# GRAVITY CONCEPTS. Gravity is the universal force of attraction between all matter

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "GRAVITY CONCEPTS. Gravity is the universal force of attraction between all matter"

Transcription

1 IT S UNIVERSAL GRAVITY CONCEPTS Gravity is the universal force of attraction between all matter Weight is a measure of the gravitational force pulling objects toward Earth Objects seem weightless when there is nothing holding them up An orbit results from a combination of the forward motion of an object and the force of gravity Astronomers use the law of gravity to analyze distant phenomena Take a look at a few key concepts that are important to astronomy and astrophysics: gravi ty, orbits, weight, and weightlessness. Explore these concepts furt h e r using the recommended resources mentioned in this reading selection. Developed with the generous support of The Charles Hayden Foundation

2 Gravity and astronomy Why is understanding gravity important for astronomers? For one thing, gravity determines the structure and motion of every object in the universe. Without gravity, there would be no stars or planets including Earth. All stars and planets are born inside giant clouds of gas and dust called nebulae. Stars and planets form when particles in these clouds are pulled toward each other by gravity. Gravity also supplies the forces that keep Earth in orbit around the Sun, and the Moon in orbit around Earth. Without an orbit keeping Earth just the right distance from the Sun, we would not receive the Sun s life-giving light and warmth. Gravity also holds the atmosphere to Earth, and keeps us all from floating off into space. We owe our very lives to gravity. On a practical level, no spacecraft could reach its destination, or achieve a successful orbit, without precise predictions of how gravitational forces will shape its journey through space. Fortunately, astronomers can predict how objects will move in space because gravitational forces work according to precise mathematical laws. Perhaps the most important application of these laws, however, is that astronomers can learn a great deal about objects billions of miles away by observing how they are affected by gravitational forces. Gravity is the universal force of attraction between all matter Gravity is more than just a force that pulls objects toward Earth. It is a universal force of attraction between all matter. The strength of this attraction depends on only two quantities: the mass of each object and the distance between the objects. Gravity and Mass: The strength of the gravitational force between two objects depends o n their mass, or how much matter they contain. The more mass, the stronger the gravitational force. For example, if you double the mass of one of two objects, you double the force of gravi ty between them. I fy o ud o u b l eb o t h of the masses, then the force of gravi ty b e tween them would be four times as strong. Thus, the strength of the force of gravi ty is directly proportional to the mass of the first object times the mass of the second.

3 ! Mathematically the inverse square law is expressed as an equation; however, it can be described with the following simple analogy. Imagine using a can of spray paint. If you stand one foot in front of a wall and spray the paint, it will make a small circle of thick paint. If you step back another foot and spray the paint again, you will get a much larger, and thinner, circle of paint. In this analogy, as you move farther away from an object, its gravitational attraction weakens in much the same way as the spray paint thins out the farther the can is moved away from the wall. Gravity and Distance: The farther apart two objects are, the weaker the attraction between them. This relationship can be defined using an equation called the inverse square law: F 1 (force) = Gm1m2 d 2 G =Gravitational constant, m 1 = mass 1, m 2 = mass 2, d = distance between m 1 and m 2 This equation states that the gravitational force between two objects decreases with the square of the distance. For example, if the distance between the objects doubles, the gravitational force decreases by two squared, or four. F 2 (force at twice the distance) = Gm 1m 2 = Gm 1m 2 = 1 4 F 1 (2d) 2 4d 2 Increasing the distance by ten times would decrease the gravitational attraction by one hundred times. F 10 (force at ten times the distance) = Gm1m2 = Gm1m2 = 1 (10d) 2 100d F 1 Distance Must Be Measured from the Center For an object as big as a planet, the distance considered in the inverse square law must be measured from the center of the object. The force of gravity between you and the Earth always pulls you toward the center of the Earth. This is because every piece of Earth attracts every piece of you. Some of these pieces are very close to you, but some are on the far side of Earth. Added together, all these forces of attraction add up to one big force pulling you toward the center of the Earth. If you wanted to double the distance between you and the Earth, according to the inverse square law, you would have to double your distance from the center of Earth. Because Earth has a radius of 4,000 miles, you would need to travel to a point 4,000 miles above the surface of Earth. That is much, much higher than the astronauts in the Space Shuttle!

