Scale of the Solar System. Sizes and Distances: How Big is Big? Sizes and Distances: How Big is Big? (Cont.)

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Scale of the Solar System. Sizes and Distances: How Big is Big? Sizes and Distances: How Big is Big? (Cont.)"

Transcription

1 Scale of the Solar System Scale of the Universe How big is Earth compared to our solar system? How far away are the stars? How big is the Milky Way Galaxy? How big is the Universe? How do our lifetimes compare to the age of the Universe? Sizes and Distances: How Big is Big? How big is the Earth compared to our solar system? On a scale of 1-to-10 billion, the Sun is about the size of a grapefruit. The Earth is the size of a ball point about 15 m away. The distances between planets are Huge compared to their sizes. How far away are the stars? Alpha Centauri is 4.4 light-years (or approx. 4.4x1013 km) away from us. On the same scale, the stars are thousands of km away. Scale of 1:1010 Sizes and Distances: How Big is Big? (Cont.) How big is the observable Universe? How big is the Milky Way Galaxy? 14 billion light-years in radius. 100 billion (or 1011) galaxies in the observable Universe. 100 billion stars per galaxy on average. Total of 1022 stars in the observable Universe as many stars as grains of dry sand on all of the Earth s beaches. There are about 1x1011 stars in the Milky Way Galaxy. It would take more than 3,000(!) years to count the stars in the Milky Way Galaxy at a rate of one per second. The Milky Way Galaxy is about 100,000 light-years across; it takes light 100,000 years to travel across the galaxy! How do our lifetimes compare to the age of the Universe? Cosmic Calendar: a time-scale on which we compress the history of the Universe into one calendar year. Big Bang took place on Jan 1 at 00:00:00am. First galaxies were born in Feb. Solar System formed around Sep 3; early life in Earth formed around Sep 22. Modern humans evolved on Dec 31 at 11:58pm. Our civilization is just a few seconds old! And a human lifetime is a mere blink of an eye. Spaceship Earth How is Earth moving in our solar system? How is our solar system moving in the Galaxy? How do galaxies move within the Universe? Are we ever sitting still? 1

2 How is Earth moving in our solar system? Contrary to our perception, we are not sitting still. We are moving with the Earth in several ways, and at surprisingly fast speeds Earth orbits the Sun (revolves) once every year: at an average distance of 1 AU 150 million km. with Earth s axis tilted by 23.5º (pointing to Polaris). and rotating in the same direction it orbits, counterclockwise as viewed from above the North Pole. The Earth rotates around its axis once every day. Our Sun moves randomly relative to the other stars in the local Solar neighborhood typical relative speeds of more than 70,000 km/hr. but stars are so far away that we cannot easily notice their motion. And the Sun orbits the galaxy every 230 million years. Are we ever sitting still? How do galaxies move within the Universe? Galaxies are carried along with the expansion of the Universe. But how did Hubble figure out that the Universe is expanding? Hubble discovered that: All galaxies outside our Local Group are moving away from us. The more distant the galaxy, the faster it is racing away. Conclusion: We live in an expanding Universe! 2

3 How many stars are in the observable Universe? A. One hundred billion B C D How many stars are in the observable Universe? A. One hundred billion B C D stars are in the observable Universe There are about 100 billion galaxies in the observable Universe. That s galaxies. And there are roughly 100 billion stars in each galaxy (some more, some less, but that s about the average). That s stars per galaxy galaxies stars x galaxy = stars The Earth is 150 million kilometers from the Sun. What is another way of expressing this distance? A. 1.5 x cm B. 1.5 x 10 8 km C. 1 light year (1 ly) D. 1 astronomical unit (1 AU) The Earth is 150 million kilometers from the Sun. What is another way of expressing this distance? A. 1.5 x cm B. 1.5 x 10 8 km C. 1 light year (1 ly) D. 1 astronomical unit (1 AU) 1 AU, 1.5 x 10 8 km, 1.5 x cm are all equivalent! An Astronomical Unit is DEFINED as the distance from the Earth to the Sun For the others, write out 150 million km that s 150,000,000 km. Which is the same as 1.5 x 100,000,000 km therefore, 1.5 x 10 8 km To convert to centimeters: 1.5 x 10 8 km 10 3 m x km 10 2 cm x m = 1.5 x cm 3

4 How is Earth moving? A. Rotates on its axis (spin). B. Revolves around the Sun (orbit). C. It doesn t move. How is Earth moving? A. Rotates on it s axis (spin). B. Revolves around the sun (orbit). C. It doesn t move. Imagine the Sun has the diameter of a grapefruit (14 cm). How large would Jupiter be? (real diameters: Sun x 10 6 km, Jupiter x 10 5 km) A. 1.4 km B. 1.4 cm C. 1.4 x km D. 1.4 x km Imagine the Sun has the diameter of a grapefruit (14 cm). How large would Jupiter be? (real diameters: Sun x 10 6 km, Jupiter x 10 5 km) A. 1.4 km B. 1.4 cm C. 1.4 x km D. 1.4 x km 1.4 cm (size of a marble)! Notice that the Sun s diameter is about 10 times greater than Jupiter s. So, if our model Sun has a diameter of 14 cm, divide that by ten 1.4 cm Imagine the Sun has the diameter of a grapefruit (14 cm). How far away would Earth be? (real distance: 1.5 x 10 8 km Sun diameter: 1.4 x 10 6 km) A cm B m C. 15 cm D. 15 km 4

