Essential Question: How did the theory of Plate Tectonics evolve?

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1 Essential Question: How did the theory of Plate Tectonics evolve? 1. Look at a globe or a map of the Earth. Name the continents. (7 points) 2. How many continents are there? (3 points) 3. On a sheet of copy paper draw and label the following: the Continents, Equator, Tropic of Cancer, Tropic of Capricorn, Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Arctic Ocean, Arctic Circle, Antarctic Circle. You will be counted for correct spelling and neatness. (100 points) 4. What does the surface of the Earth looks like? (2 points) 5. Do you think the the surface of the Earth has always looked as it does now? Why or why not? (2 points) 6. Do you think the surface of the Earth has changed in the past or will change in the future? Why or why not? (1 point) 7. Define these terms using the interactive glossary. (40 points) a. continent- (Read Continent for this definition and other facts) b. tectonic plate- c. plate tectonics theory- d. continental drift 8. Read Plate Tectonics: An Introduction. Write a definition of plate tectonics, and a statement of how the theory of plate tectonics helps support the theory of continental drift. (20 points)

2 Watch the videos and answer the following questions. 9. An Introduction to Continental Drift (20 points) a. What happened in 1989 in Northern California? b. What happened in 1980 in the Pacific Northwest? c. True or False: In many places around the world the Earth s crust has been raised to towering mountains. d. True or False: Our planet is constantly changing. 10. Pangea: The History of the Continents (30 points) a. Who is Alfred Wegener? b. What is Pangea? Why is this idea significant? c. What is continental drift? d. Did scientists believe Wegener at first? e. Why was it difficult for people to believe Wegener? What information did he need? f. What information did Wegener use as proof of his idea of continental drift? g. What did Wegener find to support his theory of Pangea?

3 11. The Ocean Floor: Clues About Continental Drift on Earth (100 points) a. What was discovered? What did is resemble and where was it located? b. What is the mid-ocean ridge? c. Why did scientists sent an exploratory submarine under water? What did they find? d. Where does lava come from? What happens when lava cools? e. What forms the ocean floor? f. How did the lava get on the ocean floor? h. What is an under water geyser? i. What else did scientists discover? j. What is unique about the creatures that live here? k. What did the scientists discover about the age of the crack in the ocean floor? m. What solution did scientists come up with? n. How do the students demonstrate the spreading and age of the ocean floor in the mid-ocean ridge? Explain and draw it. o. How does this demonstration explain that material farther away from the crack is older than material found by the crack itself? p. What is this type of land movement called? q. What two continents do they say is spreading apart because of this movement?

4 12. Plate Tectonics 1 (20 points) Circle the word in ( ) that best completes each statement. a. The surface of the Earth is (broken, stitched together) into large, interconnected (plates, life-vests) which float on a layer of molten (rock, caramel) in the mantle. This is the theory of plate (tectonics, technology). Volcanoes and earthquakes occur where plates (meet, have dinner). b. What kind of dots or information were scientists trying to collect? c. What do the dots seems to form? How is information significant (important to this study)? d. What do scientists call these pieces? e. What is the theory that explains plate movement? 13. How the Inner Structure of Planet Earth Affects Plate Tectonics (100 points) H Circle the word in ( ) that best completes each statement. a. The (interior, exterior) of the earth has several layers: the inner core made of solid (iron, fat), the outer core made of liquid (metal, soap), the mantle made of hot, solid (rock, chocolate), and the crust, which is the outer layer of the (earth, Sun). The crust and a thin layer of the mantle just beneath the crust are together known as the (lithosphere, best piece of pie). Places where tectonic plates touch are called (plate boundaries, sensitive). Convergent boundaries are places where plates are (moving towards, in rhythm with) each other. Divergent boundaries are places where plates (move away from, have coffee with) each other. Transform boundaries are places where plates (move parallel, say hello) to each other. b. What are the layers of the interior of the Earth? List and describe each one. c. What forms the Earth s outer shell? What is it called?

5 13. How the Inner Structure of Planet Earth Affects Plate Tectonics (continued) d. Can you see the Earth s crust easily? Why or why not? e. What does each plate carry? f. How fast are the plates moving? g. Why are the plates moving? h. How can heat cause a circulating movement? How does this affect the plates? i. What is a divergent boundary? Explain and draw it. j. What is a convergent boundary? Explain and draw it. k. What is a transform boundary? Explain and draw it. m. What is magma? n. How is new crust made?