5 Objects seem weightless when there is nothing holding them up To experience a sensation of weight, there must be something to hold you up. Gravity always pulls you down toward the center of the Earth, but the surface of the Earth pushes up against your feet with an equal force, which holds you up. If there were no surface beneath you, you would fall toward the nearest, most m a s s i ve object (in our case, the Earth). When the only force acting on you is gravi ty, and there is nothing to resist this force and keep you from falling, you are said to be in a state of free-fall. It is in this state that you experience w e i g h t l e s s n e s s. For astronauts inside the space shuttle, the sensation of weightlessness is constant. The astronauts and the shuttle that contains them are both in a state of free fall, plummeting toward Earth at the same rate, like a rollercoaster that never reaches the bottom. The astronauts have no sensation of weight because no part of the shuttle presses back on them to resist their fall. This experience of weightlessness does not mean that there is no gravity acting upon the astronauts. It simply means that they do not sense gravity s pull because there is nothing resisting the force of gravity on their bodies. The floor of the shuttle does not hold them up because it, too, is falling. Though people sometimes speak of zero gravity, scientists prefer the word microgravity, because it is impossible to completely eliminate the force of gravity on an object. If you flew very, very far out into space, the gravitational attraction between you and Earth would become extremely small, because you would h ave greatly increased your distance from the center of the Earth. You would become ve ry nearly weightless, but a tiny amount of gravitational attraction would always remai n.

6 This is not the situation with astronauts in the Space Shuttle, however. The Space Shuttle orbits at barely 200 miles above the ground. That is only about 5 percent farther from Earth s center than objects on the surface of Earth. This increased distance from the center of Earth is only enough to decrease the weight of the astronauts in the shuttle by about 10 percent! Their experience of weightlessness in the Space Shuttle is not caused by a lack of gravitational forces acting on them. They feel weightless because they are in free-fall, and nothing is holding them up. Try this Resource! Space Games asks students to imagine how familiar games would change when played in a weightless environment, and to determine how the rules of the games could be changed so they could be played in space. This resource is available at M If you re visiting the Moveable Museum, you can watch a video of astronauts working, eating, sleeping, and playing all while seemingly weightless. What do you think would happen to a common Earth toy in the weightlessness of space? After you ve determined your answer, you can view an astronaut demonstrating the toy in the weightlessness of the Space Shuttle.

7 An orbit results from a combination of the forward motion of an object and the force of gravity If Earth s gravity still pulls on the shuttle, why doesn t it fall to the Earth? In fact, the shuttle does get pulled toward Earth. But it is also moving forward at the same time. The combination of a rapid forward speed and falling towards the center of the planet creates a curved path around the Earth called an orbit. All orbits are a combination of a forward motion and the pull of gravity. The forward motion must be at just the right speed to produce an orbit. If an orbiting object is moving too slowly, it will spiral inward and fall to Earth. If the object is moving too fast, it will continue on past Earth and sail off into space. Try this Resource! Space Shuttle Orbiter lets students create an orbit by twirling objects on a string. The string provides an inward force that simulates gravitational attraction toward the Earth. This resource is available at du_u12_shuttle.pdf M If you re visiting the Moveable Museum, you can simulate launching satellites into orbit. A computer animation shows what happens when an orbiting satellite moves too slowly, too fast, or at the correct speed to maintain a stable orbit. Orbits are a combination of a forward motion and the pull of gravity.

8 Astronomers use the law of gravity to analyze distant phenomena Gravity behaves according to precise mathematical equations or laws. These equations make it possible to understand a great deal about objects billions of miles away. For instance, the time it takes one object to orbit another is linked mathematically to the distance between the two objects and the mass of the object being orbited. Mathematical equations let astronomers calculate any of these quantities from the other two. For instance, you can figure out the mass of a planet simply by observing how its moons orbit around it. The mass of Jupiter was calculated this way hundreds of years ago. Calculating gravitational forces also helps astronomers find planets. In the 1840s, the planet Uranus was observed straying from its predicted orbit. Astronomers reasoned that Uranus was being pulled by the gravitational attraction of another planet that had yet to be discovered. They calculated where the unknown planet would have to be in order to produce the gravitational effects observed on Uranus. Observatories pointed their telescopes in the predicted location and found Neptune. All the planets discovered orbiting stars other than the Sun were also found by applying the laws of gravity. Planets exert a gravitational force on the stars they orbit. This causes the stars to move slightly as the planets circle them. When astronomers observe a star wobbling back and forth, they can calculate where the planet must be to exert such a force even when the planet itself is too far away to see. For many distant objects, gravitational effects are the only thing astronomers can observe. Black holes, for instance, can never be seen directly. Yet many black holes have been located, simply by obser ving their gravitational effects on the matter around them. Gravity is not the only force at play in the Universe. The heat inside a star creates pressure, which makes it expand. Gravity, meanwhile, pulls the star s gases back toward the center. The balance between these forces determines the size of the star. Thus, calculating the gravitational forces at work in the Sun, and measuring its size, provides information linked to its pressure and temperature.

