Study Guide: Solar System

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1 Study Guide: Solar System 1. How many planets are there in the solar system? 2. What is the correct order of all the planets in the solar system? 3. Where can a comet be located in the solar system? 4. What is located between Mars and Jupiter? 5. What separates the inner planets from the outer planets? 6. What is the geocentric model? 7. What is the heliocentric model? 8. What model do we believe in now?

2 9. Mass and the force of gravity have a direct relationship. What does this mean? 10. Distance and the force of gravity have an indirect relationship. What does this mean? 11. The attraction between 2 objects in known as. 12. When an object wants to continue in the motion its already traveling in is called. 13. Draw a model of gravity and inertia working together to create an orbit path.

3 14. Explain what would happen to the orbit path of earth if the sun did not exist. Why would this happen? 15. Explain the difference between meteor, meteoroid and meteorite 16. What is one theory that geologist believed that caused the extinction of the dinosaurs. 17. What is an asteroid made out of? 18. What is a comet made out of? 19. Draw an orbit path of a comet, planet and an asteroid.

4 20. What did the following scientist accomplish for the Solar System? a. Ptolemy b. Copernicus c. Kepler d. Galileo e. Newton 21) The universe is organized into groups of millions or billions of stars called what? 22) The Milky Way is what type of galaxy? 23) The life cycle of a star begins with a cloud of gas and dust called 24) A star is born when. 25) Explain the difference between meteor, meteoroid and meteorite.

5 26) The distance between stars is typically measured in what? 27) The life time of a star depends on its. 28) The HR diagram is use to classify stars based on these 5 characteristics. 29) What is the hottest color on the HR diagram? The coolest? 30) As one goes up the y axis on the HR diagram the brightness. 31) List the steps in order of both a high mass and low mass star. 32) How are galaxies classified? 33) What are the four types of galaxies? 34) What tool is used to classify galaxies? 35) What type of galaxies has the youngest stars in them? Oldest stars?

6 ANSWERS Study Guide: Solar System 1. How many planets are there in the solar system? 8: Pluto is a dwarf planet 2. What is the correct order of all the planets in the solar system? Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune 3. Where can a comet be located in the solar system? Anywhere Most Common: Outermost region of Solar System: Oort Cloud and Kuiper Belt Inner planets if orbit path is right 4. What is located between Mars and Jupiter? Asteroid Belt 5. What separates the inner planets from the outer planets? Asteroid Belt 6. What is the geocentric model? When the Earth was believed to be the center of the Solar System with perfect circle orbits from 140 AD to about 1500 (NOT CORRECT) 7. What is the heliocentric model? When the Sun is the center of the Solar System but they believed the orbit was in perfect circles (ORBITS NOT CORRECT) 8. What model do we believe in now?

7 The sun is the center of the Solar System but gravity and inertia work together to create ELLIPTICAL orbit paths. 9. Mass and the force of gravity have a direct relationship. What does this mean? If mass increases so does the force of gravity If mass decreases so does the force of gravity 10. Distance and the force of gravity have an indirect relationship. What does this mean? If distance decrease force of gravity increases If distance increases force of gravity decreases 11. The attraction between 2 objects in known as. gravity 12. When an object wants to continue in the motion its already traveling in is called. inertia 13. Draw a model of gravity and inertia working together to create an orbit path. A A= Inertia B= Gravity Sun B C= Elliptical Orbit Planet C 14. Explain what would happen to the orbit path of earth if the sun did not exist. Why would this happen.

8 Earth would continue in the path of inertia because the gravitational force of the sun would no longer be there. Inertia wants an object to continue in the path it is already taking, a straight line. So Earth would continue in a straight line until it came upon another object that had a greater mass than itself (= greater force) and then it would orbit that object. 15. Explain the difference between meteor, meteoroid and meteorite. Meteoroids: Is a chunk of rock and dust that is located out in deep space. Meteors: A streak of light caused by the burning up of a meteoroid in the atmosphere. Meteorites: A meteoroid that has passed through the atmosphere and hit Earth s surface (Right in the Earth s Surface) 16. What is one theory that geologist believed that caused the extinction of the dinosaurs. That an asteroid hit the Earth s surface and between the impact and the aftermath the dinosaurs became extinct. 17. What is an asteroid made out of? Rock and Metals (Iron) 18. What is a comet made out of? Dust, Ice and Gas 19. Draw an orbit path of a comet, planet and an asteroid? Comet: Asteroid: Planet: 20. What did the following scientist accomplish for the Solar System?

9 a. Ptolemy: Proposed that the Earth was the center (geocentric model) of the solar systems orbiting in perfect circles b. Copernicus: Proposed that the Sun was the center (heliocentric model) of the solar systems orbiting in perfect circles c. Kepler: Supported the heliocentric model but discovered that the orbits of the planets were not circular but elliptical. d. Galileo: Worked with the refracting telescopes to discovery more about the solar system like Jupiter and its moons. e. Newton: His laws of motion and gravity explained how the inertia of a planet and gravity of the sun work together to create the elliptical orbit path of the planets. 21. The universe is organized into groups of millions or billions of stars called what? Galaxies 22. The Milky Way is what type of galaxy? Spiral Galaxy 23. The life cycle of a star begins with a cloud of gas and dust called a Nebula

10 24. A star is born when. a. A protostar reaches 15,000,000⁰C and nuclear fusion starts 25. Explain the difference between meteor, meteoroid and meteorite. (SAME AS #15 SORRY) Meteoroids: Is a chunk of rock and dust that is located out in deep space. Meteors: A streak of light caused by the burning up of a meteoroid in the atmosphere. Meteorites: A meteoroid that has passed through the atmosphere and hit Earth s surface (Right in the Earth s Surface) REMEMBER THE TRICK OIDS Out in deep space EOR Earth s outer rim (atmosphere) RITES Right in the Earth s Surface 26. The distance between stars is typically measured in what? Light years 27. The life time of a star depends on its. Mass of the star 28. The HR diagram is use to classify stars based on these 5 characteristics. a. color/temperature b. Brightness/Luminosity c. Age: Life Cycle of a Star (white dwarf, main sequence, giants and super giants)

11 d. Size/Mass e. Composition 29. What is the hottest color on the HR diagram? The coolest? Hottest Color is dark blue and the coolest is red. The temperature goes from hot to cool Hot Cool 30. As one goes up the y axis on the HR diagram the brightness. Increases

12 31. List the steps in order of both a high mass and low mass star. LOW MASS STAR: Nebula Protostar Main Sequence Star Red Giant Planetary Nebula White Dwarf Black Dwarf HIGH MASS STAR: Nebula Protostar Main Sequence Star Red Super Giant Supernova Neutron Star Black hole 32. How are galaxies classified? By their Shape 33. What are the four types of galaxies?

13 Irregular Spiral Barred Spiral

14 Elliptical 34. What tool is used to classify galaxies? The Hubble Tuning Fork Diagram (The Edwin Hubble s Classification Scheme) 35. What type of galaxies has the youngest stars in them? Oldest stars? Elliptical Oldest Irregular Youngest

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