The orbit of Halley s Comet

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The orbit of Halley s Comet"

Transcription

1 The orbit of Halley s Comet Given this information Orbital period = 76 yrs Aphelion distance = 35.3 AU Observed comet in 1682 and predicted return 1758

2 Questions: How close does HC approach the Sun? What is the orbital eccentricity? From Kepler s 3 rd law: P 2 (yr) = a 3 (AU) So, a 3 (AU) = 76 x 76 = 5776 Hence a(au) = (5776) 1/3 = By definition: perihelion distance + aphelion distance = 2a So, we have: Perihelion distance = 2a aphelion distance = 2x Which gives Perihelion distance = 0.58 (AU) Closer than orbit of Venus to the Sun

3 Definition: Eccentricity (e) e = OF / a OF Aphelion (35.3 AU) a Sun 0.58 AU Perihelion distance perihelion a = AU By construction: a = perihelion distance + OF Hence: OF = a perihelion distance = = AU And, accordingly, eccentricity e = / = 0.96

4 From last class Kepler s laws of Planetary Motion 1 st law: The planets revolve around the Sun along elliptical orbits with the Sun at one focus 2 nd law: A line drawn from the planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal time 3 rd law: The square of a planets orbital period P is proportional to the cube of its orbital semimajor axis a P 2 (yr) = a 3 (AU)

5 Last seen in 1986 back in 2061 OF Perihelion distance Aphelion a Sun perihelion Summing up For Halley s comet Orbital period = 76 years Semi-major axis a = AU Perihelion distance = 0.58 AU Aphelion distance = 35.3 AU Sun displacement from center OF = AU eccentricity e = 0.96

6 Isaac Newton ( ) Mathematician, Alchemist Biblical Scholar Physicist Master of the Mint Basically a spherically clever guy

7 Nature and Nature's laws lay hid in night: God said, Let Newton be! and all was light Alexander Pope F gravity G m M 2 R

8 Newton s genius Same physics everywhere in the lab, in the Solar System and anywhere else in the Universe in other words we can measure and understand the physics of the cosmos around us He argued: The rules describing the acceleration of objects falling on the Earth can also describe the motion of the planets Hypothesis: Newton, 1687: There is a gravitational attraction between all of the planets and the Sun

9 Keeping the planets in their place Newton s 1 st law of motion A body will remain at rest or in constant motion along a straight line path unless acted upon by an external force In reality, a planet is continuously accelerated towards the Sun by a gravitational force It is this continuous gravitational interaction that causes a planet to follow an elliptical orbit rather than a straight line path through space

10 Hammer Time When the athlete lets go of the tether, the ball flies off along a straight line path it doesn t keep going in a circle the tether is our gravitational pull analog

11 In each second the Moon falls 1.4 mm towards the Earth (away from straight line path) and moves 1 km around its orbit the Moon is continuously falling towards Earth, or more correctly from the straight line path it would otherwise have if there were no gravity Moon Path of Moon without gravity F g Path of Moon with gravity (orbit) Earth Not only does gravity explain planetary orbits, it also explains Kepler s 2 nd and 3 rd laws

12 Kepler s 3rd law. Newton style Cutting to the chase - Newton showed: P 2 /a 3 = K = 4p 2 / G(M Sun + M Planet ) In other words, Newton found that the constant K in K3 is related to the system mass Units are now kilograms, meters and seconds (the SI units of measure) G is the universal gravitational constant

13 The Moons of Mars: Phobos and Deimos

14 Phobos Period = hours Orbital radius = 9400 km Moon diameter is about 20 km Discovered by Asaph Hall in 1877

15 Weighing Mars M Mars + M phobos = (4p 2 ) a 3 / G P 2 Kepler s 3 rd law with Newton s modification Can safely assume M Mars >> M Phobos so, using SI units (meters, sec., kg) M Mars = (4p 2 ) (9.4x10 6 ) 3 / G (7.656 x 3600) 2 = 6.6 x kg = 1/10 th M Earth

16 Not just for planets Provided a measure of the size of the orbit (a) and the orbital period (P) can be made K3 as formulated by Newton can be used to find the masses of astronomical objects.. Later on we will weigh the stars as well as the entire Milky Way Galaxy using K3

17 We now have a set of tools and laws to describe: 1. Motion on the sky the celestial sphere (ecliptic) 2. The distances to the planets and the scale of the Solar System Copernicus s method for inferior planets and the Big Result formula 3. Orbital shape semi-major axis and eccentricity 4. Planetary motion Kepler s three laws 5. The mass of a planet if it has a moon Newton s refinement to K3 Our next task is to take an inventory of the Solar System what exactly is it and what kind of objects does it contain?