6 13. How the Inner Structure of Planet Earth Affects Plate Tectonics (continued) o. Where is plate material created? p. Where is plate material destroyed? q. What is subduction? r. What is a subduction zone? 14. Earthquakes (50 points) Circle the word in ( ) that best completes each statement. a. A fault is a (crack, bubble) in the earth's crust. Earthquakes occur when one side of a fault tries to move in one direction and the other side of the fault tries to move in another. The fault sticks until enough (stress, points) has built up to (break, win) the rock. When the rock breaks, it releases (energy, glitter) in the form of seismic waves, which travel through the earth. Earthquakes occur on all three types of plate boundaries. b. True or False: Plate boundaries coincide with earthquakes. c. True of False: Most of the Earth s crust is filled with cracks. d. True of False: Earthquakes occur on all three types of plate boundaries. e. What is a fault? What happens at a fault? Explain and draw it. f. How does bending a stick until it breaks compare to a fault? g. What are seismic waves? h. How are the waves in a pond similar to the waves in an earthquake. i. Where do earthquakes occur? j. The 1989 earthquake in California happened near a boundary and was miles long.

7 15. Volcanoes (75 points) a. Where do most volcanoes occur? b. What is the Ring of Fire? c. Explain how a volcano forms and finally erupts. d. What is spewed out from a volcano? e. What happened to Mount Saint Helens? f. What happened to the people and animals around the Mount St. Helen s eruption? g. What is a hot spot and where is a hot spot located? h. How were the Hawaiian islands formed? i. Do hot spots move? j. How do the islands move? k. Do volcanoes usually erupt like Mount St. Helens? l. What is a lava fountain? m. What is a steam explosion? n. How are new shorelines formed?

8 16. Mountains (50 points) a. True or False: Mountains are the result of plate movement. b. Most mountain ranges are located near boundaries. c. How are mountains made? Explain and draw it. d. What do we call raised, layers of the Earth? e. How could you demonstrate mountain formation? f. What are the world s highest mountains? g. What two plates are coming together to form the Himalayan mountains? h. Explain and draw evidence of mountains being pushed into each other? 17. A Review of Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics (50 points) a. What is Pangea? b. What is the Earth s shell made of? What do the plates do? What do they carry with them? c. What are the three types of plate boundaries?

9 17. A Review of Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics (continued) d. Where do most divergent boundaries occur? e. What is a mid-ocean ridge? f. What is created at the mid-ocean ridge? g. How are folded mountains made? h. What do scientists think will happen to the continents over millions of years? 18. Plate Tectonics 2 (75 points) Circle the word in ( ) that best completes each statement. a. Seafloor spreading can create (new, old) ocean crust, but the crust must be (destroyed, eaten) somewhere as well. Earthquake data showed that although many earthquakes occurred near the (mid-ocean ridges, airports) many others occurred far from them. The earthquake locations could be "connected" to show that the earth's crust was broken into many (tectonic, paper plates). The theory that explains how the plates move through time is called (plate tectonics, super sonic). b. True or False: The seafloor is spreading. c. True or False: The surface of the Earth is broken into large, interconnected plates which float on a layer of molten rock in the mantle. d. True or False: Volcanoes and earthquakes occur where plates meet. e. The plates are moving are a rate compared to what growth on humans? f. The plates moved apart but will move back together again. Explain. g. Examples of plate movement are seen in what state? What two plates are colliding there?

10 18. Plate Tectonics 2 (continued) h. Describe how volcanoes happen and draw it. i. The Andes Mountains are an example of what? j. What is a Mid-Ocean Ridge? Explain and draw it. k. What is a strike-slip fault? Explain and draw it. l. What happens before volcanoes actually explode How does this affect humans? 19. Generalizations (50 points) a. What is inductive reasoning? How is this related to putting together a puzzle? b. What is a generalization? c. How can a generalization lead to a theory? d. What theory did Alfred Wegener propose about the continents? e. List Wegener's observations (evidence) that led to what at the time seemed like a radical theory. f. Why was it difficult for Wegener to prove his theory?

