5

6 Name: 65. divergent boundary Match each item with the correct statement below. a. hypothesis that the continents once formed a single landmass, broke up, and moved to their present locations b. study of the residual magnetism of rock c. process by which magma rises to the surface through a rift and solidifies at a mid-ocean ridge d. explanation of why and how continents move e. process by which supercontinents form and break up over millions of years 66. plate tectonics 67. supercontinent cycle 68. continental drift 69. paleomagnetism 70. sea-floor spreading 6

7 ES Chapter 10 Review Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 1 2. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 1 3. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 1 4. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 1 5. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 1 OBJ: 4 6. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 2 7. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 2 8. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 2 9. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 1 OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 2 1

8 21. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 1 OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 3 COMPLETION 36. ANS: geomagnetic reversal time scale PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: asthenosphere PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: Pacific Ring of Fire PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: subduction zone PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 2 2

9 40. ANS: Pangaea PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 3 MATCHING 41. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: G PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 1 3

10 60. ANS: J PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: H PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: I PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 1 4

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