5 Imagine the Sun has the diameter of a grapefruit (14 cm). How far away would Earth be? (real distance: 1.5 x 108 km Sun diameter: 1.4 x 106 km) A. B. C. D cm Notice that the Earth-Sun distance is about 100 times greater than the Sun s diameter! So, multiply the grapefruit Sun s diameter by 100 to find a model Earth-Sun distance of about 1400 cm, which is close to the answer choice of 1500 cm cm 1500 m 15 cm 15 km History of Astronomy: Babylonians and Greeks (pp ) Ancient Roots of Science In what ways do all humans employ scientific thinking? How did astronomical observations benefit ancient societies? What did ancient civilizations achieve in astronomy? In what ways do all humans employ scientific thinking? Scientific thinking is based on everyday ideas of observation and trial-and-error experiments Our goal is to explain and predict the observed phenomena. A scientific model is a conceptual representation that provides both explanation and prediction of a given phenomenon. How did astronomical observations benefit ancient societies? Keeping track of time and seasons for practical purposes, including agriculture. for religious and ceremonial purposes. AND for aid in navigation 5

6 What did ancient civilizations achieve in astronomy? daily timekeeping tracking the seasons and calendar monitoring lunar cycles monitoring planets and stars predicting eclipses navigate and more South Pacific: Polynesians were very skilled in the art of celestial navigation Babylonia Astronomy of Babylonians What were the purposes of Astronomy in ancient Babylonia? What are the scientific breakthroughs of the Babylonians? How did the western astronomy benefit from these breakthroughs? Purposes of Astronomy in ancient Babylonia As in most ancient cultures, astronomy was actually practiced as astrology. Astronomical events, whether they were every-day occurrences or rare incidents, had a deep religious meaning for the people. It was believed that all things happened for a reason! Lives were lived according to the advice of these astronomers/astrologists! Orientation of the constellations was used to mark seasons for harvesting or sowing crops. Certain constellations were noted for their yearly rising or setting times, and provided an accurate clock by which time could be measured. Historically, two ethnic groups, the Sumerians and Akkadians, had dominated the Babylonia. An area rich in natural resources, and strategically located for trade routes and commerce, it was often under threat from outsiders throughout the region's history. The origins of western astronomy can be found in Mesopotamia, the "land between the rivers" Tigris and Euphrates. What are the scientific breakthroughs of the Babylonians? Babylonians not only recognized Venus as the same object whether it appeared in the morning or evening, but they actually developed a method for calculating the length of the Venus cycle! Babylonians were able to predict solar and lunar eclipses. They applied a simple method, which made future predictions based on past observations! They almost certainly knew about the saros cycle; the general pattern of eclipses repeats every 18 years (and 11.3 days). Babylonians created the zodiac the circle of little animals which marked the twelve constellations that the Sun, Moon, and planets travel between during their movements through the sky. 6

7 What are the scientific breakthroughs of the Babylonians? (Cont.) Constellations that we still use today, such as Leo, Gemini, Capricorn, etc. were invented by the Sumerians between 2,000-3,000 BC. A great deal of astronomical mythology was handed down from the Sumerians. Babylonian system of mathematics was sexagesimal, or a base 60 numeral system. From this we derive the modern day usage of 60 seconds in a minute, and 60 minutes in an hour. Babylonians invented the degree system to distinguish positions in the sky (360 degrees, 60 in 1 degree, etc.). How did western astronomy benefit from these breakthroughs? The Babylonian underpinnings of western astronomy are extensive! It was from the Babylonians that the Greeks gained their knowledge of the five visible planets and the constellations of the zodiac, and centuries of recorded astronomical observations. Greeks also adopted the idea that the motions of the planets could be predicted with accuracy! Greeks adopted the degree system and also many of the Babylonian constellations, which they renamed in Greek! Ancient Greek Science Why does modern science trace its roots to the Greeks? How did the Greeks explain planetary motion? How did Islamic scientists preserve and extend Greek science? Why does modern science trace its roots to the Greeks? Greeks were the first Artist s reconstruction of Library of Alexandria. Established in 300 BC, this library existed for about 700 years! What is a scientific model? people known to make models of nature. They used logic and geometry to explain patterns in nature without resorting to myth or the supernatural. Greek geocentric model (400 BC) Scientific model is a conceptual representation whose purpose is to explain and predict observed phenomena. They sought to understand the architecture of the Universe by constructing models of nature. 7

8 How did Islamic scientists preserve and extend Greek science? Muslim world preserved and enhanced the knowledge they received from the Greeks (after the Library of Alexandria was destroyed). Al-Mamun s House of Wisdom in Baghdad was a great center of learning around 800 AD. Jews, Christians, and Muslims worked in synergy to advance science. How did Islamic scientists preserve and extend Greek science? (Cont.) While Europe was in its Dark Ages, Islamic scientists preserved and extended Greek science, later helping to ignite the European Renaissance. More about the the European Renaissance at the next lecture! With the fall of Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453 AD, Eastern scholars headed west to Europe, carrying knowledge that helped ignite the European Renaissance. 8