9 Does Gravity Work the Same Everywhere? Analyzing gravitational forces at work can provide an endless supply of information to astronomers. But in order to interpret distant phenomena by applying the laws of gravity, astronomers must assume that gra vity behaves the same way in every part of the Universe. But how do they know that? If gravity were weaker in other galaxies, for instance, the equations used to analyze their motion would be incorrect. Everything ever observed indicates that the laws of physics are indeed universal. But how can anyone know for certain that the same laws apply everywhere? The answer is, they cannot. There is simply no way to go to every corner of the Universe and perform experiments. To interpret data from distant space, astronomers must rely on what they call the Cosmological Principle: the assumption that the laws of the Universe are the same at all points and times. For i n s t a n c e, w h e n o b s e rvi n g li g h t f r o m d i s t a n t o b j e c t s, a s t r o n o m e r s i d e n t i fy elements in them by the particular wavelengths of light they emit. To do this, they must assume that these elements emit the same wavelengths of light eve ryw h e r e. There is no way to prove this. But without assumptions like these, all observations would be meaningless. The Cosmological Principle should not be seen as a weakness of astronomy or physics. Many things simply cannot be proven. Rather, the emphasis placed on the Cosmological Principle should be seen as an example of how careful scientists are to distinguish unproven theories from tested obser vations.

### Name: Date: Period: Gravity Study Guide

Vocabulary: Define the following terms. Law of Universal Gravitation Gravity Study Guide Weight Weightlessness Gravitational Field Black hole Escape velocity Math: Be able to use the equation for the law

### Gravity. in the Solar System. Beyond the Book. FOCUS Book

FOCUS Book Design a test to find out whether Earth s gravity always pulls straight down. A pendulum is a weight that hangs from a string or rod that can swing back and forth. Use string and metal washers

### Name Class Period. F = G m 1 m 2 d 2. G =6.67 x 10-11 Nm 2 /kg 2

Gravitational Forces 13.1 Newton s Law of Universal Gravity Newton discovered that gravity is universal. Everything pulls on everything else in the universe in a way that involves only mass and distance.

### Name Class Date. true

Exercises 131 The Falling Apple (page 233) 1 Describe the legend of Newton s discovery that gravity extends throughout the universe According to legend, Newton saw an apple fall from a tree and realized

### Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation

Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation The greatest moments in science are when two phenomena that were considered completely separate suddenly are seen as just two different versions of the same thing.

### The University of Texas at Austin. Gravity and Orbits

UTeach Outreach The University of Texas at Austin Gravity and Orbits Time of Lesson: 60-75 minutes Content Standards Addressed in Lesson: TEKS6.11B understand that gravity is the force that governs the

### circular motion & gravitation physics 111N

circular motion & gravitation physics 111N uniform circular motion an object moving around a circle at a constant rate must have an acceleration always perpendicular to the velocity (else the speed would

### astronomy 2008 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times.

1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times. 5. If the distance between the Earth and the Sun were increased,

### Gravity? Depends on Where You Are!

Gravity? Depends on Where You Are! Overview Gravity is one of the fundamental concepts of Physics. It is an abstract concept that benefits from activities that help illustrate it. This lesson plan involves

### Satellites and Space Stations

Satellites and Space Stations A satellite is an object or a body that revolves around another object, which is usually much larger in mass. Natural satellites include the planets, which revolve around

### Unit 8 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System

Unit 8 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System Gravity What is gravity? Gravity is a force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses and the distances between them. Every object in the universe

### Class 2 Solar System Characteristics Formation Exosolar Planets

Class 1 Introduction, Background History of Modern Astronomy The Night Sky, Eclipses and the Seasons Kepler's Laws Newtonian Gravity General Relativity Matter and Light Telescopes Class 2 Solar System