18 The contents The Solar System is a dynamic collection of many hundreds of thousands of objects: The Sun, planets, dwarf planets, moons, asteroids, comets, Kuiper-belt objects, meteoroids, dust grains. Also: magnetic fields, radiation (light), cosmic rays The planets are the largest objects (next to the Sun) in the Solar System but the definition for planetary status is not simple (or even agreed upon) Eight classical planets are recognized: Mercury Neptune and five dwarf planets: Ceres, Pluto, Eris, Makemake & Haumea

19 Inner solar system planets Outer solar system planets Dwarf planets

20 From last class Discussed Newton s result WRT Kepler s 3 rd law observations of period and orbit size enable derivation of system mass our astronomical weigh scale Discussed the scale and extent of the Solar System - Introduced the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud regions of the outer Solar System Kuiper belt = disc-like distribution of small ice/rock worlds beyond Pluto stretches out to ~ 20,000 AU Oort cloud = outer most boundary of the Solar System (where gravity of the Sun is less than the other stars in the rest of the galaxy) - located at ~ 100,000 AU from the Sun

21 200,000 AU The scale of the Solar System Oort Cloud KB Oort Cloud named after Jan Oort (1950) vast reservoir of comets surrounding Sun (spherical halo of objects) Comets can enter the inner solar system at any angle Kuiper Belt Sun Pluto 40 AU 20,000 AU Kuiper Belt named after Gerald Kuiper (1951) disk like distribution of large ice / rock objects - with Pluto being the first such object discovered (1930)

22 Light travel time across the Oort Cloud Kuiper belt distance velocity time OOTETK Velocity = speed of light Distance ~ 200,000 AU Meters in 1 AU Time = distance / velocity = 200,000 x x / 3 x 10 8 = 9.97 x 10 7 seconds = 3.16 years The solar system is BIG!!... Way big

23 By any other name. Conditions for planetary status: IAU (August 2006) definition: International Astronomical Union 1. Object must orbit the Sun 2. Large enough to be spherical through its own gravity (this is a size / mass constraint) 3. Must have cleared its region of the solar system of other smaller objects i.e., it is the dominant gravitational object in its region

24 Dwarf Planets Minor planet designation An object that satisfies conditions 1 and 2 for a planet but not condition 3 Dwarf planets presently recognized: Ceres formerly the largest asteroid» (historically a former planet) Pluto formerly a planet (discovered 1930) Eris discovered 2003 Makemake - discovered 2005 Haumea discovered 2004 Let s just have his head and be done with it

25 Moon Planets Haumea Dwarf planets Pluto Makemake Ceres Eris

26 The Solar System Ceres (dwarf planet) Pluto Eris Makemake Haumea Physical properties

27 The Main Components Are: Sun The nearest star to us. ~ 8% of all stars are Sun-like stars Accounts for 99.9% of the mass of the solar system Planets Terrestrial planets: Mercury Mars Small, rocky (metal core) worlds with orbits less than 2 AU from the Sun Jovian planets: Jupiter Neptune Large, mostly gas-giant planets with orbits greater than 5 AU from the Sun

28 Outer Solar System Inner Solar System Terrestrial planets: closely packed orbits Small, rock/iron worlds Jovian planets: widely spaced orbits Large, gas giant worlds

29 Dwarf Planets Ceres aside DPs have orbits beyond Neptune Pluto is essentially the first of the Dwarf Planets Have orbits beyond 35 AU Also called Made predominantly of rock and ice Plutoids Sizes smaller than Earth s Moon (< 3000 km) It is possible that large (Earth-sized) DPs exist but none have so far been detected Move in the Kuiper Belt region and can undergo collisions with KBOs producing cometary fragments Presently 5 Dwarf Planets officially recognized, dozens, even many hundreds more awaiting discovery

30 2390 km Greek Goddess Ruler of the underworld Hawaiian Gods of childbirth and fertility Roman Goddess

Introduction to the Solar System

Introduction to the Solar System Introduction to the Solar System Lesson Objectives Describe some early ideas about our solar system. Name the planets, and describe their motion around the Sun. Explain how the solar system formed. Introduction

More information

Unit 8 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System

Unit 8 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System Unit 8 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System Gravity What is gravity? Gravity is a force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses and the distances between them. Every object in the universe

More information

Lecture 13. Gravity in the Solar System

Lecture 13. Gravity in the Solar System Lecture 13 Gravity in the Solar System Guiding Questions 1. How was the heliocentric model established? What are monumental steps in the history of the heliocentric model? 2. How do Kepler s three laws

More information

Study Guide: Solar System

Study Guide: Solar System Study Guide: Solar System 1. How many planets are there in the solar system? 2. What is the correct order of all the planets in the solar system? 3. Where can a comet be located in the solar system? 4.

More information

Solar System Fundamentals. What is a Planet? Planetary orbits Planetary temperatures Planetary Atmospheres Origin of the Solar System

Solar System Fundamentals. What is a Planet? Planetary orbits Planetary temperatures Planetary Atmospheres Origin of the Solar System Solar System Fundamentals What is a Planet? Planetary orbits Planetary temperatures Planetary Atmospheres Origin of the Solar System Properties of Planets What is a planet? Defined finally in August 2006!

More information

The Solar System. Source http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/starchild/solar_system_level1/solar_system.html

The Solar System. Source http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/starchild/solar_system_level1/solar_system.html The Solar System What is the solar system? It is our Sun and everything that travels around it. Our solar system is elliptical in shape. That means it is shaped like an egg. Earth s orbit is nearly circular.