ASTR 115: Introduction to Astronomy. Stephen Kane

ASTR 115: Introduction to Astronomy. Stephen Kane ASTR 115: Introduction to Astronomy Stephen Kane ASTR 115: Introduction to Astronomy Textbook: The Essential Cosmic Perspective, 7th Edition Homework will be via the Mastering Astronomy web site: www.pearsonmastering.com

More information

Chapter 1: Our Place in the Universe. 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley

Chapter 1: Our Place in the Universe. 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Chapter 1: Our Place in the Universe Topics Our modern view of the universe The scale of the universe Cinema graphic tour of the local universe Spaceship earth 1.1 A Modern View of the Universe Our goals

More information

1.1 A Modern View of the Universe" Our goals for learning: What is our place in the universe?"

1.1 A Modern View of the Universe Our goals for learning: What is our place in the universe? Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe 1.1 A Modern View of the Universe What is our place in the universe? What is our place in the universe? How did we come to be? How can we know what the universe was

More information

Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe

Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe Syllabus 4 tests: June 18, June 30, July 10, July 21 Comprehensive Final - check schedule Website link on blackboard 1.1 Our Modern View of the Universe Our goals for

More information

CELESTIAL MOTIONS. In Charlottesville we see Polaris 38 0 above the Northern horizon. Earth. Starry Vault

CELESTIAL MOTIONS. In Charlottesville we see Polaris 38 0 above the Northern horizon. Earth. Starry Vault CELESTIAL MOTIONS Stars appear to move counterclockwise on the surface of a huge sphere the Starry Vault, in their daily motions about Earth Polaris remains stationary. In Charlottesville we see Polaris

More information

Douglas Adams The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy

Douglas Adams The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy There is a theory which states that if ever anybody discovers exactly what the Universe is for and why it is here, it will instantly disappear and be replaced by something even more bizarre and inexplicable.

More information

Today. Solstices & Equinoxes Precession Phases of the Moon Eclipses. Ancient Astronomy. Lunar, Solar FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME

Today. Solstices & Equinoxes Precession Phases of the Moon Eclipses. Ancient Astronomy. Lunar, Solar FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME Today Solstices & Equinoxes Precession Phases of the Moon Eclipses Lunar, Solar Ancient Astronomy FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME The Reason for Seasons Hypothesis check: How would seasons in the northern

More information

x Distance of the Sun to planet --------------------------------------------------------------------

x Distance of the Sun to planet -------------------------------------------------------------------- Solar System Investigation 26C 26C Solar System How big is the solar system? It is difficult to comprehend great distances. For example, how great a distance is 140,000 kilometers (the diameter of Jupiter)

More information

Periods of Western Astronomy. Chapter 1. Prehistoric Astronomy. Prehistoric Astronomy. The Celestial Sphere. Stonehenge. History of Astronomy

Periods of Western Astronomy. Chapter 1. Prehistoric Astronomy. Prehistoric Astronomy. The Celestial Sphere. Stonehenge. History of Astronomy Periods of Western Astronomy Chapter 1 History of Astronomy Western astronomy divides into 4 periods Prehistoric (before 500 B.C.) Cyclical motions of Sun, Moon and stars observed Keeping time and determining

More information

Chapter 2 Review Clickers. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Discovering the Universe for Yourself Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 2 Review Clickers. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Discovering the Universe for Yourself Pearson Education, Inc. Review Clickers The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Discovering the Universe for Yourself The sky is divided into 88 zones called a) degrees. b) tropics. c) constellations. d) signs. The sky is divided

More information

Chapter 3 The Science of Astronomy

Chapter 3 The Science of Astronomy Chapter 3 The Science of Astronomy Days of the week were named for Sun, Moon, and visible planets. What did ancient civilizations achieve in astronomy? Daily timekeeping Tracking the seasons and calendar

More information

CELESTIAL CLOCK - THE SUN, THE MOON, AND THE STARS

CELESTIAL CLOCK - THE SUN, THE MOON, AND THE STARS INTRODUCTION CELESTIAL CLOCK - THE SUN, THE MOON, AND THE STARS This is a scientific presentation to provide you with knowledge you can use to understand the sky above in relation to the earth. Before

More information

1. In the diagram below, the direct rays of the Sun are striking the Earth's surface at 23 º N. What is the date shown in the diagram?

1. In the diagram below, the direct rays of the Sun are striking the Earth's surface at 23 º N. What is the date shown in the diagram? 1. In the diagram below, the direct rays of the Sun are striking the Earth's surface at 23 º N. What is the date shown in the diagram? 5. During how many days of a calendar year is the Sun directly overhead

More information

Introduction to the Solar System

Introduction to the Solar System Introduction to the Solar System Lesson Objectives Describe some early ideas about our solar system. Name the planets, and describe their motion around the Sun. Explain how the solar system formed. Introduction

More information

Exam # 1 Thu 10/06/2010 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti

Exam # 1 Thu 10/06/2010 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti Exam # 1 Thu 10/06/2010 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti INSTRUCTIONS: Please, use the `bubble sheet and a pencil # 2 to answer the exam questions, by marking

More information

A Modern View of the Universe

A Modern View of the Universe M01_BENN7048_01_SE_C01.qxd 6/2/09 8:51 AM 1 Page 1 A Modern View of the Universe Learning Goals 1.1 Our Place in the Universe What is our place in the universe? How big is the universe? 1.2 A Brief History

More information

Reasons for Seasons. Question: TRUE OR FALSE. Question: TRUE OR FALSE? What causes the seasons? What causes the seasons?