### The Expanding Universe

Stars, Galaxies, Guided Reading and Study This section explains how astronomers think the universe and the solar system formed. Use Target Reading Skills As you read about the evidence that supports the

### Introduction to the Solar System

Introduction to the Solar System Lesson Objectives Describe some early ideas about our solar system. Name the planets, and describe their motion around the Sun. Explain how the solar system formed. Introduction

### GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS PHYSICS 20 GRAVITATIONAL FORCES. Gravitational Fields (or Acceleration Due to Gravity) Symbol: Definition: Units:

GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS Gravitational Fields (or Acceleration Due to Gravity) Symbol: Definition: Units: Formula Description This is the formula for force due to gravity or as we call it, weight. Relevant

### How To Understand General Relativity

Chapter S3 Spacetime and Gravity What are the major ideas of special relativity? Spacetime Special relativity showed that space and time are not absolute Instead they are inextricably linked in a four-dimensional

### Big bang, red shift and doppler effect

Big bang, red shift and doppler effect 73 minutes 73 marks Page of 26 Q. (a) Scientists have observed that the wavelengths of the light from galaxies moving away from the Earth are longer than expected.

### What Do You Think? For You To Do GOALS

Activity 2 Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation GOALS In this activity you will: Explore the relationship between distance of a light source and intensity of light. Graph and analyze the relationship

### Grade 6 Standard 3 Unit Test A Astronomy. 1. The four inner planets are rocky and small. Which description best fits the next four outer planets?

Grade 6 Standard 3 Unit Test A Astronomy Multiple Choice 1. The four inner planets are rocky and small. Which description best fits the next four outer planets? A. They are also rocky and small. B. They

### 1 A Solar System Is Born

CHAPTER 3 1 A Solar System Is Born SECTION Formation of the Solar System BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a nebula? How did our solar system

### Gravitation and Newton s Synthesis

Gravitation and Newton s Synthesis Vocabulary law of unviversal Kepler s laws of planetary perturbations casual laws gravitation motion casuality field graviational field inertial mass gravitational mass

### 4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 750L

4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 750L HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED A CLOSE LOOK AT THE PLANETS ORBITING OUR SUN By Cynthia Stokes Brown, adapted by Newsela Planets come from the clouds of gas and dust that

### Beginning of the Universe Classwork 6 th Grade PSI Science

Beginning of the Universe Classwork Name: 6 th Grade PSI Science 1 4 2 5 6 3 7 Down: 1. Edwin discovered that galaxies are spreading apart. 2. This theory explains how the Universe was flattened. 3. All

### 1.1 A Modern View of the Universe" Our goals for learning: What is our place in the universe?"

Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe 1.1 A Modern View of the Universe What is our place in the universe? What is our place in the universe? How did we come to be? How can we know what the universe was

### Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due in class Tuesday, Jan. 20, 2015

Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due in class Tuesday, Jan. 20, 2015 Why are celestial motions and forces important? They explain the world around

### Science Investigations: Investigating Astronomy Teacher s Guide

Teacher s Guide Grade Level: 6 12 Curriculum Focus: Astronomy/Space Duration: 7 segments; 66 minutes Program Description This library of videos contains seven segments on celestial bodies and related science.

### Forces between masses

Forces between masses Gravity is arguably the first force that people really learn about. People don't really think of it as learning about gravity because it is such a big part of our everyday lives.

### Section 1 Gravity: A Force of Attraction

Section 1 Gravity: A Force of Attraction Key Concept Gravity is a force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses. What You Will Learn Gravity affects all matter, including the parts of

### A. 81 2 = 6561 times greater. B. 81 times greater. C. equally strong. D. 1/81 as great. E. (1/81) 2 = 1/6561 as great.

Q12.1 The mass of the Moon is 1/81 of the mass of the Earth. Compared to the gravitational force that the Earth exerts on the Moon, the gravitational force that the Moon exerts on the Earth is A. 81 2

### Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation describes the attractive gravitational force that exists between any two bodies with the following equation:

Newton s Laws & Gravitation Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation describes the attractive gravitational force that exists between any two bodies with the following equation: F G = GMm 2 r G is the gravitational

### Version A Page 1. 1. The diagram shows two bowling balls, A and B, each having a mass of 7.00 kilograms, placed 2.00 meters apart.