More information

A SOLAR SYSTEM COLORING BOOK

A SOLAR SYSTEM COLORING BOOK A SOLAR SYSTEM COLORING BOOK Brought to you by: THE SUN Size: The Sun is wider than 100 Earths. 1 Temperature: 27,000,000 F in the center, 10,000 F at the surface. So that s REALLY hot anywhere on the

More information

Planets and Dwarf Planets by Shauna Hutton

Planets and Dwarf Planets by Shauna Hutton Name: Wow! Technology has improved so well in the last several years that we keep finding more and more objects in our solar system! Because of this, scientists have had to come up with new categories

More information

Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due in class Tuesday, Jan. 20, 2015

Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due in class Tuesday, Jan. 20, 2015 Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due in class Tuesday, Jan. 20, 2015 Why are celestial motions and forces important? They explain the world around

More information

Background Information Students will learn about the Solar System while practicing communication skills.

Background Information Students will learn about the Solar System while practicing communication skills. Teacher Information Background Information Students will learn about the Solar System while practicing communication skills. Materials clipboard for each student pencils copies of map and Available Destinations

More information

Chapter 25.1: Models of our Solar System

Chapter 25.1: Models of our Solar System Chapter 25.1: Models of our Solar System Objectives: Compare & Contrast geocentric and heliocentric models of the solar sytem. Describe the orbits of planets explain how gravity and inertia keep the planets

More information

Planetary Orbit Simulator Student Guide

Planetary Orbit Simulator Student Guide Name: Planetary Orbit Simulator Student Guide Background Material Answer the following questions after reviewing the Kepler's Laws and Planetary Motion and Newton and Planetary Motion background pages.

More information

UC Irvine FOCUS! 5 E Lesson Plan

UC Irvine FOCUS! 5 E Lesson Plan UC Irvine FOCUS! 5 E Lesson Plan Title: Astronomical Units and The Solar System Grade Level and Course: 8th grade Physical Science Materials: Visual introduction for solar system (slides, video, posters,

More information

Related Standards and Background Information

Related Standards and Background Information Related Standards and Background Information Earth Patterns, Cycles and Changes This strand focuses on student understanding of patterns in nature, natural cycles, and changes that occur both quickly and

More information

The Solar System. Olivia Paquette

The Solar System. Olivia Paquette The Solar System Olivia Paquette Table of Contents The Sun 1 Mercury 2,3 Venus 4,5 Earth 6,7 Mars 8,9 Jupiter 10,11 Saturn 12 Uranus 13 Neptune Pluto 14 15 Glossary. 16 The Sun Although it may seem like

More information

Voyage: A Journey through our Solar System. Grades 5-8. Lesson 5: Round and Round We Go Exploring Orbits in the Solar System

Voyage: A Journey through our Solar System. Grades 5-8. Lesson 5: Round and Round We Go Exploring Orbits in the Solar System Voyage: A Journey through our Solar System Grades 5-8 Lesson 5: Round and Round We Go Exploring Orbits in the Solar System On a visit to the National Mall in Washington, DC, one can see monuments of a

More information

THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1

THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1 THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1 THE SUN AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM Name the planets in their order from the sun. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The asteroid belt is between and Which planet has the most moons? About how many?

More information

A Solar System Coloring Book

A Solar System Coloring Book A Solar System Coloring Book Courtesy of the Windows to the Universe Project http://www.windows2universe.org The Sun Size: The Sun is wider than 100 Earths. Temperature: ~27,000,000 F in the center, ~10,000

More information

Copyright 2006, Astronomical Society of the Pacific

Copyright 2006, Astronomical Society of the Pacific 2 1 3 4 Diameter: 590 miles (950 km) Distance to Sun: 257 million miles (414 million km) Orbits: # 18 Composition: Outer layer probably ice and frozen ammonia, no Diameter: 750 miles (1200 km) Distance

More information

Lecture 12: The Solar System Briefly

Lecture 12: The Solar System Briefly Lecture 12: The Solar System Briefly Formation of the Moonhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WpOKztEiMqo&feature =related Formation of our Solar System Conservation of Angular Momentum Why are the larger,

More information

Vocabulary - Understanding Revolution in. our Solar System

Vocabulary - Understanding Revolution in. our Solar System Vocabulary - Understanding Revolution in Universe Galaxy Solar system Planet Moon Comet Asteroid Meteor(ite) Heliocentric Geocentric Satellite Terrestrial planets Jovian (gas) planets Gravity our Solar

More information

USING MS EXCEL FOR DATA ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION

USING MS EXCEL FOR DATA ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION USING MS EXCEL FOR DATA ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION Ian Cooper School of Physics The University of Sydney i.cooper@physics.usyd.edu.au Introduction The numerical calculations performed by scientists and engineers

More information

Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review

Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review Prof. Pradhan September 15, 2015 What is Science? 1. Explain the difference between astronomy and astrology. (a) Astrology: nonscience using zodiac sign to predict the future/personality