Reasons for Seasons. Question: TRUE OR FALSE. Question: TRUE OR FALSE? What causes the seasons? What causes the seasons? Reasons for Seasons Question: TRUE OR FALSE? Earth is closer to the Sun in summer and farther from the Sun in winter. Question: TRUE OR FALSE? Earth is closer to the Sun in summer and farther from the

More information

Motions of the Earth. Stuff everyone should know

Motions of the Earth. Stuff everyone should know Motions of the Earth Stuff everyone should know Earth Motions E W N W Noon E Why is there day and night? OR Why do the Sun and stars appear to move through the sky? Because the Earth rotates around its

More information

Motions of Earth, Moon, and Sun

Motions of Earth, Moon, and Sun Motions of Earth, Moon, and Sun Apparent Motions of Celestial Objects An apparent motion is a motion that an object appears to make. Apparent motions can be real or illusions. When you see a person spinning

More information

5- Minute Refresher: Daily Observable Patterns in the Sky

5- Minute Refresher: Daily Observable Patterns in the Sky 5- Minute Refresher: Daily Observable Patterns in the Sky Key Ideas Daily Observable Patterns in the Sky include the occurrence of day and night, the appearance of the moon, the location of shadows and

More information

Note S1: Eclipses & Predictions

Note S1: Eclipses & Predictions The Moon's Orbit The first part of this note gives reference information and definitions about eclipses [14], much of which would have been familiar to ancient Greek astronomers, though not necessarily

More information

astronomy 2008 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times.

astronomy 2008 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times. 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times. 5. If the distance between the Earth and the Sun were increased,

More information

The Celestial Sphere. Questions for Today. The Celestial Sphere 1/18/10

The Celestial Sphere. Questions for Today. The Celestial Sphere 1/18/10 Lecture 3: Constellations and the Distances to the Stars Astro 2010 Prof. Tom Megeath Questions for Today How do the stars move in the sky? What causes the phases of the moon? What causes the seasons?

More information

Celestial Sphere. Celestial Coordinates. Lecture 3: Motions of the Sun and Moon. ecliptic (path of Sun) ecliptic (path of Sun)

Celestial Sphere. Celestial Coordinates. Lecture 3: Motions of the Sun and Moon. ecliptic (path of Sun) ecliptic (path of Sun) Lecture 3: Motions of the and Moon ecliptic (path of ) ecliptic (path of ) The 23.5 degree tilt of Earth s spin axis relative to its orbital axis around the causes the seasons Celestial Sphere Celestial

More information

A.4 The Solar System Scale Model

A.4 The Solar System Scale Model CHAPTER A. LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS 25 Name: Section: Date: A.4 The Solar System Scale Model I. Introduction Our solar system is inhabited by a variety of objects, ranging from a small rocky asteroid only

More information

Credit:Wikipedia, GNU Free. Credit: NASA

Credit:Wikipedia, GNU Free. Credit: NASA In this module we ll cover the scale of the universe. We ll talk a little bit about how big is the Earth compared to the solar system. We'll talk about how far away are the stars, and how big is the Milky

More information

Cycles in the Sky. Teacher Guide: Cycles in the Sky Page 1 of 8 2008 Discovery Communications, LLC

Cycles in the Sky. Teacher Guide: Cycles in the Sky Page 1 of 8 2008 Discovery Communications, LLC Cycles in the Sky What is a Fun damental? Each Fun damental is designed to introduce your younger students to some of the basic ideas about one particular area of science. The activities in the Fun damental

More information

Announcements. Due Monday, 11:59pm, Sept 9th. Can submit answers (and see score) more than once: persistence pays off!

Announcements. Due Monday, 11:59pm, Sept 9th. Can submit answers (and see score) more than once: persistence pays off! Announcements Homework 1 posted on Compass Due Monday, 11:59pm, Sept 9th. Can submit answers (and see score) more than once: persistence pays off! Register those iclickers! link on course site Venus/Saturn

More information

Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due in class Tuesday, Jan. 20, 2015

Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due in class Tuesday, Jan. 20, 2015 Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due in class Tuesday, Jan. 20, 2015 Why are celestial motions and forces important? They explain the world around

More information

Today FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME. Seasons/Precession Recap. Phases of the Moon. Eclipses. Lunar, Solar. Ancient Astronomy

Today FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME. Seasons/Precession Recap. Phases of the Moon. Eclipses. Lunar, Solar. Ancient Astronomy Today FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME Seasons/Precession Recap Phases of the Moon Eclipses Lunar, Solar Ancient Astronomy How do we mark the progression of the seasons? We define four special points: summer

More information

Solar System. 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X?