11 19. Generalizations (continued) g. How do we know how deep the oceans are? h. Is the ocean floor flat? How do we know? i. What is the Mid-Atlantic Ridge? j. How does the Mid-Atlantic Ridge support Wegener s theory? 20. Watch the interactive video Plate Tectonics. Uncover 25 pieces of pop-up information as you watch and write a fact about each one. (25 points)

12 21. You just watched Plate Tectonics now watch Continental Drift to review and rewrite your definitions of continental drift and plate tectonics. (20 points) a. Continental driftb. Plate tectonics- 22. LAB - Continental Drift (100 points - 60 points map, 40 points reflection) In this activity, you will demonstrate the following Inquiry Skills: Design Investigations Make or use models that simulate a real thing that cannot easily be studied or manipulate Allow the testing of a hypothesis with results that can be extrapolated to the real thing Gather Data Use the appropriate format to record data Sketch Materials: Map of the world or globe for each team Continent cut-outs (North,Central, and SouthAmerica) Large piece of paper Scissors Tape Markers With your partner, draw and cut-out North American and South American continents, connected by Central America. Divide your paper into two or three plates by drawing lines to represent plate boundaries. Then, indicate the direction of motion for each of your plates. When you are done, place your continent cut-out on the large piece of paper so that some part of the continent cut-out falls across each of the plate boundaries. Then, predict what the continents would look like millions of years from now, if the plates were moving past each other in the direction you indicated. Move the continent pieces around (splitting the large landform into multiple smaller landforms, if necessary), and paste the pieces where they would be if their self-designed plates really existed. Compare maps with classmates and discuss how the specific nature of the actual continental plates has determined what the surface of the Earth looks like today. Reflect on your experience with this lab here. What were your ideas before your started, during and after the lab on Continental Drift?

13 23. Circle the word in ( ) that best completes each statement. (50 points) a. In the early 1900s, (Alfred Wegener, Johnny Appleseed) proposed his theory of (continental drift, thrift stores). He had observed that the coastlines of different continents seemed to fit together like (puzzle, candy) pieces. He also knew that similar (geographic, facial) features and fossils could be found on different sides of the (ocean, face). His (observations, family) led him to conclude that millions of years ago, the continents had all been attached as one large continent called Pangaea. They had gradually broken apart and drifted into their current positions. Scientists had a difficult time accepting Wegener's theory because he could not explain how the continents would (drift, speak). The theory of plate (tectonics, technology) was developed in the late twentieth century, when new (technology, fashions) provided much more data about the ocean's floor. Further exploration resulted in the accepted theory of plate (tectonics, technicolor). It states that the Earth's lithosphere is divided into several plates that glide on the slowly moving rock of the Earth's mantle. The theory can explain (geographic, facial) formations like mountains and ocean basins as well as events like earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. b. True or False: The positions of Earth s continents and other surface features has never changed or will never change in the future. c. True or False: Earth s tectonic plates are constantly moving at a rate of about one inch per year, carrying the continents with them. d. True or False: This movement sometimes results in changes that are sudden and rapid, such as earthquakes and volcanoes. But sometimes the changes are very slow e. The theory of plate (tectonics, tailgaters) evolved from the theory that came before it, the theory of continental (drift, pears). The theory of continental (drift, road blocks) was based not only on the (shapes, attitudes) of the continents, which seem to fit together in places, but also on matching (fossil, outfits) and (rock, forensic) evidence found along continental boundaries on opposite sides of the (oceans, house). As new (technologies, rock bands) (such as deep sea submersibles) were developed and utilized, scientists were able to gather (new data, berries) about the ocean (floor, ceiling). This data, which revealed long mid-ocean ridges, deep sea trenches, and the process of sea-floor spreading, eventually led to the theory of plate (tectonics, tuna). 24. Essential Question: How did the theory of plate tectonics evolve? (50 points)

14 25. Dance of the Plates (100 points) In this Exploration you will discover how the tectonic plates that make up the Earth's outer layer interact at their boundaries to answer the questions and complete the data table below. 1. What are plates? 2. What combination of boundary type and crust type creates enormous mountains? 3. How did the San Andreas fault system form? 4. What landform is created when convergent plates met along oceanic crusts? Crust Types Type of Boundary Both Continental Both Oceanic Continental & Oceanic Convergent Notes: Notes: Notes: Ex: Ex: Ex: Divergent Notes: Notes: Notes: Ex: Ex: Ex: Transform Notes: Notes: Notes: Ex: Ex: Ex:

15 26. Final Project: Choose one of the following projects or propose something you would really like to do in a written request. You must get written approval from Mrs. Ortiz. (100 points) 1 Research Wegener s life and create a short presentation about how he came to propose the theory of continental drift. 2 Create a poster about the scientific evidence that supports the theory of plate tectonics. 3 Write a one page paper about how the composition of the interior of the Earth allows for the movement of the tectonic plates. 4 What are tsunamis? How are they created? How do they differ from other water waves? Discuss the location of some recent tsunamis and the result on the land and people. Extra Credit: After you have completed all your work, you can go to and create a puzzle based on your studies of the development of the plate tectonic theory. Print out the puzzle and an answer key and attach it to this packet. (100 points)

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