More information

Pocket Solar System. Make a Scale Model of the Distances in our Solar System

Pocket Solar System. Make a Scale Model of the Distances in our Solar System Pocket Solar System Make a Scale Model of the Distances in our Solar System About the Activity Using a strip of paper, construct a quick scale model of the distances between the orbits of the planets,

More information

Pluto Data: Numbers. 14b. Pluto, Kuiper Belt & Oort Cloud. Pluto Data (Table 14-5)

Pluto Data: Numbers. 14b. Pluto, Kuiper Belt & Oort Cloud. Pluto Data (Table 14-5) 14b. Pluto, Kuiper Belt & Oort Cloud Pluto Pluto s moons The Kuiper Belt Resonant Kuiper Belt objects Classical Kuiper Belt objects Pluto Data: Numbers Diameter: 2,290.km 0.18. Earth Mass: 1.0. 10 22 kg

More information

The Layout of the Solar System

The Layout of the Solar System The Layout of the Solar System Planets fall into two main categories Terrestrial (i.e. Earth-like) Jovian (i.e. Jupiter-like or gaseous) [~5000 kg/m 3 ] [~1300 kg/m 3 ] What is density? Average density

More information

LER 2891. Ages. Grades. Solar System. A fun game of thinking & linking!

LER 2891. Ages. Grades. Solar System. A fun game of thinking & linking! Solar System Ages 7+ LER 2891 Grades 2+ Card Game A fun game of thinking & linking! Contents 45 Picture cards 45 Word cards 8 New Link cards 2 Super Link cards Setup Shuffle the two decks together to mix

More information

Our Planetary System. Earth, as viewed by the Voyager spacecraft. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Our Planetary System. Earth, as viewed by the Voyager spacecraft. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Our Planetary System Earth, as viewed by the Voyager spacecraft 7.1 Studying the Solar System Our goals for learning: What does the solar system look like? What can we learn by comparing the planets to

More information

1. Title: Relative Sizes and Distance in the Solar System: Introducing Powers of Ten

1. Title: Relative Sizes and Distance in the Solar System: Introducing Powers of Ten 1. Title: Relative Sizes and Distance in the Solar System: Introducing Powers of Ten Here we're going to learn how big the Sun is relative to the different types of planet in our Solar System and the huge

More information

The Solar System. Unit 4 covers the following framework standards: ES 10 and PS 11. Content was adapted the following:

The Solar System. Unit 4 covers the following framework standards: ES 10 and PS 11. Content was adapted the following: Unit 4 The Solar System Chapter 7 ~ The History of the Solar System o Section 1 ~ The Formation of the Solar System o Section 2 ~ Observing the Solar System Chapter 8 ~ The Parts the Solar System o Section

More information

The Main Point. Lecture #34: Solar System Origin II. Chemical Condensation ( Lewis ) Model. How did the solar system form? Reading: Chapter 8.

The Main Point. Lecture #34: Solar System Origin II. Chemical Condensation ( Lewis ) Model. How did the solar system form? Reading: Chapter 8. Lecture #34: Solar System Origin II How did the solar system form? Chemical Condensation ("Lewis") Model. Formation of the Terrestrial Planets. Formation of the Giant Planets. Planetary Evolution. Reading:

More information

Discover the planets of our solar system. In 90 minutes through the universe. On a hiking path between Ehrenfriedensdorf and Drebach

Discover the planets of our solar system. In 90 minutes through the universe. On a hiking path between Ehrenfriedensdorf and Drebach Discover the planets of our solar system In 90 minutes through the universe On a hiking path between Ehrenfriedensdorf and Drebach Solar System - Sonnensystem The Solar System consists of the Sun and the

More information

1 A Solar System Is Born

1 A Solar System Is Born CHAPTER 3 1 A Solar System Is Born SECTION Formation of the Solar System BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a nebula? How did our solar system

More information

Solar System. 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X?

Solar System. 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X? Solar System 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X? A) Earth B) Sun C) Moon D) Polaris 2. Which object orbits Earth in both the Earth-centered

More information

From Aristotle to Newton

From Aristotle to Newton From Aristotle to Newton The history of the Solar System (and the universe to some extent) from ancient Greek times through to the beginnings of modern physics. The Geocentric Model Ancient Greek astronomers

More information

Chapter 12 Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets. Asteroid Facts. What are asteroids like? Asteroids with Moons. 12.1 Asteroids and Meteorites

Chapter 12 Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets. Asteroid Facts. What are asteroids like? Asteroids with Moons. 12.1 Asteroids and Meteorites Chapter 12 Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts What are asteroids like? 12.1 Asteroids and Meteorites Our goals for learning:! What are asteroids like?! Why is there

More information

NASA Explorer Schools Pre-Algebra Unit Lesson 2 Student Workbook. Solar System Math. Comparing Mass, Gravity, Composition, & Density