Solar System. 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X? Solar System 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X? A) Earth B) Sun C) Moon D) Polaris 2. Which object orbits Earth in both the Earth-centered

More information

The Solar System. Unit 4 covers the following framework standards: ES 10 and PS 11. Content was adapted the following:

The Solar System. Unit 4 covers the following framework standards: ES 10 and PS 11. Content was adapted the following: Unit 4 The Solar System Chapter 7 ~ The History of the Solar System o Section 1 ~ The Formation of the Solar System o Section 2 ~ Observing the Solar System Chapter 8 ~ The Parts the Solar System o Section

More information

What s going on during a solar eclipse. Solar Eclipses. Total Solar Eclipse on March 29, 2006 (viewed from Turkey) Partial, Total, and Annular

What s going on during a solar eclipse. Solar Eclipses. Total Solar Eclipse on March 29, 2006 (viewed from Turkey) Partial, Total, and Annular Solar Eclipses The Sun disappears behind the Moon The Moon is always in the New phase during a solar eclipse Can only be seen from certain places on Earth These events are even more rare than lunar eclipses

More information

Page. ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS (Page 4).

Page. ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS (Page 4). Star: ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS ( 4). Ball of gas that generates energy by nuclear fusion in its includes white dwarfs, protostars, neutron stars. Planet: Object (solid or gaseous) that orbits a star. Radius

More information

The Solar System: Cosmic encounter with Pluto

The Solar System: Cosmic encounter with Pluto Earth and Space Sciences The Solar System: Cosmic encounter with Pluto The size and nature of our Solar System is truly awe inspiring, and things are going to get even more exciting once the New Horizons

More information

Earth in the Solar System

Earth in the Solar System Copyright 2011 Study Island - All rights reserved. Directions: Challenge yourself! Print out the quiz or get a pen/pencil and paper and record your answers to the questions below. Check your answers with

More information

Week 1-2: Overview of the Universe & the View from the Earth

Week 1-2: Overview of the Universe & the View from the Earth Week 1-2: Overview of the Universe & the View from the Earth Hassen M. Yesuf (hyesuf@ucsc.edu) September 29, 2011 1 Lecture summary Protein molecules, the building blocks of a living organism, are made

More information

Chapter 25.1: Models of our Solar System

Chapter 25.1: Models of our Solar System Chapter 25.1: Models of our Solar System Objectives: Compare & Contrast geocentric and heliocentric models of the solar sytem. Describe the orbits of planets explain how gravity and inertia keep the planets

More information

Objectives After completing this section, you should be able to:

Objectives After completing this section, you should be able to: Chapter 5 Section 1 Lesson Angle Measure Objectives After completing this section, you should be able to: Use the most common conventions to position and measure angles on the plane. Demonstrate an understanding

More information

Explain the Big Bang Theory and give two pieces of evidence which support it.

Explain the Big Bang Theory and give two pieces of evidence which support it. Name: Key OBJECTIVES Correctly define: asteroid, celestial object, comet, constellation, Doppler effect, eccentricity, eclipse, ellipse, focus, Foucault Pendulum, galaxy, geocentric model, heliocentric

More information

Science Benchmark: 06 : 01 Standard 01: THE MYSTICAL MOON axis of rotation,

Science Benchmark: 06 : 01 Standard 01: THE MYSTICAL MOON axis of rotation, Science Benchmark: 06 : 01 The appearance of the lighted portion of the moon changes in a predictable cycle as a result of the relative positions of Earth, the moon, and the sun. Standard 01: Students

More information

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Our Solar System is a collection of gravitationally interacting bodies that include Earth and the Moon. Universal

More information

The Universe is a BIG Place

The Universe is a BIG Place Welcome to Astro 120: The Sky and our Solar System Astro 120 Spring 2016: Lecture 1 page 1 Astro 120 Spring 2016: Lecture 1 page 2 TAs: Al Lawrence Brandon Marshall Prof. Steven Kawaler Recitations begin

More information

1-2. What is the name given to the path of the Sun as seen from Earth? a.) Equinox b.) Celestial equator c.) Solstice d.

1-2. What is the name given to the path of the Sun as seen from Earth? a.) Equinox b.) Celestial equator c.) Solstice d. Chapter 1 1-1. How long does it take the Earth to orbit the Sun? a.) one sidereal day b.) one month c.) one year X d.) one hour 1-2. What is the name given to the path of the Sun as seen from Earth? a.)

More information

Observing the Constellations of the Zodiac

Observing the Constellations of the Zodiac Observing the Constellations of the Zodiac Activity UCIObs 3 Grade Level: 8 12 Source: Copyright (2009) by Tammy Smecker Hane. Contact tsmecker@uci.edu with any questions. Standards:This activity addresses

More information

Earth In Space Chapter 3

Earth In Space Chapter 3 Earth In Space Chapter 3 Shape of the Earth Ancient Greeks Earth casts a circular shadow on the moon during a lunar eclipse Shape of the Earth Ancient Greeks Ships were observed to disappear below the

More information

Assignment 2. Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Assignment 2. Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Assignment 2 Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What would you have to change about the Earth to stop our planet from having

More information

The facts we know today will be the same tomorrow but today s theories may tomorrow be obsolete.

