Scientific Revolution

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1 Scientific Revolution Learning Objective Students will be able to: * define the Scientific Revolution * identify the historical roots of modern science. (a historical root is the start of something)

2 The Birth of Modern Science Building Background: In the 1500s, Europe was undergoing dramatic changes. The Renaissance was well under way. During the Renaissance, great advances were made in: art writing education The stage was set for another revolution in thinking. For interactive Europe map go to: During the 1500s and 1600s, a handful of brilliant individuals laid the foundations for science as we know it today. Some historians consider the development of modern science the most important event in the intellectual history of humankind.

3 Between 1500 and 1700, modern science emerged as a new way of gaining knowledge about the world. Galileo tested his ideas about gravity by dropping two balls of different sizes and weights from the top of the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Before this time, Europeans relied on two main sources for their understanding of nature: The Bible and religious teachings. The work of classical thinkers, especially the philosopher Aristotle.

4 The Scientific Revolution

5 Pair / Share Ques-on What two things did Europeans rely on to help them understand nature? 1. Europeans relied on the Bible. 2. The works of Classical thinkers, particularly Aristotle.

6 Roots of the Scientific Revolution During the Renaissance, many thinkers began to question the conclusions of earlier thinkers. For example, Renaissance scholars rediscovered the cultures of ancient - Greece and Rome. Muslim, Christian, and Jewish scholars in the Muslim Arab world translated many classical works. They also made advances of their own in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and mathematics.

7 Many European philosophers were influenced by Greek rationalism. A philosopher is a person who studies ideas about knowledge, truth, and the nature and meaning of life. Rationalism is the belief that reason, or logical thought, can be used to discover basic truths about the world. Renaissance thinkers also observed nature directly. The Renaissance physician Vesalius dissected corpses to test ancient ideas about the body. A key part of modern science is based on: Reason Observation

8 Pair / Share Ques-on Which three groups in the Muslim world translated ancient texts? 1. Muslim 2. Chris-an 3. Jewish

9 Pair / Share What two things became a key part of modern science during this time? 1. Reason 2. Observa-on

10 During the Scientific Revolution, scientists challenged traditional teachings about nature. They asked fresh questions, and they answered them in new ways. A good example is Aristotle s description of falling objects. Aristotle had said that heavier objects fall to the ground faster than lighter ones. This idea seemed logical, but the Italian scientist Galileo questioned it. Galileo performed a demonstration in the city of Pisa, where he was teaching. He dropped two balls of different weights from the city s Leaning Tower. The results shocked the crowd of students and professors. They expected the heavier ball to land first. Instead, the two balls landed at the same time. Galileo s demonstration is an application of the scientific method. He disproved Aristotle s old theory through observation.

11 End sec-on

12 Learning Objective part 2 Students will be able to describe the contributions of Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton to the Scientific Revolution.

13 (Geocentric Theory. Geo=Earth, centric= centered.) For nearly two thousand years, most people believed that Earth was the center of the universe. Aristotle had taught this theory. The Bible seemed to support it, as well. Unfortunately, this belief made it hard to explain the observed movements of planets, such as Mars and Jupiter.

14 (Heliocentric Theory. Helio=sun, centric= centered.) In the early 1500s, Copernicus tackled these problems using observations and mathematics, he proposed a very different idea. According to his heliocentric theory, Earth and the other planets travel in orbits around the sun. The sun is at the center of this solar system. Earth also turns on its own axis every 24 hours.

15 Then, in the early 1600s, German scientist Johannes Kepler expanded on Copernicus s theory. After studying detailed observations, Kepler figured out that the orbits of the planets were ovals, not circles. With this insight, he wrote precise mathematical laws describing the planets movements around the sun. Kepler s laws agreed with actual observations. This agreement was evidence that the theory of Copernicus was correct. Once the theory took hold, people would never again hold the same view of Earth s place in the universe.