NASA Explorer Schools Pre-Algebra Unit Lesson 2 Student Workbook. Solar System Math. Comparing Mass, Gravity, Composition, & Density National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Explorer Schools Pre-Algebra Unit Lesson 2 Student Workbook Solar System Math Comparing Mass, Gravity, Composition, & Density What interval of values

More information

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Our Solar System is a collection of gravitationally interacting bodies that include Earth and the Moon. Universal

More information

NOTES: GEORGIA HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TEST THE SOLAR SYSTEM

NOTES: GEORGIA HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TEST THE SOLAR SYSTEM NOTES: GEORGIA HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TEST THE SOLAR SYSTEM 1.What is a Solar system? A solar system consists of: * one central star, the Sun and * nine planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn,

More information

The Solar System: Cosmic encounter with Pluto

The Solar System: Cosmic encounter with Pluto Earth and Space Sciences The Solar System: Cosmic encounter with Pluto The size and nature of our Solar System is truly awe inspiring, and things are going to get even more exciting once the New Horizons

More information

UNIT V. Earth and Space. Earth and the Solar System

UNIT V. Earth and Space. Earth and the Solar System UNIT V Earth and Space Chapter 9 Earth and the Solar System EARTH AND OTHER PLANETS A solar system contains planets, moons, and other objects that orbit around a star or the star system. The solar system

More information

HONEY, I SHRUNK THE SOLAR SYSTEM

HONEY, I SHRUNK THE SOLAR SYSTEM OVERVIEW HONEY, I SHRUNK THE SOLAR SYSTEM MODIFIED VERSION OF A SOLAR SYSTEM SCALE MODEL ACTIVITY FROM UNDERSTANDING SCIENCE LESSONS Students will construct a scale model of the solar system using a fitness

More information

Earth in the Solar System

Earth in the Solar System Copyright 2011 Study Island - All rights reserved. Directions: Challenge yourself! Print out the quiz or get a pen/pencil and paper and record your answers to the questions below. Check your answers with

More information

Group Leader: Group Members:

Group Leader: Group Members: THE SOLAR SYSTEM PROJECT: TOPIC: THE SUN Required Project Content for an Oral/Poster Presentation on THE SUN - What it s made of - Age and how it formed (provide pictures or diagrams) - What is an AU?

More information

A.4 The Solar System Scale Model

A.4 The Solar System Scale Model CHAPTER A. LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS 25 Name: Section: Date: A.4 The Solar System Scale Model I. Introduction Our solar system is inhabited by a variety of objects, ranging from a small rocky asteroid only

More information

EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1

EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1 Instructor: L. M. Khandro EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1 1. An arc second is a measure of a. time interval between oscillations of a standard clock b. time

More information

Chapter 5: Circular Motion, the Planets, and Gravity

Chapter 5: Circular Motion, the Planets, and Gravity Chapter 5: Circular Motion, the Planets, and Gravity 1. Earth s gravity attracts a person with a force of 120 lbs. The force with which the Earth is attracted towards the person is A. Zero. B. Small but

More information

Grade 6 Standard 3 Unit Test A Astronomy. 1. The four inner planets are rocky and small. Which description best fits the next four outer planets?

Grade 6 Standard 3 Unit Test A Astronomy. 1. The four inner planets are rocky and small. Which description best fits the next four outer planets? Grade 6 Standard 3 Unit Test A Astronomy Multiple Choice 1. The four inner planets are rocky and small. Which description best fits the next four outer planets? A. They are also rocky and small. B. They

More information

Newton s Law of Gravity

Newton s Law of Gravity Gravitational Potential Energy On Earth, depends on: object s mass (m) strength of gravity (g) distance object could potentially fall Gravitational Potential Energy In space, an object or gas cloud has

More information

L3: The formation of the Solar System

L3: The formation of the Solar System credit: NASA L3: The formation of the Solar System UCL Certificate of astronomy Dr. Ingo Waldmann A stable home The presence of life forms elsewhere in the Universe requires a stable environment where

More information

1.1 A Modern View of the Universe" Our goals for learning: What is our place in the universe?"

1.1 A Modern View of the Universe Our goals for learning: What is our place in the universe? Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe 1.1 A Modern View of the Universe What is our place in the universe? What is our place in the universe? How did we come to be? How can we know what the universe was

More information

Name: João Fernando Alves da Silva Class: 7-4 Number: 10

Name: João Fernando Alves da Silva Class: 7-4 Number: 10 Name: João Fernando Alves da Silva Class: 7-4 Number: 10 What is the constitution of the Solar System? The Solar System is constituted not only by planets, which have satellites, but also by thousands

More information

astronomy 2008 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times.

astronomy 2008 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times. 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times. 5. If the distance between the Earth and the Sun were increased,

More information

Chapter 9 Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets. Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts

Chapter 9 Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets. Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts Chapter 9 Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts Asteroid Facts Asteroids are rocky leftovers of planet formation. The largest is Ceres, diameter ~1,000 km. There are 150,000

More information

Page. ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS (Page 4).