The facts we know today will be the same tomorrow but today s theories may tomorrow be obsolete. The Scale of the Universe Some Introductory Material and Pretty Pictures The facts we know today will be the same tomorrow but today s theories may tomorrow be obsolete. A scientific theory is regarded

More information

galaxy solar system supernova (noun) (noun) (noun)

galaxy solar system supernova (noun) (noun) (noun) WORDS IN CONTEXT DAY 1 (Page 1 of 4) galaxy A galaxy is a collection of stars, gas, and dust. We live in the Milky Way galaxy. One galaxy may contain billions of stars. solar system A solar system revolves

More information

HONEY, I SHRUNK THE SOLAR SYSTEM

HONEY, I SHRUNK THE SOLAR SYSTEM OVERVIEW HONEY, I SHRUNK THE SOLAR SYSTEM MODIFIED VERSION OF A SOLAR SYSTEM SCALE MODEL ACTIVITY FROM UNDERSTANDING SCIENCE LESSONS Students will construct a scale model of the solar system using a fitness

More information

Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review

Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review Prof. Pradhan September 15, 2015 What is Science? 1. Explain the difference between astronomy and astrology. (a) Astrology: nonscience using zodiac sign to predict the future/personality

More information

Size and Scale of the Universe

Size and Scale of the Universe Size and Scale of the Universe (Teacher Guide) Overview: The Universe is very, very big. But just how big it is and how we fit into the grand scheme can be quite difficult for a person to grasp. The distances

More information

Newton s Law of Gravity

Newton s Law of Gravity Gravitational Potential Energy On Earth, depends on: object s mass (m) strength of gravity (g) distance object could potentially fall Gravitational Potential Energy In space, an object or gas cloud has

More information

The Sun, Earth, and Moon

The Sun, Earth, and Moon The un, Earth, and Moon A Reading A Z Level W Benchmark Book Word Count: 1,211 BENCHMARK W The un, Earth, and Moon Written by David L. Dreier Visit www.readinga-z.com for thousands of books and materials.

More information

Astronomy Club of Asheville October 2015 Sky Events

Astronomy Club of Asheville October 2015 Sky Events October 2015 Sky Events The Planets this Month - page 2 Planet Highlights - page 10 Moon Phases - page 13 Orionid Meteor Shower Peaks Oct. 22 nd - page 14 Observe the Zodiacal Light - page 15 2 Bright

More information

Putting The Distance Between The Earth And Moon In Perspective

Putting The Distance Between The Earth And Moon In Perspective Putting The Distance Between The Earth And Moon In Perspective In a spaceship, how long does it take to get to the moon? It depends on how fast the spaceship can travel. When the Apollo.astronauts went

More information

Motions of Earth LEARNING GOALS

Motions of Earth LEARNING GOALS 2 Patterns in the Sky Motions of Earth The stars first found a special place in legend and mythology as the realm of gods and goddesses, holding sway over the lives of humankind. From these legends and

More information

1. Title: Relative Sizes and Distance in the Solar System: Introducing Powers of Ten

1. Title: Relative Sizes and Distance in the Solar System: Introducing Powers of Ten 1. Title: Relative Sizes and Distance in the Solar System: Introducing Powers of Ten Here we're going to learn how big the Sun is relative to the different types of planet in our Solar System and the huge

More information

EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1

EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1 Instructor: L. M. Khandro EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1 1. An arc second is a measure of a. time interval between oscillations of a standard clock b. time

More information

LESSON 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM. Chapter 8, Astronomy

LESSON 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM. Chapter 8, Astronomy LESSON 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM Chapter 8, Astronomy OBJECTIVES Identify planets by observing their movement against background stars. Explain that the solar system consists of many bodies held together by gravity.

More information

The Seasons on a Planet like Earth

The Seasons on a Planet like Earth The Seasons on a Planet like Earth As the Earth travels around the Sun, it moves in a giant circle 300 million kilometers across. (Well, it is actually a giant ellipse but the shape is so close to that

More information

What is the Sloan Digital Sky Survey?

What is the Sloan Digital Sky Survey? What is the Sloan Digital Sky Survey? Simply put, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey is the most ambitious astronomical survey ever undertaken. The survey will map one-quarter of the entire sky in detail, determining

More information

Geometry and Geography

Geometry and Geography Geometry and Geography Tom Davis tomrdavis@earthlink.net http://www.geometer.org/mathcircles March 12, 2011 1 Pedagogical Advice I have been leading mathematical circles using this topic for many years,

More information

The orbit of Halley s Comet

The orbit of Halley s Comet The orbit of Halley s Comet Given this information Orbital period = 76 yrs Aphelion distance = 35.3 AU Observed comet in 1682 and predicted return 1758 Questions: How close does HC approach the Sun? What

More information

1 The Nine Planets. What are the parts of our solar system? When were the planets discovered? How do astronomers measure large distances?

