Name: Period: # Plate Tectonics. Journey to the center of the Earth

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1 Plate Tectonics Journey to the center of the Earth Use pages to answer the following questions. Exploring Inside Earth (p ) 1. What are the two main types of evidence that Geologist use to learn about the Earth s interior? a. Indirect: b. Direct: 2. Why can t scientists directly explore Earth s interior? 3. What do geologists use to indirectly study Earth s interior? 4. Seismic waves are produced by. A Journey to the Center of the Earth (p. 127) 5. Earth is divided into main layers. They are the, and. 6. Describe how the temperature changes as you go from the surface towards the center of the Earth. 7. What is pressure? 8. The deeper you go, the the pressure. 9. Pressure increases much as it does in a pool. Page 1 of 8

2 The Crust (p. 128) 10. The is the layer of rock that forms Earth s skin. 11. The crust is under mountains and beneath the oceans. 12. Dark-colored rock that makes up most of the oceanic crust is. 13. Light-colored rock that makes up most of the continental crust is. The Mantel (p. 129) 14. Match the name of each layer of the mantel with its description. Layer Lower Mantel Lithosphere Asthenosphere Description a. rigid layer that includes the upper part of the mantle and the crust b. Solid material beneath the asthenosphere c. Soft layer just below the lithosphere 15. In Greek, lithos means and asthenes means. 16. Even though the asthenosphere is the softest layer of the mantel, it is still solid and will bend much like. The Core (p. 130) 17. Despite enormous pressure, the outer core is. 18. Why can the inner core not become liquid? Page 2 of 8

3 19. Label the layers of the Earth by writing the name of the layer in the blank. Use pages to answer the following questions Types of Heat Transfer (p ) 20. Complete the following chart on the types of heat transfer. Type of Heat Transfer Description Example Radiation Sunlight Conduction Convection Heat transfer by the movement of currents within a fluid Page 3 of 8

4 Convection Current (p ) 21. Heat always moves from a object to a substance. 22. When a liquid or gas is heated, the particles move and spread apart. Therefore, the particles occupy more space. 23. What three factors set convection current in motion? a. and of the fluid b. Changes in the fluid s c. Force of 24. Heat from where causes convention currents in the mantle? 25. Complete the following cycle to show the relationship among heat, movement and density in the mantle rock. Word Bank for diagram: a. Cools b. Decreases c. Less d. Sinks e. Slower 26. Why is this relationship shown in a cycle? Page 4 of 8

5 Drifting Continents Use pages to answer the following questions. 27. What was Alfred Wegener s hypothesis about the continents? 28. What is a hypothesis? 29. What are continents? 30. Wegener named his supercontinent. 31. Complete the following graphic organizer about the evidence that supports the theory of continental drift. Continental Drift Evidence Hypothesis E Earth s continents have moved. #1. Shape of continents They fit together like a puzzle #2. #3. change 32. Does Earth look the same today as it did 250 million years ago? Why or why not? Page 5 of 8

6 Sea-Floor Spreading Use pages and the picture below to answer the following questions. 33. Name and describe the feature of the ocean floor shown at A. 34. Describe the process shown occurring at B, and explain what results from this. 35. What happens to old oceanic crust as new molten material arises from the mantle? 36. The arrows on the figure show the ocean floor spreading from the ridge. What are three kinds of evidence scientists have found to support this idea? 37. What process is shown occurring at C, and why does it occur? 38. What devise is used to map the ocean floor? Page 6 of 8

7 The Theory of Plate Tectonics Use pages to answer the following questions. 39. The lithosphere is broken into separate sections called. 40. What does the theory of plate tectonics state? 41. The theory of plate tectonics EXPLAINS: a. b. Movement c. of Earth s plates 42. What are some examples of changes that occur because of the movement of Earth s plates? 43. Plate movements are driven by in the mantle. Plate Boundaries (p ) 44. : Breaks in the Earth s crust where rocks have slipped past each other. 45. A different type of movement occurs along each type of. 46. When two plates collide, what determines which plate will come out on top? 47. What caused the continents to move from one supercontinent to their present position? Page 7 of 8

8 48. Complete the chart on the different types of plate boundaries. Type of Boundary Description Creates Crust Created or Destroyed Divergent Two plates move apart, or diverge, from each other. Convergent Destroyed or neither Transform Earthquakes 49. Label each figure by writing the type of plate boundary it shows. Page 8 of 8

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