Rocks and Plate Tectonics

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1 Name: Class: _ Date: _ Rocks and Plate Tectonics Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is a naturally occurring, solid mass of mineral or mineral-like matter? a. a rock c. lava b. a mineral d. a fossil 2. Which of the following is NOT considered to be a rock? a. coal c. pumice b. sandstone d. lava 3. Which of the following is NOT one of the three types of rock? a. igneous c. sedimentary b. magma d. metamorphic 4. The three groups of rocks are classified by. a. color c. chemical composition b. grain size d. how they formed 1

2 Name: 5. In Figure 3-1, what type of rock should occur in the part of the rock cycle labeled B? a. igneous c. lava b. metamorphic d. sedimentary 6. If granite undergoes high temperatures and high pressures deep within Earth, what type of rock will be formed? Assume that the granite does not melt. a. a sedimentary rock c. an organic rock b. a metamorphic rock d. an igneous rock 7. Where is the energy source found that drives the processes that form igneous and metamorphic rocks? a. the sun c. Earth s interior b. the wind d. moving water 8. A rock that forms when magma hardens beneath Earth s surface is called an. a. intrusive metamorphic rock b. intrusive igneous rock c. extrusive sedimentary rock d. extrusive igneous rock 9. When large masses of magma solidify far below Earth s surface, they form igneous rocks that have a. a. glassy texture c. fine-grained texture b. clastic texture d. coarse-grained texture 2

3 Name: 10. As the rate of cooling of igneous rocks increases, the size of the crystals that form. a. decreases c. is not affected b. increases d. cannot be determined 11. A conglomerate is a rock that forms as a result of. a. intense heat and pressure c. rapid cooling b. compaction and cementation d. slow cooling 12. Which of the following represents the correct order of the processes involved in sedimentary rock formation? a. erosion, weathering, compaction, cementation, deposition b. compaction, cementation, deposition, weathering, erosion c. deposition, cementation, compaction, erosion, weathering d. weathering, erosion, deposition, compaction, cementation 13. What type of sedimentary rock is formed from weathered particles of rocks and minerals? a. clastic sedimentary rock c. chemical sedimentary rock b. biochemical sedimentary rock d. intrusive sedimentary rock 14. Fossils are only found in. a. intrusive igneous rocks c. sedimentary rocks b. foliated metamorphic rocks d. nonfoliated metamorphic rocks 15. Most metamorphic processes take place. a. several hundred kilometers below Earth s surface b. a few kilometers below Earth s surface c. just below Earth s surface d. at Earth s surface 16. The primary agent of contact metamorphism is. a. flowing water c. extreme pressure b. heat d. weathering 17. Wegener s continental drift hypothesis stated that all the continents once joined together to form. a. two major supercontinents b. two major supercontinents and three smaller continents c. one major supercontinent d. three major supercontinents 18. The supercontinent in the continental drift hypothesis was called. a. Panthalassa c. Mesosaurus b. Pangaea d. Africa 19. One kind of evidence that supports Wegener s hypothesis is that. a. the same magnetic directions exist on different continents b. major rivers on different continents match c. land bridges still exist that connect major continents d. fossils of the same organism have been found on different continents 3

4 Name: 20. Evidence about ancient climates indicates that. a. glacial ice once covered much of what is now India and Australia b. continents in the Northern Hemisphere today were once centered over the South Pole c. continents in the Southern Hemisphere today were once centered over the North Pole d. no continents occupied the Southern Hemisphere 21. The geographic distribution of the swimming reptile Mesosaurus provides evidence that. a. Europe was covered by a shallow sea when Mesosaurus lived b. a land bridge existed between Australia and India c. South America and Africa were once joined d. the Atlantic Ocean was wider when Mesosaurus lived than it is now 22. Which of the following was NOT used in support of the continental drift hypothesis? a. fossil evidence c. ancient climate b. composition of meteorites d. fit of South America and Africa 23. According to the theory of plate tectonics,. a. the asthenosphere is divided into plates b. the lithosphere is divided into plates c. the asthenosphere moves over the lithosphere d. the asthenosphere is strong and rigid 24. In the plate tectonic theory, a plate can be made up of. a. continental lithosphere only b. oceanic lithosphere only c. both continental and oceanic lithosphere d. both continental and oceanic asthenosphere 25. What kind of plate boundary occurs where two plates grind past each other without destroying or producing lithosphere? a. divergent boundary c. transitional boundary b. convergent boundary d. transform fault boundary 26. A divergent boundary at two continental plates can result in a. a. rift valley c. continental volcanic arc b. volcanic island arc d. subduction zone 27. What type of boundary occurs where two plates move together, causing one plate to descend into the mantle beneath the other plate? a. transform fault boundary c. convergent boundary b. divergent boundary d. transitional boundary 28. Which of the following is a geographic example of a transform fault boundary? a. the East African Rift valley c. the Mid-Atlantic Ridge b. the San Andreas Fault d. the Andes Mountains 29. New ocean crust is formed at. a. divergent boundaries c. continental volcanic arcs b. convergent boundaries d. transform fault boundaries 30. Which of the following results when divergence occurs between two oceanic plates? a. seafloor spreading c. an ocean trench b. a subduction zone d. a volcanic island arc 4