1 The Nine Planets. What are the parts of our solar system? When were the planets discovered? How do astronomers measure large distances? CHAPTER 4 1 The Nine Planets SECTION A Family of Planets BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What are the parts of our solar system? When were the

More information

Game Guide / Chronopticon

Game Guide / Chronopticon Game Guide / Chronopticon GAME DESCRIPTION QUICK FACTS ABOUT CHRONOPTICON Chronopticon is a time travel game in which players guide Tim and Moby from the 9th century back to the present day. Along the

More information

From Aristotle to Newton

From Aristotle to Newton From Aristotle to Newton The history of the Solar System (and the universe to some extent) from ancient Greek times through to the beginnings of modern physics. The Geocentric Model Ancient Greek astronomers

More information

8.5 Motions of Earth, the Moon, and Planets

8.5 Motions of Earth, the Moon, and Planets 8.5 Motions of, the, and Planets axis axis North Pole South Pole rotation Figure 1 s axis is an imaginary line that goes through the planet from pole-to-pole. orbital radius the average distance between

More information

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science Grade 6. Unit Organizer: UNIVERSE AND SOLAR SYSTEM (Approximate Time 3 Weeks)

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science Grade 6. Unit Organizer: UNIVERSE AND SOLAR SYSTEM (Approximate Time 3 Weeks) The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

More information

Sunlight. and space travel

Sunlight. and space travel Sunlight and space travel Distances If you drive on a motorway at 70 miles per hour in one hour you may get to Stafford. Steady speed! If you keep on driving after 3 hours you would reach London. Steady

More information

Time, Day, Month, and the Moon

Time, Day, Month, and the Moon Time, Day, Month, and the Moon Announcements o First Homework will start on Tue Sept 20st; due on Thu, Sept 29th. o Accessible through SPARK Assigned Reading n Units 7 and 8 Goals for Today n To discuss

More information

Tessmann Show Descriptions

Tessmann Show Descriptions How Rare Is Earth? Dr. Stephen Eastmond (60 minutes) Experience the rarity and beauty of our planet Earth s position within our Solar System and within the Milky Way Galaxy. This introductory astronomy

More information

The Sun, Earth, and Moon

The Sun, Earth, and Moon The Sun, Earth, and Moon A Reading A Z Level W Benchmark Book Word Count: 1,211 BENCHMARK W The Sun, Earth, and Moon Written by David L. Dreier Visit www.readinga-z.com for thousands of books and materials.

More information

Phases of the Moon. Objective. Materials. Procedure. Name Date Score /20

Phases of the Moon. Objective. Materials. Procedure. Name Date Score /20 Name Date Score /20 Phases of the Moon Objective Working with models for the Earth-Moon-Sun system, the student will simulate the phases the Moon passes through each month. Upon completion of this exercise,

More information

Scientists often deal with

Scientists often deal with Solar System in the Hallway by Malonne Davies, Linda Landis, and Arthur Landis Scientists often deal with extreme numbers, both large and small. The Earth, 12,756,000 m in diameter, has a mass of 5,973,

More information

165 points. Name Date Period. Column B a. Cepheid variables b. luminosity c. RR Lyrae variables d. Sagittarius e. variable stars

165 points. Name Date Period. Column B a. Cepheid variables b. luminosity c. RR Lyrae variables d. Sagittarius e. variable stars Name Date Period 30 GALAXIES AND THE UNIVERSE SECTION 30.1 The Milky Way Galaxy In your textbook, read about discovering the Milky Way. (20 points) For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching

More information

Homework Assignment #7: The Moon

Homework Assignment #7: The Moon Name Homework Assignment #7: The Moon 2008 Ann Bykerk-Kauffman, Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences, California State University, Chico * Chapter 21 Origins of Modern Astronomy Motions of the

More information

Common Misconceptions About Astronomy

Common Misconceptions About Astronomy Common Misconceptions About Astronomy By Liam McDaid Sacramento City College 1). Whither seasons? Seasons are caused by Earth changing its distance from the Sun as it orbits the Sun. It is true that Earth

More information

The Sun and the Solar System

The Sun and the Solar System ASTR 371, Fall 2016 Lecture 1 The Sun and the Solar System Introduction and Overview Homework Due September 7, Wed. FK Chap 1, Questions 3, 16, 24, 38 A1: (a) use data of the diameter and average distance

More information

Solar System Stroll. Background. Procedure. Student Page. Student Name:

Solar System Stroll. Background. Procedure. Student Page. Student Name: Student Page Solar System Stroll Version 2.1, 3/27/00 1 Background It is a challenge to visualize the relative sizes of the planets, much less how far apart they are in space. This is in large part due

More information

Earth-Sun Relationships. The Reasons for the Seasons

Earth-Sun Relationships. The Reasons for the Seasons Earth-Sun Relationships The Reasons for the Seasons Solar Radiation The earth intercepts less than one two-billionth of the energy given off by the sun. However, the radiation is sufficient to provide

More information

Misconceptions in Astronomy in WA High School students (in preparation)

Misconceptions in Astronomy in WA High School students (in preparation) Misconceptions in Astronomy in WA High School students (in preparation) Michael Todd Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology The purpose of this study was to examine

More information

Asteroids. Earth. Asteroids. Earth Distance from sun: 149,600,000 kilometers (92,960,000 miles) Diameter: 12,756 kilometers (7,926 miles) dotted line

Asteroids. Earth. Asteroids. Earth Distance from sun: 149,600,000 kilometers (92,960,000 miles) Diameter: 12,756 kilometers (7,926 miles) dotted line Image taken by NASA Asteroids About 6,000 asteroids have been discovered; several hundred more are found each year. There are likely hundreds of thousands more that are too small to be seen from Earth.