Page. ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS (Page 4). Star: ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS ( 4). Ball of gas that generates energy by nuclear fusion in its includes white dwarfs, protostars, neutron stars. Planet: Object (solid or gaseous) that orbits a star. Radius

More information

Astronomy Club of Asheville October 2015 Sky Events

Astronomy Club of Asheville October 2015 Sky Events October 2015 Sky Events The Planets this Month - page 2 Planet Highlights - page 10 Moon Phases - page 13 Orionid Meteor Shower Peaks Oct. 22 nd - page 14 Observe the Zodiacal Light - page 15 2 Bright

More information

Summary: Four Major Features of our Solar System

Summary: Four Major Features of our Solar System Summary: Four Major Features of our Solar System How did the solar system form? According to the nebular theory, our solar system formed from the gravitational collapse of a giant cloud of interstellar

More information

Solar System Overview

Solar System Overview Solar System Overview Planets: Four inner planets, Terrestrial planets Four outer planets, Jovian planets Asteroids: Minor planets (planetesimals) Meteroids: Chucks of rocks (smaller than asteroids) (Mercury,

More information

Earth Is Not the Center of the Universe

Earth Is Not the Center of the Universe Earth Is Not the Center of the Universe Source: Utah State Office of Education Introduction Have you ever looked up at the night sky and wondered about all the pinpoint lights? People through the ages

More information

Lecture 7 Formation of the Solar System. Nebular Theory. Origin of the Solar System. Origin of the Solar System. The Solar Nebula

Lecture 7 Formation of the Solar System. Nebular Theory. Origin of the Solar System. Origin of the Solar System. The Solar Nebula Origin of the Solar System Lecture 7 Formation of the Solar System Reading: Chapter 9 Quiz#2 Today: Lecture 60 minutes, then quiz 20 minutes. Homework#1 will be returned on Thursday. Our theory must explain

More information

Halliday, Resnick & Walker Chapter 13. Gravitation. Physics 1A PHYS1121 Professor Michael Burton

Halliday, Resnick & Walker Chapter 13. Gravitation. Physics 1A PHYS1121 Professor Michael Burton Halliday, Resnick & Walker Chapter 13 Gravitation Physics 1A PHYS1121 Professor Michael Burton II_A2: Planetary Orbits in the Solar System + Galaxy Interactions (You Tube) 21 seconds 13-1 Newton's Law

More information

Name Class Period. F = G m 1 m 2 d 2. G =6.67 x 10-11 Nm 2 /kg 2

Name Class Period. F = G m 1 m 2 d 2. G =6.67 x 10-11 Nm 2 /kg 2 Gravitational Forces 13.1 Newton s Law of Universal Gravity Newton discovered that gravity is universal. Everything pulls on everything else in the universe in a way that involves only mass and distance.

More information

Chapter 7 Our Planetary System. What does the solar system look like? Thought Question How does the Earth-Sun distance compare with the Sun s radius

Chapter 7 Our Planetary System. What does the solar system look like? Thought Question How does the Earth-Sun distance compare with the Sun s radius Chapter 7 Our Planetary System 7.1 Studying the Solar System Our goals for learning:! What does the solar system look like?! What can we learn by comparing the planets to one another?! What are the major

More information

Astronomy Notes for Educators

Astronomy Notes for Educators Our Solar System Astronomy Notes for Educators Our Solar System 5-1 5-2 Specific Outcomes: Learning Outcome 1: Knowledge / Content and it place in the Milky Way Different types of bodies make up the Solar

More information

Toilet Paper Solar System

Toilet Paper Solar System LEADER INSTRUCTIONS Toilet Paper Solar System Adapted by Suzanne Chippindale Based on an idea by the late Gerald Mallon, a planetarium educator who spent his life helping students understand the Universe.

More information

Cosmic Journey: A Solar System Adventure General Information

Cosmic Journey: A Solar System Adventure General Information Cosmic Journey: A Solar System Adventure General Information Imagine it a huge spiral galaxy containing hundreds of billions of stars, spiraling out from a galactic center. Nestled deep within one of the

More information

7. Our Solar System. Planetary Orbits to Scale. The Eight Planetary Orbits

7. Our Solar System. Planetary Orbits to Scale. The Eight Planetary Orbits 7. Our Solar System Terrestrial & Jovian planets Seven large satellites [moons] Chemical composition of the planets Asteroids & comets The Terrestrial & Jovian Planets Four small terrestrial planets Like

More information

THE SOLAR SYSTEM. Worksheets UNIT 1. Raül Martínez Verdún

THE SOLAR SYSTEM. Worksheets UNIT 1. Raül Martínez Verdún Worksheets UNIT 1 October-December 2009 NAME: DATE: Worksheet 1A Cut out these 9 circles and then order them from the smallest to the biggest. NAME: DATE: Worksheet 1B NAME: DATE: Worksheet 2 Read the

More information

2. Orbits. FER-Zagreb, Satellite communication systems 2011/12

2. Orbits. FER-Zagreb, Satellite communication systems 2011/12 2. Orbits Topics Orbit types Kepler and Newton laws Coverage area Influence of Earth 1 Orbit types According to inclination angle Equatorial Polar Inclinational orbit According to shape Circular orbit

