Chapter 1. The Renaissance and Reformation

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1 Chapter 1 The Renaissance and Reformation

2 The Renaissance The Renaissance was a period of history that sought to join the middle ages to the modern times. This age grew into one of the most culturally important ages in Western history. Means Rebirth

3 Terms, People and Places Humanism Humanities Petrach Florence Patron Perspective Leonardo Michelangelo Raphael Baldassar Castiglione Niccolo Machiavelli

4 A New World View Evolves This new period and mode of thinking introduced a time period in which thinkers, artist and writers compiled some of the famous and infamous pieces of cultural expression.

5 Expressing Humanism The thinkers of the renaissance focused on the secular- or worldly understandings of life. Although they studied the classics (Latin and and Greek), they abandoned the religious direction of the Middle Ages to focus on emphasize on individualisman emphasis on dignity and worth of the individual person.

6 Education and Literature Sonnets- (short poems) Humanism inspired this new form of writing that focused on feelings. Petrarch- Wrote of his love for a dead women Boccacio- Decameron- told stories of young people in love to divert their attentions. These stories told of individual ambitions and understandings that emphasized the importance of human emotion. Also criticized and publicized politics and royal Scandal (Machievelli) The Prince.

7 Scholarship Humanist also began to challenge all of the preconceived notions of truth, consequently challenging everything. Inductive Thinking Religion, politics, family structure, society. Emphasized humanities Renaissance Man to master almost every area of study (Primary source page 473) DaVinci sculpture, politics, inventor What Founding Father was a Renaissance Man?

8 Early Renaissance Humanists Petrarch Earliest Humanist Father of Italian Humanism Studied classical Latin Wrote sonnets 14 line poems in Italian and Latin Wrote about love and human emotions in letters to friends Dante writes Divine Comedy Soul s journey to salvation Travels through Hell, Purgatory and Heaven Erasmus - writes Praise of Folly Makes fun of greedy merchants and pompous priests Promotes Christianity of the heart, not ceremony Personal study of the Bible

9 Checkpoint What were the main characteristics of the Renaissance?

10 Italy Cradle of the Renaissance Because Italy had not fallen victim to Feudalism and had not created itself into large nation like France and England. Italy remained in control of city-states much like early Rome. These City states were operated by the wealthy families that controlled all of the politics. Social order- Landed nobility, middle class, peasants

11 Why? Contacts with the Byzantine Empire and Muslims in the Holy Land from the Crusades Overseas trade led to growth of cities in Italy Wealthy merchants and officials wanted to display their wealth Italy had more access to Roman ruins Italy had more access to ancient manuscripts from Constantinople than the rest of Europe (through foreign scholars) Italy led the West by the 14 th century in banking and trade Italy was more urbanized than the rest of Europe

12 Government Italian City States ruled by families Milan, Venice, Florence (de Medici Family) Prospered because of trade Strong centralized states

13 Checkpoint Why was Italy favorable setting for the Renaissance?

14 Renaissance Art Flowers Rome, Venice, Florence became the birthplace of these artist. Humanist inspired Italian artists to express their own values, emotions, and attitudes. Much of the art was devoted to religious subjects. Emphasized human expression an anatomy

15 Architecture, Sculpture, Painting Brunelleschi- known for the dome he designed and completed in 1436 for the Cathedral of Florence. Sculptures- Michelangelo, Donatello and Ghiberti, Buonarroti- sculpted nude sculptures primarily with much detail. Painting- Gioto, Davinci- Mona Lisa, Last Supper

16 Architecture - Renaissance

17 Leonardo da Vinci Mona Lisa Self Portrait Last Supper

18 Michaelangelo

19

20 Raphael

21 Checkpoint How were Renaissance ideas reflected in the arts?

22 Artifact 1: Write three Renaissance Tweets Write three historical tweets from a person of the Renaissance. Make your tweets interesting, insightful, funny. You may want to use Michelangelo, Raphael and davinci. You may also use Reformation thinkers.

23 Writing for a New Society Baldassare Castiglione Book of Courtier Describes manners and etiquette and the ideal courtier

24 Machiavelli The Prince political power How to acquire and keep political power Political activity should not be restricted by moral principles (page 476) Justifies tyranny and absolute power The end justifies the means!

25 Checkpoint How did Renaissance writing effect realism?

26 Johann Gutenberg Invents press using movable type Bible is first book printed in this way Makes books inexpensive enough for people to purchase 1455 in Mainz, Germany Information revolution Rise in literacy Published accounts of new ideas and developments

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