More information

The changing phases of the Moon originally inspired the concept of the month

The changing phases of the Moon originally inspired the concept of the month The changing phases of the Moon originally inspired the concept of the month Motions of the Moon The Moon is in orbit around the Earth, outside the atmosphere. The Moon `shines via reflected light (12%)

More information

The Four Seasons. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. The Moon s Phases

The Four Seasons. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. The Moon s Phases The Four Seasons A Warm Up Exercise What fraction of the Moon s surface is illuminated by the Sun (except during a lunar eclipse)? a) Between zero and one-half b) The whole surface c) Always half d) Depends

More information

Grade 6 Standard 3 Unit Test A Astronomy. 1. The four inner planets are rocky and small. Which description best fits the next four outer planets?

Grade 6 Standard 3 Unit Test A Astronomy. 1. The four inner planets are rocky and small. Which description best fits the next four outer planets? Grade 6 Standard 3 Unit Test A Astronomy Multiple Choice 1. The four inner planets are rocky and small. Which description best fits the next four outer planets? A. They are also rocky and small. B. They

More information

Essential Question. Enduring Understanding

Essential Question. Enduring Understanding Earth In Space Unit Diagnostic Assessment: Students complete a questionnaire answering questions about their ideas concerning a day, year, the seasons and moon phases: My Ideas About A Day, Year, Seasons

More information

Phases of the Moon. --demonstrate the ability to apply an in-depth understanding of moon phases to real life situations

Phases of the Moon. --demonstrate the ability to apply an in-depth understanding of moon phases to real life situations 6 th Grade Standard I Rubric Phases of the Moon --demonstrate the ability to apply an in-depth understanding of moon phases to real life situations --demonstrate an understanding of different reasons why

More information

The Cosmic Perspective 3e Media Update

The Cosmic Perspective 3e Media Update Chapter 1: Our Place in the Universe LEARNING GOALS 1.1 A Modern View of the Universe What is our physical place in the universe? What are our cosmic origins and why do we say that we are made of star

More information

The Earth, Sun & Moon. The Universe. The Earth, Sun & Moon. The Universe

The Earth, Sun & Moon. The Universe. The Earth, Sun & Moon. The Universe Football Review- Earth, Moon, Sun 1. During a total solar eclipse, when almost all of the Sun's light traveling to the Earth is blocked by the Moon, what is the order of the Earth, Sun, and Moon? A. Moon,

More information

Activity One: Activate Prior Knowledge: Powers of Ten Video and Explore the sizes of various objects in the solar system

Activity One: Activate Prior Knowledge: Powers of Ten Video and Explore the sizes of various objects in the solar system Scale in the Solar System ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ SIXTH GRADE SCIENCE STANDARDS: STANDARD FOUR Students will understand

More information

Activity 3: Observing the Moon

Activity 3: Observing the Moon Activity 3: Observing the Moon Print Name: Signature: 1.) KEY. 2.). 3.). 4.). Activity: Since the dawn of time, our closest neighbor the moon has fascinated humans. In this activity we will explore the

More information

ASTR 310 Tutorial 2: Phases of the Moon

ASTR 310 Tutorial 2: Phases of the Moon ASTR 310 Tutorial 2: Every month, the Moon appears to change shape in the sky as it goes through phases from new Moon to full Moon and then back to new. Ancient civilizations used the phases of the Moon

More information

Lecture 13. Gravity in the Solar System

Lecture 13. Gravity in the Solar System Lecture 13 Gravity in the Solar System Guiding Questions 1. How was the heliocentric model established? What are monumental steps in the history of the heliocentric model? 2. How do Kepler s three laws

More information

Plato and Aristotle: Defining Rules for Western Cosmology. Raphael, School of Athens, 1510

Plato and Aristotle: Defining Rules for Western Cosmology. Raphael, School of Athens, 1510 Plato and Aristotle: Defining Rules for Western Cosmology Raphael, School of Athens, 1510 Last time... Initial ordering of the heavens Horizon phenomena for seasonal calendars in N. Europe during Stone

More information

THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1

THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1 THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1 THE SUN AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM Name the planets in their order from the sun. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The asteroid belt is between and Which planet has the most moons? About how many?

More information

Tropical Horticulture: Lecture 2

Tropical Horticulture: Lecture 2 Lecture 2 Theory of the Tropics Earth & Solar Geometry, Celestial Mechanics The geometrical relationship between the earth and sun is responsible for the earth s climates. The two principal movements of

More information

STUDY GUIDE: Earth Sun Moon

STUDY GUIDE: Earth Sun Moon The Universe is thought to consist of trillions of galaxies. Our galaxy, the Milky Way, has billions of stars. One of those stars is our Sun. Our solar system consists of the Sun at the center, and all

More information

The following words and their definitions should be addressed before completion of the reading:

The following words and their definitions should be addressed before completion of the reading: Seasons Vocabulary: The following words and their definitions should be addressed before completion of the reading: sphere any round object that has a surface that is the same distance from its center

More information

Astrology: Fact or Fiction? 50-60 minutes, for 9th-12th grades

Astrology: Fact or Fiction? 50-60 minutes, for 9th-12th grades Astrology: Fact or Fiction? 50-60 minutes, for 9th-12th grades Notice This lesson plan was created by Digitalis Education Solutions (DigitalisEducation.com) and is provided free of charge as a public service

More information