More information

Chapter 1: Our Place in the Universe. 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley

Chapter 1: Our Place in the Universe. 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Chapter 1: Our Place in the Universe Topics Our modern view of the universe The scale of the universe Cinema graphic tour of the local universe Spaceship earth 1.1 A Modern View of the Universe Our goals

More information

Chapter 7 Our Planetary System. Agenda. Intro Astronomy. Intro Astronomy. What does the solar system look like? A. General Basics

Chapter 7 Our Planetary System. Agenda. Intro Astronomy. Intro Astronomy. What does the solar system look like? A. General Basics Chapter 7 Our Planetary System Agenda Pass back & discuss Test 2 Where we are (at) Ch. 7 Our Planetary System Finish Einstein s Big Idea Earth, as viewed by the Voyager spacecraft A. General Basics Intro

More information

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science Grade 6. Unit Organizer: UNIVERSE AND SOLAR SYSTEM (Approximate Time 3 Weeks)

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science Grade 6. Unit Organizer: UNIVERSE AND SOLAR SYSTEM (Approximate Time 3 Weeks) The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

More information

AE554 Applied Orbital Mechanics. Hafta 1 Egemen Đmre

AE554 Applied Orbital Mechanics. Hafta 1 Egemen Đmre AE554 Applied Orbital Mechanics Hafta 1 Egemen Đmre A bit of history the beginning Astronomy: Science of heavens. (Ancient Greeks). Astronomy existed several thousand years BC Perfect universe (like circles

More information

Vagabonds of the Solar System. Chapter 17

Vagabonds of the Solar System. Chapter 17 Vagabonds of the Solar System Chapter 17 ASTR 111 003 Fall 2006 Lecture 13 Nov. 27, 2006 Introduction To Modern Astronomy I Introducing Astronomy (chap. 1-6) Planets and Moons (chap. 7-17) Ch7: Comparative

More information

4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 890L

4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 890L 4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 890L HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED A CLOSE LOOK AT THE PLANETS ORBITING OUR SUN By Cynthia Stokes Brown, adapted by Newsela Planets are born from the clouds of gas and dust

More information

Solar System Facts & Fun

Solar System Facts & Fun Solar System Facts & Fun Space is such a fascinating place. God put the Earth in just the right place so everything was just right for life as we know it. Have you ever wondered about the other planets

More information

The Solar System. A Collaborative Science Activity for Key Stage 2. Teacher s Notes. Procedure

The Solar System. A Collaborative Science Activity for Key Stage 2. Teacher s Notes. Procedure The Solar System A Collaborative Science Activity for Key Stage 2 Teacher s Notes This material links reading and oral skills. The text is divided into three parts so that pupils have the task of collecting

More information

So What All Is Out There, Anyway?

So What All Is Out There, Anyway? So What All Is Out There, Anyway? Imagine that, like Alice in Wonderland, you have taken a magic potion that makes you grow bigger and bigger. You get so big that soon you are a giant. You can barely make

More information

Solar System Formation

Solar System Formation Solar System Formation Solar System Formation Question: How did our solar system and other planetary systems form? Comparative planetology has helped us understand Compare the differences and similarities

More information

Name Class Date. true

Name Class Date. true Exercises 131 The Falling Apple (page 233) 1 Describe the legend of Newton s discovery that gravity extends throughout the universe According to legend, Newton saw an apple fall from a tree and realized

More information

Solar System Fact Sheet

Solar System Fact Sheet Solar System Fact Sheet (Source: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov; http://solarviews.com) The Solar System Categories Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Rocky or Gas Rocky Rocky Rocky Rocky

More information

Lab 6: Kepler's Laws. Introduction. Section 1: First Law

Lab 6: Kepler's Laws. Introduction. Section 1: First Law Lab 6: Kepler's Laws Purpose: to learn that orbit shapes are ellipses, gravity and orbital velocity are related, and force of gravity and orbital period are related. Materials: 2 thumbtacks, 1 pencil,

More information

Periods of Western Astronomy. Chapter 1. Prehistoric Astronomy. Prehistoric Astronomy. The Celestial Sphere. Stonehenge. History of Astronomy

Periods of Western Astronomy. Chapter 1. Prehistoric Astronomy. Prehistoric Astronomy. The Celestial Sphere. Stonehenge. History of Astronomy Periods of Western Astronomy Chapter 1 History of Astronomy Western astronomy divides into 4 periods Prehistoric (before 500 B.C.) Cyclical motions of Sun, Moon and stars observed Keeping time and determining

More information

How did the Solar System form?