Physics Unit Exam, Kinematics 1. The diagram shows two bowling balls, A and B, each having a mass of 7.00 kilograms, placed 2.00 meters apart. What is the magnitude of the gravitational force exerted by

### Why don t planets crash into each other?

1 Just as we know that the sun will rise every morning, we expect the planets and the moon to stay in their orbits. And rightly so. For 400 years, people have understood that the movements of Earth, the

### Halliday, Resnick & Walker Chapter 13. Gravitation. Physics 1A PHYS1121 Professor Michael Burton

Halliday, Resnick & Walker Chapter 13 Gravitation Physics 1A PHYS1121 Professor Michael Burton II_A2: Planetary Orbits in the Solar System + Galaxy Interactions (You Tube) 21 seconds 13-1 Newton's Law

Chapter 1 Student Reading Chemistry is the study of matter You could say that chemistry is the science that studies all the stuff in the entire world. A more scientific term for stuff is matter. So chemistry

### Newton s Laws of Motion

Newton s Laws of Motion The Earth revolves around the sun in an elliptical orbit. The moon orbits the Earth in the same way. But what keeps the Earth and the moon in orbit? Why don t they just fly off

### The Hidden Lives of Galaxies. Jim Lochner, USRA & NASA/GSFC

The Hidden Lives of Galaxies Jim Lochner, USRA & NASA/GSFC What is a Galaxy? Solar System Distance from Earth to Sun = 93,000,000 miles = 8 light-minutes Size of Solar System = 5.5 light-hours What is

### Astronomy 110 Homework #04 Assigned: 02/06/2007 Due: 02/13/2007. Name:

Astronomy 110 Homework #04 Assigned: 02/06/2007 Due: 02/13/2007 Name: Directions: Listed below are twenty (20) multiple-choice questions based on the material covered by the lectures this past week. Choose

### THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1

THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1 THE SUN AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM Name the planets in their order from the sun. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The asteroid belt is between and Which planet has the most moons? About how many?

### Notes: Most of the material in this chapter is taken from Young and Freedman, Chap. 13.

Chapter 5. Gravitation Notes: Most of the material in this chapter is taken from Young and Freedman, Chap. 13. 5.1 Newton s Law of Gravitation We have already studied the effects of gravity through the

### The Solar System. Unit 4 covers the following framework standards: ES 10 and PS 11. Content was adapted the following:

Unit 4 The Solar System Chapter 7 ~ The History of the Solar System o Section 1 ~ The Formation of the Solar System o Section 2 ~ Observing the Solar System Chapter 8 ~ The Parts the Solar System o Section

### Related Standards and Background Information

Related Standards and Background Information Earth Patterns, Cycles and Changes This strand focuses on student understanding of patterns in nature, natural cycles, and changes that occur both quickly and

### Use the following information to deduce that the gravitational field strength at the surface of the Earth is approximately 10 N kg 1.

IB PHYSICS: Gravitational Forces Review 1. This question is about gravitation and ocean tides. (b) State Newton s law of universal gravitation. Use the following information to deduce that the gravitational

RETURN TO THE MOON Lesson Plan INSTRUCTIONS FOR TEACHERS Grade Level: 9-12 Curriculum Links: Earth and Space (SNC 1D: D2.1, D2.2, D2.3, D2.4) Group Size: Groups of 2-4 students Preparation time: 1 hour

### Look at Our Galaxy. by Eve Beck. Space and Technology. Scott Foresman Reading Street 2.1.2

Suggested levels for Guided Reading, DRA, Lexile, and Reading Recovery are provided in the Pearson Scott Foresman Leveling Guide. Space and Technology Look at Our Galaxy Genre Expository nonfiction Comprehension

### The Solar System. Source http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/starchild/solar_system_level1/solar_system.html

The Solar System What is the solar system? It is our Sun and everything that travels around it. Our solar system is elliptical in shape. That means it is shaped like an egg. Earth s orbit is nearly circular.

### Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Our Solar System is a collection of gravitationally interacting bodies that include Earth and the Moon. Universal

### EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1

Instructor: L. M. Khandro EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1 1. An arc second is a measure of a. time interval between oscillations of a standard clock b. time

### UNIT V. Earth and Space. Earth and the Solar System

UNIT V Earth and Space Chapter 9 Earth and the Solar System EARTH AND OTHER PLANETS A solar system contains planets, moons, and other objects that orbit around a star or the star system. The solar system

### Newton s Law of Gravity

Gravitational Potential Energy On Earth, depends on: object s mass (m) strength of gravity (g) distance object could potentially fall Gravitational Potential Energy In space, an object or gas cloud has

### Exam # 1 Thu 10/06/2010 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti

Exam # 1 Thu 10/06/2010 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti INSTRUCTIONS: Please, use the `bubble sheet and a pencil # 2 to answer the exam questions, by marking

### The Big Bang A Community in the Classroom Presentation for Grade 5

The Big Bang A Community in the Classroom Presentation for Grade 5 Richard Cupp Engineer STANARDS CONNECTION Grade 5 Physical Science: Elements and their combinations account for all the varied types of

### Our Solar System, Our Galaxy, then the Universe

Our Solar System, Our Galaxy, then the Universe Al Globus, April 2012 Orbital Space Settlements When thinking about space settlement, most people think in terms of cities on the Moon or Mars. However,

### Newton s Laws. Newton s Imaginary Cannon. Michael Fowler Physics 142E Lec 6 Jan 22, 2009

Newton s Laws Michael Fowler Physics 142E Lec 6 Jan 22, 2009 Newton s Imaginary Cannon Newton was familiar with Galileo s analysis of projectile motion, and decided to take it one step further. He imagined

### Planets beyond the solar system

Planets beyond the solar system Review of our solar system Why search How to search Eclipses Motion of parent star Doppler Effect Extrasolar planet discoveries A star is 5 parsecs away, what is its parallax?

### Exercise: Estimating the Mass of Jupiter Difficulty: Medium

Exercise: Estimating the Mass of Jupiter Difficulty: Medium OBJECTIVE The July / August observing notes for 010 state that Jupiter rises at dusk. The great planet is now starting its grand showing for

### Topic 7A: Tides, Part II. Online Lecture: The Bulge Theory of Tides

7A_2 Slide 1 Topic 7A: Tides, Part II Online Lecture: The Theory of Tides Overly Simplistic: no continents, ocean is the same depth everywhere The Theory of Tides 7A_2 Slide 2 High Tide North Pole Low

### How the Universe Works

How the Universe Works Grades: 8 th Program Duration: 30 Min Program Type: Interactive Planetarium Program Program Description This presentation presents evidence that has baffled astronomers for years.

### Earth Is Not the Center of the Universe

Earth Is Not the Center of the Universe Source: Utah State Office of Education Introduction Have you ever looked up at the night sky and wondered about all the pinpoint lights? People through the ages

### Section 4: The Basics of Satellite Orbits

Section 4: The Basics of Satellite Orbits MOTION IN SPACE VS. MOTION IN THE ATMOSPHERE The motion of objects in the atmosphere differs in three important ways from the motion of objects in space. First,

### Lecture 13. Gravity in the Solar System

Lecture 13 Gravity in the Solar System Guiding Questions 1. How was the heliocentric model established? What are monumental steps in the history of the heliocentric model? 2. How do Kepler s three laws

### Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe

Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe Syllabus 4 tests: June 18, June 30, July 10, July 21 Comprehensive Final - check schedule Website link on blackboard 1.1 Our Modern View of the Universe Our goals for

### Gravity and Falling How does gravity work?

Gravity and Falling How does gravity work? About the Activity Using a bucket with stretchy fabric stretched over it, allow visitors to experiment with marbles and weights to discover some basics about

### The Earth, Sun, and Moon

reflect The Sun and Moon are Earth s constant companions. We bask in the Sun s heat and light. It provides Earth s energy, and life could not exist without it. We rely on the Moon to light dark nights.

### 1. The Kinetic Theory of Matter states that all matter is composed of atoms and molecules that are in a constant state of constant random motion

Physical Science Period: Name: ANSWER KEY Date: Practice Test for Unit 3: Ch. 3, and some of 15 and 16: Kinetic Theory of Matter, States of matter, and and thermodynamics, and gas laws. 1. The Kinetic

### galaxy solar system supernova (noun) (noun) (noun)

WORDS IN CONTEXT DAY 1 (Page 1 of 4) galaxy A galaxy is a collection of stars, gas, and dust. We live in the Milky Way galaxy. One galaxy may contain billions of stars. solar system A solar system revolves

### Lesson 6: Earth and the Moon

Lesson 6: Earth and the Moon Reading Assignment Chapter 7.1: Overall Structure of Planet Earth Chapter 7.3: Earth s Interior More Precisely 7-2: Radioactive Dating Chapter 7.5: Earth s Magnetosphere Chapter