5 Name: 31. What forms when one oceanic plate is forced beneath another plate? a. an ocean basin c. a subduction zone b. an ocean ridge d. a rift valley 32. What type of plate boundary is illustrated in Figure 9-1? a. transform fault boundary b. divergent boundary c. convergent oceanic-oceanic boundary d. convergent oceanic-continental boundary 33. What feature is labeled B in Figure 9-1? a. trench c. volcanic island arc b. ocean ridge d. continental volcanic arc 34. What layer of Earth is labeled C in Figure 9-1? a. asthenosphere c. oceanic crust b. continental lithosphere d. continental crust 35. What process is illustrated by the area labeled G in Figure 9-1? a. seafloor spreading c. rifting b. continental volcanism d. subduction 36. Which of the following does NOT occur at a subduction zone? a. The leading edges of both plates are bent upward. b. Oceanic crust is pushed down into the mantle. c. A continental plate moves over an oceanic plate. d. One oceanic plate moves beneath another oceanic plate. 5

6 Name: 37. The Himalayas in South Asia are an example of what type of plate boundary? a. convergent oceanic-continental boundary b. convergent continental-continental boundary c. divergent boundary d. transform fault boundary 38. Because of the property of paleomagnetism,. a. iron-rich rocks show the location of the magnetic poles at the time of their formation b. all rocks, regardless of when they are formed, have the same polarity c. all rocks have a reversed polarity d. rocks do not possess magnetic properties 39. Strips of alternating magnetic polarities found in rocks in the ocean basins. a. conflict with the theory of plate tectonics b. provide evidence that Earth s magnetic field has never reversed polarity c. indicate changes in Earth s gravitation field d. provide evidence for seafloor spreading 40. How does the age of seafloor sediments change with increasing distance from the ocean ridge? a. Age decreases. c. Age increases. b. Age stays the same. d. Age varies without a pattern. 6

7 Rocks and Plate Tectonics Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 66 OBJ: 3.1 Define the term rock. 2. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 66 OBJ: 3.1 Define the term rock. 3. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 66 OBJ: 3.2 Identify the three major types of rocks and explain how they differ. 4. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 66 OBJ: 3.2 Identify the three major types of rocks and explain how they differ. 5. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 67 OBJ: 3.3 Describe the rock cycle. STA: MSC: analysis 6. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 68 OBJ: 3.3 Describe the rock cycle. STA: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 69 OBJ: 3.4 List the forces that power Earth s rock cycle. STA: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 71 OBJ: 3.5 Compare and contrast intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks. 9. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 72 OBJ: 3.6 Demonstrate how the rate of cooling affects an igneous rock s texture. 10. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 72 OBJ: 3.6 Demonstrate how the rate of cooling affects an igneous rock s texture. 11. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 76 OBJ: 3.8 Describe the major processes involved in the formation of sedimentary rocks. 12. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 76 OBJ: 3.8 Describe the major processes involved in the formation of sedimentary rocks. MSC: analysis 13. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 77 OBJ: 3.9 Distinguish between clastic sedimentary rocks and chemical sedimentary rocks. 14. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 78 OBJ: 3.10 Identify the features that are unique to some sedimentary rocks. 15. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 80 OBJ: 3.11 Predict where most metamorphism takes place. 1

8 16. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 81 OBJ: 3.12 Distinguish contact metamorphism from regional metamorphism. 17. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 248 OBJ: 9.1 Describe the hypothesis of continental drift. 18. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 248 OBJ: 9.1 Describe the hypothesis of continental drift. 19. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 249 OBJ: 9.1 Describe the hypothesis of continental drift. 20. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 250 OBJ: 9.2 Evaluate the evidence in support of continental drift. 21. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 249 OBJ: 9.2 Evaluate the evidence in support of continental drift. 22. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 249 OBJ: 9.2 Evaluate the evidence in support of continental drift. 23. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 261 OBJ: 9.7 Explain the theory of plate tectonics. STA: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 261 OBJ: 9.8 Describe lithospheric plates. 25. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 264 MSC: analysis 27. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 264 OBJ: 9.5 Explain the processes of sea-floor spreading and subduction. 31. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 257 OBJ: 9.5 Explain the processes of sea-floor spreading and subduction. 32. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 265 MSC: analysis 33. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 265 OBJ: 9.4 Identify mid-ocean ridges and deep-ocean trenches. MSC: analysis 2

9 34. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 265 OBJ: 9.8 Describe lithospheric plates. MSC: analysis 35. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 265 OBJ: 9.5 Explain the processes of sea-floor spreading and subduction. MSC: analysis 36. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 265 OBJ: 9.5 Explain the processes of sea-floor spreading and subduction. 37. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 258 OBJ: 9.6 Explain the evidence for sea-floor spreading, including paleomagnetism and magnetic reversals, earthquake patterns, and the age of the ocean floor. 39. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 258 OBJ: 9.6 Explain the evidence for sea-floor spreading, including paleomagnetism and magnetic reversals, earthquake patterns, and the age of the ocean floor. 40. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 260 OBJ: 9.6 Explain the evidence for sea-floor spreading, including paleomagnetism and magnetic reversals, earthquake patterns, and the age of the ocean floor. 3

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