How did the Solar System form? How did the Solar System form? Is our solar system unique? Are there other Earth-like planets, or are we a fluke? Under what conditions can Earth-like planets form? Is life common or rare? Ways to Find

More information

Lecture 19: Planet Formation I. Clues from the Solar System

Lecture 19: Planet Formation I. Clues from the Solar System Lecture 19: Planet Formation I. Clues from the Solar System 1 Outline The Solar System:! Terrestrial planets! Jovian planets! Asteroid belt, Kuiper belt, Oort cloud Condensation and growth of solid bodies

More information

Perspective and Scale Size in Our Solar System

Perspective and Scale Size in Our Solar System Perspective and Scale Size in Our Solar System Notes Clue Session in Mary Gates RM 242 Mon 6:30 8:00 Read Lang Chpt. 1 Moodle Assignment due Thursdays at 6pm (first one due 1/17) Written Assignments due

More information

TO GO TO ANY OF THE PAGES LISTED BELOW, CLICK ON ITS TITLE

TO GO TO ANY OF THE PAGES LISTED BELOW, CLICK ON ITS TITLE TO GO TO ANY OF THE PAGES LISTED BELOW, CLICK ON ITS TITLE CHAPTER 17 The Solar System 1 17-1 What is the solar system? 2 17-2 What do we know about orbits? 3 Comparing Planetary Revolutions Enrichment

More information

Douglas Adams The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy

Douglas Adams The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy There is a theory which states that if ever anybody discovers exactly what the Universe is for and why it is here, it will instantly disappear and be replaced by something even more bizarre and inexplicable.

More information

Voyage: A Journey through our Solar System. Grades 5-8. Lesson 1: Our Solar System

Voyage: A Journey through our Solar System. Grades 5-8. Lesson 1: Our Solar System Voyage: A Journey through our Solar System Grades 5-8 Lesson 1: Our Solar System On October 17, 2001, a one to ten billion scale model of the Solar System was permanently installed on the National Mall

More information

A Modern View of the Universe

A Modern View of the Universe M01_BENN7048_01_SE_C01.qxd 6/2/09 8:51 AM 1 Page 1 A Modern View of the Universe Learning Goals 1.1 Our Place in the Universe What is our place in the universe? How big is the universe? 1.2 A Brief History

More information

4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 1020L

4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 1020L 4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 1020L HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED A CLOSE LOOK AT THE PLANETS ORBITING OUR SUN By Cynthia Stokes Brown, adapted by Newsela Planets are born from the clouds of gas and dust

More information

Our Solar System Scavenger Hunt Activity

Our Solar System Scavenger Hunt Activity Name: Our Activity Materials: Question worksheet (pages 2-3) 16 Cards (pages 4-8) Tape and Scissors Preparation: Print the fact cards on card stock or brightly-colored paper and cut them out. Make copies

More information

7 Scale Model of the Solar System

7 Scale Model of the Solar System Name: Date: 7 Scale Model of the Solar System 7.1 Introduction The Solar System is large, at least when compared to distances we are familiar with on a day-to-day basis. Consider that for those of you

More information

A. 81 2 = 6561 times greater. B. 81 times greater. C. equally strong. D. 1/81 as great. E. (1/81) 2 = 1/6561 as great.

A. 81 2 = 6561 times greater. B. 81 times greater. C. equally strong. D. 1/81 as great. E. (1/81) 2 = 1/6561 as great. Q12.1 The mass of the Moon is 1/81 of the mass of the Earth. Compared to the gravitational force that the Earth exerts on the Moon, the gravitational force that the Moon exerts on the Earth is A. 81 2

More information

The Gravitational Field

The Gravitational Field The Gravitational Field The use of multimedia in teaching physics Texts to multimedia presentation Jan Hrnčíř jan.hrncir@gfxs.cz Martin Klejch martin.klejch@gfxs.cz F. X. Šalda Grammar School, Liberec

More information

Welcome to Class 4: Our Solar System (and a bit of cosmology at the start) Remember: sit only in the first 10 rows of the room

Welcome to Class 4: Our Solar System (and a bit of cosmology at the start) Remember: sit only in the first 10 rows of the room Welcome to Class 4: Our Solar System (and a bit of cosmology at the start) Remember: sit only in the first 10 rows of the room What is the difference between dark ENERGY and dark MATTER? Is Earth unique,

More information

STUDY GUIDE: Earth Sun Moon

STUDY GUIDE: Earth Sun Moon The Universe is thought to consist of trillions of galaxies. Our galaxy, the Milky Way, has billions of stars. One of those stars is our Sun. Our solar system consists of the Sun at the center, and all

More information

Lecture 10 Formation of the Solar System January 6c, 2014

Lecture 10 Formation of the Solar System January 6c, 2014 1 Lecture 10 Formation of the Solar System January 6c, 2014 2 Orbits of the Planets 3 Clues for the Formation of the SS All planets orbit in roughly the same plane about the Sun. All planets orbit in the

More information

Out of This World Classroom Activity

Out of This World Classroom Activity Out of This World Classroom Activity The Classroom Activity introduces students to the context of a performance task, so they are not disadvantaged in demonstrating the skills the task intends to assess.

More information

Class 2 Solar System Characteristics Formation Exosolar Planets

Class 2 Solar System Characteristics Formation Exosolar Planets Class 1 Introduction, Background History of Modern Astronomy The Night Sky, Eclipses and the Seasons Kepler's Laws Newtonian Gravity General Relativity Matter and Light Telescopes Class 2 Solar System

More information