### 165 points. Name Date Period. Column B a. Cepheid variables b. luminosity c. RR Lyrae variables d. Sagittarius e. variable stars

Name Date Period 30 GALAXIES AND THE UNIVERSE SECTION 30.1 The Milky Way Galaxy In your textbook, read about discovering the Milky Way. (20 points) For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching

### What causes Tides? If tidal forces were based only on mass, the Sun should have a tidegenerating

What are Tides? Tides are very long-period waves that move through the oceans as a result of the gravitational attraction of the Moon and the Sun for the water in the oceans of the Earth. Tides start in

### Transcript 22 - Universe

Transcript 22 - Universe A few introductory words of explanation about this transcript: This transcript includes the words sent to the narrator for inclusion in the latest version of the associated video.

### Chapter 1: Our Place in the Universe. 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley

Chapter 1: Our Place in the Universe Topics Our modern view of the universe The scale of the universe Cinema graphic tour of the local universe Spaceship earth 1.1 A Modern View of the Universe Our goals

### Halliday, Resnick & Walker Chapter 13. Gravitation. Physics 1A PHYS1121 Professor Michael Burton

Halliday, Resnick & Walker Chapter 13 Gravitation Physics 1A PHYS1121 Professor Michael Burton II_A2: Planetary Orbits in the Solar System + Galaxy Interactions (You Tube) 21 seconds 13-1 Newton's Law

### Study Guide: Solar System

Study Guide: Solar System 1. How many planets are there in the solar system? 2. What is the correct order of all the planets in the solar system? 3. Where can a comet be located in the solar system? 4.

### What is the Sloan Digital Sky Survey?

What is the Sloan Digital Sky Survey? Simply put, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey is the most ambitious astronomical survey ever undertaken. The survey will map one-quarter of the entire sky in detail, determining

### Teaching Time: One-to-two 50-minute periods

Lesson Summary Students create a planet using a computer game and change features of the planet to increase or decrease the planet s temperature. Students will explore some of the same principles scientists

### 1. Mass, Force and Gravity

STE Physics Intro Name 1. Mass, Force and Gravity Before attempting to understand force, we need to look at mass and acceleration. a) What does mass measure? The quantity of matter(atoms) b) What is the

### Friction and Gravity. Friction. Section 2. The Causes of Friction

Section 2 Friction and Gravity What happens when you jump on a sled on the side of a snow-covered hill? Without actually doing this, you can predict that the sled will slide down the hill. Now think about

### Elements of Physics Motion, Force, and Gravity Teacher s Guide

Teacher s Guide Grade Level: 9 12 Curriculum Focus: Physical Science Lesson Duration: Three class periods Program Description Examine Isaac Newton's laws of motion, the four fundamental forces of the universe,

### Chapter 5: Circular Motion, the Planets, and Gravity

Chapter 5: Circular Motion, the Planets, and Gravity 1. Earth s gravity attracts a person with a force of 120 lbs. The force with which the Earth is attracted towards the person is A. Zero. B. Small but

### Background Information

Background Information The Second Law of Motion and The Law of Gravitation Student Activities 1. Round and Round They Go! 2. onic Sections - Movement in Newton s Gravitational orce Notes to Teachers Teacher

### The Sun and Solar Energy

I The Sun and Solar Energy One of the most important forces behind global change on Earth is over 90 million miles distant from the planet. The Sun is the ultimate, original source of the energy that drives

### Newton s Law of Gravitation

Newton s Law of Gravitation Duration: 1-2 class periods Essential Questions: How do the acceleration and force due to gravity depend on the radius and mass of a planet? How does the mass of a falling body

### CELESTIAL CLOCK - THE SUN, THE MOON, AND THE STARS

INTRODUCTION CELESTIAL CLOCK - THE SUN, THE MOON, AND THE STARS This is a scientific presentation to provide you with knowledge you can use to understand the sky above in relation to the earth. Before

### Educator Guide to S LAR SYSTEM. 1875 El Prado, San Diego CA 92101 (619) 238-1233 www.rhfleet.org

Educator Guide to S LAR SYSTEM 1875 El Prado, San Diego CA 92101 (619) 238-1233 www.rhfleet.org Pre-Visit Activity: Orbital Paths Materials: Plastic Plate Marble Scissors To Do: 1. Put the plate on a flat

### Asteroids. Earth. Asteroids. Earth Distance from sun: 149,600,000 kilometers (92,960,000 miles) Diameter: 12,756 kilometers (7,926 miles) dotted line

Image taken by NASA Asteroids About 6,000 asteroids have been discovered; several hundred more are found each year. There are likely hundreds of thousands more that are too small to be seen from Earth.