16 Pair / Share Question 1. Why do people often think of Copernicus and Kepler together? A. Both men put forth a geocentric theory. B. Both men discovered the law of gravity. C. Kepler's work built on Copernicus work. D. Copernicus's work contradicted Kepler's. C. Kepler s work built on Copernicus work.

17 Galileo Galilei lived at the same time as Johannes Kepler. He disproved Aristotle s theory that heavy objects fall faster than lighter ones. He made other discoveries about motion, as well. Galileo s biggest discoveries came in 1609 when he decided to build his own telescope. He figured out how telescopes worked. He learned how to grind glass for lenses. Soon he was building more and more powerful telescopes.

18 Galileo s discoveries contradicted the traditional view of the universe. For example, Aristotle had taught that the moon was perfectly smooth. Galileo saw that it wasn t. Aristotle had said that Earth was the only center of motion in the universe. Galileo saw moons moving around Jupiter.

19 Pair / Share Ques-on What did Galileo invent / develop? Ans: He developed the telescope How did this invention affect the the theory of Copernicus? Ans: His observations supported Copernicus's heliocentric theory

20 Galileo's discoveries supported the Copernican heliocentric theory and led him into a bitter conflict with the Catholic Church. Church officials feared that attacks on the geocentric theory could lead people to doubt the Church s teachings. In 1616, the Catholic Church warned Galileo not to teach the Copernican theory. Galileo refused to be silenced. In 1632, he published a book called, Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems. Galileo s Dialogue caused an uproar. In 1633, the pope called Galileo to Rome to face the Catholic court, known as the Inquisition.

21 At Galileo s trial, Church leaders accused him of heresy. They demanded that he confess his error. At first Galileo resisted. In the end, the court forced him to swear that the geocentric theory was true. He was forbidden to write again about the Copernican theory. However, the Church s opposition could not stop the spread of Galileo s ideas. Scientists across Europe read his Dialogue. Galileo s studies of motion also advanced the Scientific Revolution. Like Kepler, he used observation and mathematics to solve scientific problems.

22 Pair / Share Question In response to Galileo's discoveries, the Church A. Asked Galileo to explain his theories to the pope. B. Asked Galileo to explain his theories more clearly. C. Made Galileo a saint. D. Made Galileo say he was wrong. D. Made Galileo say he was wrong.

23 Isaac Newton and the Law of Gravity Isaac Newton was born in England in 1642, the same year Galileo died. Newton was a brilliant scientist and mathematician. His greatest discovery was the law of gravity. Gravity: the force of attraction between all masses in the universe. Newton told a story about his discovery. He was trying to figure out what kept the moon traveling in its orbit around Earth. Since the moon was in motion, why didn t it fly off into space in a straight line?

24 Then Newton saw an apple fall from a tree and hit the ground. Newton realized that when objects fall, they fall toward the center of Earth. He wondered if the same force that pulled the apple to the ground was tugging on the moon. The difference was that the moon was far away, and Newton reasoned that the force was just strong enough to bend the moon s motion into an oval orbit around Earth.

25 Pair / Share Question What is Gravity? Ans: The force of attraction between all masses in the universe. Does gravity affect the movement of the moon and planets? Ans: Newton reasoned that in fact it did.

26 The Scientific Method A key outcome of the Scientific Revolution was the development of the scientific method. Scientific method: a step-by-step method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific assumptions. Two philosophers who influenced this development were Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes (reh-nay dey-kahrt). Francis Bacon was born in England in He outlined a method of scientific investigation that depended on close observation.

27 Rene Descartes was born in France in the year To gain knowledge that was certain, he said, people should doubt every statement until logic proved it to be true. Descartes also saw the physical universe as obeying universal mathematical laws. These ideas helped create a new approach to science. Over time, scientists developed this approach into the scientific method. The scientific method combines logic, mathematics, and observation. It has five basic steps:

28

29 Pair / Share Question What is the scientific method? scientific method: a step-by-step method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific assumptions

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