Unit 9 Lesson 5 Popes, Kings and Challenges to the Church

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1 Unit 9 Lesson 5 Popes, Kings and Challenges to the Church

2 Lesson 5 Popes, Kings and Challenges to the Church Directions Read each False statement below. Replace each underlined word with one from the word bank that makes each sentence True. Word Bank Holy Roman Empire excommunicate Henry IV Bishop of Constantinople Pope Gregory VII 1. The pope can choose to bless, or cast out from the church those deemed guilty of serious offenses. 2. Pope Leo IX excommunicated Emperor Henry IV, but eventually accepted his apology and allowed him back into the church. 3. Henry III was Holy Roman Emperor when Pope Gregory VII came to power in Henry IV was excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church and formed the Eastern Orthodox Church. 5. The Christian Church was created out of what had been Charlemagne s empire in the 700s.

3 Generalization: Desire for control often lead to conflicts over power Big Idea Popes and kings dominated European society in the Middle Ages

4 The Power of the Pope - Seen as God s representative on Earth - Petrine Doctrine of papal primacy - St. Peter was the first Pope - keys of the kingdom - rock upon which I shall build my church - Peter leader of the entire Christian church - Powers - Papal Bulls - religious teachings, doctrine or policy - Heresy and Excommunication - Began to live like and as kings - great wealth, luxuries, palaces and power - identify cause and effect- why did some popes eventually begin to live like royalty? They had great political power after the Roman Empire collapsed; many people in Italy looked to the pope as their leader

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6

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8 Development of the Papal Monarchy - Question of Church s place in Feudal System - Did Church lands belong to the king or the pope (nation or church)? - Churchmen were often both clergy and vassals - who did their allegiance belong too? - who were they to serve first? Why? - Who appointed high ranking church officials - lay investiture

9 Pope Nicholas I ( ) - tried to bring all clergy under his control - could not because of simony - buying and selling of church offices Council of Cluny - tried to end both simony and nepotism [jobs to family members] - limited success - declared that kings should have no power in choosing church officials College of Cardinals - established to choose the pope - to get the decision out of the hands of kings and nobles

10 Popes fight for Power - disagreement between east and west as to who was the head of the church Pope Leo IX - argued that the first pope, Peter, had been the leader of the whole church, so should he - bishop of Constantinople disagreed - refused to accept Leo s authority - Leo excommunicated him - created a split in the Christian Church - those who agreed with Leo - became the Roman Catholic Church - those who agreed with Constantinople - became the Eastern Orthodox Church

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12 Pope Gregory VII Made changes in church practices - clergy could not longer marry - the pope, not rulers, to choose bishops - only the pope could change his decisions Unpopular with rulers - Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor - clashed with pope over appointment of archbishop Gregory excommunicated him - Henry crossed the Alps to Canossa - stood 3 days in the snow begging forgiveness - Gregory finally forgave him - But, Henry challenged him again after returning to Germany - Gregory excommunicated him again - Henry took an army to Italy - Gregory fled and Henry appointed new pope

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14 Pope Boniface VIII - tried to limit power of rulers to control church - Clericos Laicos (1294) - lay ruler could not tax church property without Pope s permission - Edward I and Philip the Fair challenged by taking their protection away from the church - Boniface backed down Unam Sanctum - claimed the pope could remove any king - obedience to the Pope necessary for salvation Philip tried to take Boniface captive and then Benedict XI died quickly - Philip got his candidate, Clement V, chosen as Pope - moved papacy to Avignon (in France, but church lands not part of France) - forced to reverse Unam Sanctum

15 The Babylonian Captivity ( ) - Popes in Avignon -- Great Schism - French king wanted to French Pope - French Cardinals in Rome pressured to choose an Italian Pope - French Cardinals went back to France and Choose a French Pope - Now 2 pope excommunicated each other Council of Pisa - choose a 3 rd pope - none of them stepped down Council of Constance - all 3 popes gotten rid of - Martin V the new pope -evaluate- Do you think conflict with kings strengthened or weakened medieval popes? Why?

16 Earlier protesters John Wycliffe - felt that neither kings nor popes cared about the people - must obey God over popes and kings - Bible the authority over Christians, not the church - translated the Bible to English - body dug up and burned John Huss - also critical of the church - promised save passage to appear -- betrayed and burned - Moravians

17 1. Which two types of leaders controlled most of European society that at this time? a. Popes and bishops b. Kings and knights c. Kings and popes d. Lords and vassals 2. Which of the following was NOT one of the most powerful countries in Europe? a. Russia b. England c. Holy Roman Empire d. France 3. Why did the Pope have such great power in Western Europe? a. People believed was descended from Jesus. b. People believed he was more important than kings c. People were afraid of the Pope. d. Because most Europeans at the time belonged to the Christian Church. 4. What church did the bishop of Constantinople create after he was excommunicated by Pope Leo IX? a. Baptist Church b. Eastern Orthodox Church c. Lutheran Church d. Roman Catholic Church 5. Why did Pope Gregory VII excommunicate Emperor Henry IV? a. Henry declared war on the Holy Roman Empire. b. Henry refused forgiveness from the pope. c. Henry would not obey church laws. d. Henry called on bishops to remove Gregory as pope.

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