### DIRECT ORBITAL DYNAMICS: USING INDEPENDENT ORBITAL TERMS TO TREAT BODIES AS ORBITING EACH OTHER DIRECTLY WHILE IN MOTION

1 DIRECT ORBITAL DYNAMICS: USING INDEPENDENT ORBITAL TERMS TO TREAT BODIES AS ORBITING EACH OTHER DIRECTLY WHILE IN MOTION Daniel S. Orton email: dsorton1@gmail.com Abstract: There are many longstanding

### Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review

Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review Prof. Pradhan September 15, 2015 What is Science? 1. Explain the difference between astronomy and astrology. (a) Astrology: nonscience using zodiac sign to predict the future/personality

### Solar System Fundamentals. What is a Planet? Planetary orbits Planetary temperatures Planetary Atmospheres Origin of the Solar System

Solar System Fundamentals What is a Planet? Planetary orbits Planetary temperatures Planetary Atmospheres Origin of the Solar System Properties of Planets What is a planet? Defined finally in August 2006!

### STAAR Science Tutorial 30 TEK 8.8C: Electromagnetic Waves

Name: Teacher: Pd. Date: STAAR Science Tutorial 30 TEK 8.8C: Electromagnetic Waves TEK 8.8C: Explore how different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum such as light and radio waves are used to

### KINDERGARTEN 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

KINDERGARTEN 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES UNIVERSE CYCLE OVERVIEW OF KINDERGARTEN UNIVERSE WEEK 1. PRE: Discovering misconceptions of the Universe. LAB: Comparing size and distances in space. POST:

### Review Vocabulary force: a push or a pull. Vocabulary Newton s third law of motion

Standard 7.3.17: Investigate that an unbalanced force, acting on an object, changes its speed or path of motion or both, and know that if the force always acts toward the same center as the object moves,

### If you put the same book on a tilted surface the normal force will be less. The magnitude of the normal force will equal: N = W cos θ

Experiment 4 ormal and Frictional Forces Preparation Prepare for this week's quiz by reviewing last week's experiment Read this week's experiment and the section in your textbook dealing with normal forces

### NOTES: GEORGIA HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TEST THE SOLAR SYSTEM

NOTES: GEORGIA HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TEST THE SOLAR SYSTEM 1.What is a Solar system? A solar system consists of: * one central star, the Sun and * nine planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn,

### Mission To Mars! A dialogue activity for upper KS2

Mission To Mars! A dialogue activity for upper KS2 Teacher s Sheet Mission to Mars: Dialogue activity for upper KS2 Part One: As a class or in groups. pupils read the Fact or Fiction cards. On each card

### 1. Large ships are often helped into port by using two tug boats one either side of the ship. April 5, 1989 (Anchorage Daily News / Erik Hill)

1. Velocity and displacement vectors and scalars Vector and scalar quantities: force, speed, velocity, distance, displacement, acceleration, mass, time and energy. Calculation of the resultant of two vector

### From Last Time Newton s laws. Question. Acceleration of the moon. Velocity of the moon. How has the velocity changed?

Fro Last Tie Newton s laws Law of inertia F=a ( or a=f/ ) Action and reaction Forces are equal and opposite, but response to force (accel.) depends on ass (a=f/). e.g. Gravitational force on apple fro

### Vocabulary - Understanding Revolution in. our Solar System

Vocabulary - Understanding Revolution in Universe Galaxy Solar system Planet Moon Comet Asteroid Meteor(ite) Heliocentric Geocentric Satellite Terrestrial planets Jovian (gas) planets Gravity our Solar

### 4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 890L

4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 890L HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED A CLOSE LOOK AT THE PLANETS ORBITING OUR SUN By Cynthia Stokes Brown, adapted by Newsela Planets are born from the clouds of gas and dust

### Introduction to Netlogo: A Newton s Law of Gravity Simulation

Introduction to Netlogo: A Newton s Law of Gravity Simulation Purpose Netlogo is an agent-based programming language that provides an all-inclusive platform for writing code, having graphics, and leaving