Study Guide due Friday, 1/29

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1 NAME: Astronomy Study Guide asteroid chromosphere comet corona ellipse Galilean moons VOCABULARY WORDS TO KNOW geocentric system meteor gravity meteorite greenhouse effect meteoroid heliocentric system nuclear fusion inertia outer planets inner planets photosphere prominence retrograde rotation revolution rotation solar system sun spot All of this information comes from Unit 8 pgs in the textbook. Please read or reference this section when working on the study guide and reviewing for the test. History of astronomy: Lesson 1 Essay/short answer about Galileo and his evidence (Jupiter s moons and Venus phases) of the heliocentric theory. Gravity and Inertia: Lesson 2 Essay/short answer about what keeps a planet in orbit around the sun. (inertia and gravity) The SUN: Lesson 3 Know the characteristics of the layers and features on the sun Be able to label the layers and features of the sun The PLANETS: Lesson 4 and 5 Know the characteristics of the Inner and Outer Planets Know the characteristics of each planet List the planets in order from the sun Make a flashcard for each planet. Write the major moon(s), inner/outer, solid/gas, atmosphere, and any characteristic specific to that planet basically, use your foldable notes! COMETS, ASTEROIDS, AND METEORS: Lesson 6 Describe and compare comets, asteroids and meteoroids Be able to label the parts of a comet Be able to locate the asteroid belt ASTRONOMY EXAM IS Tuesday, 2/2 Review sessions are Mon. 2/1 3:30-4:15 Papageorge 223 3:30-4:15 Simpson 221 Tue. 2/2 7:45-8:20 Pickett 220 Flashcards are due Tuesday, 2/2 Study Guide due Friday, 1/29

2 Describing the Solar System Building Vocabulary Fill in each blank to complete each statement. Word Bank: ellipse geocentric gravity heliocentric inertia 1. The sun-centered system of planets developed by Copernicus is an example of a(n) system. 2. An object s tends to keep a moving object continuing in a straight line and a stationary object in place. 3. An Earth-centered system of planets is known as a(n) system. 4. The shape of the orbit of each planet is a/an. 5. is a force that attracts all objects towards one another and keeps the planets floating. Understanding Main Ideas Answer the following questions. Ancient Greek Model (geocentric) Ptolemy's Geocentric Model Copernicus' Heliocentric Model 5. What is the main difference between the geocentric and heliocentric models of planetary motion? 6. How did Galileo s observations of Jupiter and Venus support Copernicus model? (What did Jupiter s moons prove? What did Venus s phases show?) 7. How do gravity and inertia keep the planets in orbit around the sun?

3 Characteristics of the Sun Understanding Main Ideas Label the diagram of the sun below using the following words. chromosphere core corona photosphere prominence sunspot surface layer outer layer middle layer Building Vocabulary Match each term with its description by writing the letter of the correct description on the line beside the term. 7. solar flare a. the layer of the sun s atmosphere that makes light 8. core b. the layer of the sun s atmosphere that has a reddish glow 9. chromosphere c. the layer of the sun s atmosphere that looks like a halo during an eclipse 10. sunspot d. areas of gas on the sun that are cooler than the gases around them 11. corona e. reddish loops of gas that link parts of sunspot regions 12. nuclear fusion f. explosions that occur when the loops in sunspot regions connect 13. photosphere g. the center of the sun where nuclear fusion takes place 14. prominence h. the joining of hydrogen atoms to form helium and power the sun \

4 Characteristics of the Inner Planets Understanding Main Ideas Label the diagram with the names of the inner planets. 1. Write the name(s) of the INNER planet or planets the statement describes. 5. has a rocky surface percent is covered with water 7. rotates in the opposite direction from most other planets and moons 8. called the red planet because of the color of the dust 9. has at least one moon 10. similar to each other in size, density, and internal structure 11. has almost no atmosphere 12. atmosphere traps the heat making it the hottest planet. 13. has a tilted axis so that the planet has seasons 14. major moons are Phobos and Deimos Building Vocabulary Write a definition for each of the following terms. 15. terrestrial/rocky planets 16. retrograde rotation 17. greenhouse effect

5 Characteristics of the Outer Planets Understanding Main Ideas Answer the following questions in the spaces provided. 1. Label the four outer planets. 2. Why doesn t the gas on a gas giant escape into space, as it has on Mercury? 3. What other object in the solar system has a composition similar to that of the gas giants? 4. What planet is by far the most massive of all the planets that revolve around the sun? 5. What are Saturn s rings made of? 6. Which planet rotates on its side and why? 7. What is the great red spot and what planet is it on? 8. Name the two outer planets that are blue and tell what makes them blue. 9. Name the four major moons of Jupiter. 10. Name the major moon of Saturn. 11. Name the major moon of Uranus. 12. Name the major moon of Neptune.

6 Comets, Asteroids, and Meteors Building Vocabulary From the list below, choose the term that best completes each sentence. asteroid asteroid belt comet meteor meteoroid meteorite 1. When a meteoroid enters Earth s atmosphere, friction causes it to burn up and produce a streak of light called a(n). 2. A chunk of ice and dust whose orbit is usually a long narrow ellipse is a(n). 3. If a meteoroid hits Earth s surface, it is called a(n). 4. An object that revolves around the sun, but is too small to be considered a planet, is a(n). 5. A chunk of rock or dust in space that usually comes from a comet or an asteroid is called a(n). 6. The region of the solar system between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter is known as the. 7. Draw a comet and label these parts of a comet: nucleus, coma, tail. 8. Which way does a comet s tail always point (away or towards the sun)? WHY? 9. Draw and label the meteor, meteoroid and meteorite below.

7 Spin Cycles Planets in our solar system are constantly moving. Each planet spins like a globe. One complete spin is a rotation. Every planet also makes an orbit, or circle, around the sun. The table below tells how long these movements take. Look over it carefully. Note: Measurements are in Earth hours, days, and years. Planet Rotation Time Orbit Time Mercury 59 Days 88 Days Venus 243 Days 225 Days Earth 24 Hours 365 Days Mars 25 Hours 687 Days Jupiter 10 Hours 12 Years Saturn 11 Hours 29 Years Uranus 17 Hours 84 Years Neptune 16 Hours 165 Years Pluto 6 Days 248 Years Step 2: Use the table to decide whether each statement below is true or false. 1. Pluto s rotation takes less time than any other. 2. Venus is the only planet whose rotation takes longer than its orbit. 3. Mars and Earth take roughly the same time to complete a rotation. 4. Mars and Earth take roughly the same time to complete an orbit. 5. Saturn s orbit takes three times longer than Jupiter s. 6. Jupiter can do 20 orbits in less time than Pluto needs for just one. 7. Pluto s orbit takes longer than all of the other orbits combined. 8. Venus s rotation takes longer than all the other rotations combined. 9. Four planets do a rotation in less than a single Earth day. 10. Mercury completes three rotations during each orbit.

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