Nuclear Chemistry. Chapter 19. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Nuclear Chemistry. Chapter 19. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display."

Transcription

1 Nuclear Chemistry Chapter 19 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1

2 Chemical Processes vs. Nuclear Processes Chemical reactions involve changes in the electronic structure of the atom atoms gain, lose, or share electrons no change in the nuclei occurs Nuclear reactions involve changes in the structure of the nucleus when the number of protons in the nucleus changes, the atom becomes a different element 2 Tro: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 2

3 Review Atomic number (Z) = number of protons in nucleus Mass number (A) = number of protons + number of neutrons = atomic number (Z) + number of neutrons Mass Number Atomic Number A Z X Element Symbol proton or 1 1 H 1 p 1 neutron 1 n 0 electron 0 e -1 or 0 b -1 positron or 0 +1 b 0 e +1 a particle 4 He 2 or 4 a 2 A Z

4 Important Atomic Symbols Tro: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 4 4

5 Balancing Nuclear Equations 1. Conserve mass number (A). The sum of protons plus neutrons in the products must equal the sum of protons plus neutrons in the reactants. 235 U 1 0 n 92 + Cs Rb = x1 2. Conserve atomic number (Z) or nuclear charge. The sum of nuclear charges in the products must equal the sum of nuclear charges in the reactants. 1 n U 1 0 n 92 + Cs Rb = x0 1 n 0 5

6 212 Po decays by alpha emission. Write the balanced nuclear equation for the decay of 212 Po. alpha particle - 4 He 2 or 4 a Po 4 He + A X 84 2 Z 212 = 4 + A A = = 2 + Z Z = Po 4 He Pb

7 7

8 Beta decay Nuclear Stability and Radioactive Decay 14 C 14 N + 0 b K 40 Ca + 0 b Decrease # of neutrons by 1 Increase # of protons by 1 1 n 1 p + 0 b Positron decay 11 C 11 B + 0 b K 38 Ar + 0 b Increase # of neutrons by 1 Decrease # of protons by 1 1 p 1 n + 0 b

9 Nuclear Stability and Radioactive Decay Electron capture decay 37 Ar + 0 e 37 Cl Fe + 0 e 55 Mn Increase number of neutrons by 1 Decrease number of protons by 1 Alpha decay 1 p + 0 e 1 n Po 4 He Pb Decrease number of neutrons by 2 Decrease number of protons by 2 Spontaneous fission 252 Cf In n

10 Particle Changes Tro: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 10 10

11 Chapter 23: The Nucleus: A Chemist s View 1. Balance the following nuclear reactions: Po 207 Pb Ni (d, 2n) Al + α 30 P Os + β U + n 135 Xe n As (α, ) 78 Br Na + +1 β 11

12 n/p too large beta decay X Y n/p too small positron decay or electron capture 12

13 Nuclear Stability Certain numbers of neutrons and protons are extra stable n or p = 2, 8, 20, 50, 82 and 126 Like extra stable numbers of electrons in noble gases (e - = 2, 10, 18, 36, 54 and 86) Nuclei with even numbers of both protons and neutrons are more stable than those with odd numbers of neutron and protons All isotopes of the elements with atomic numbers higher than 83 are radioactive All isotopes of Tc and Pm are radioactive 13

14 14

15 Nuclear binding energy is the energy required to break up a nucleus into its component protons and neutrons. Nuclear binding energy + 19 F DE = (Dm)c p n Dm = 9 x (p mass) + 10 x (n mass) 19 F mass Dm= 9 x x Dm = amu DE = amu x (3.00 x 10 8 m/s) 2 = x amu m 2 /s 2 Using conversion factors: 1 kg = x amu 1 J = kg m 2 /s 2 DE = 2.37 x J 15

16 DE = (2.37 x J) x (6.022 x /mol) DE = x J/mol DE = x kj/mol Nuclear binding energy = 1.43 x kj/mol binding energy per nucleon = binding energy number of nucleons = 2.37 x J 19 nucleons = 1.25 x J/nucleon 16

17 Nuclear binding energy per nucleon vs mass number nuclear binding energy nucleon nuclear stability 17

18 Kinetics of Radioactive Decay N daughter rate = kn N t ln N0 = -kt N = the number of atoms at time t N 0 = the number of atoms at time t = 0 k is the decay rate constant t ½ = k 18

19 Half-Lives of Various Nuclides Nuclide Half-Life Type of Decay Th x yr alpha U x 10 9 yr alpha C yr beta Rn sec alpha Th x 10 6 sec alpha Tro: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 19 19

20 2. The half-life of Co-60 is 5.30 years. How many grams of a g sample of Co-60 is left after 16.7 years? 3. Given the following atomic mass units: n = and p = Calculate a) The mass defect per C-12 atom b) The binding energy per C-12 atom c) The binding energy per nucleon for C-12 atom d) The amount of energy released per mole of C How much energy is lost or gained when one mole of Polonium- 211 decays by alpha emission? The atomic masses are: Po-211: Pb-207: a:

21 21

22 Radiocarbon Dating 14 N + 1 n 14 C + 1 H C 14 N + 0 b + n t ½ = 5730 years Uranium-238 Dating 238 U Pb a b t ½ = 4.51 x 10 9 years 22

23 Nuclear Transmutation 14 N + 4 a 17 O + 1 p Al + 4 a 30 P + 1 n N + 1 p 11 C + 4 a

24 Nuclear Transmutation 24

25 Nuclear Fission 235 U + 1 n 90 Sr Xe n + Energy Energy = [mass 235 U + mass n (mass 90 Sr + mass 143 Xe + 3 x mass n )] x c 2 Energy = 3.3 x J per 235 U = 2.0 x J per mole 235 U Combustion of 1 ton of coal = 5 x 10 7 J 25

26 Nuclear Fission Representative fission reaction 235 U + 1 n 90 Sr Xe n + Energy

27 Nuclear Fission Nuclear chain reaction is a self-sustaining sequence of nuclear fission reactions. The minimum mass of fissionable material required to generate a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction is the critical mass. 27

28 28

29 Schematic Diagram of a Nuclear Reactor refueling U 3 O 8 29

30 Chemistry In Action: Nature s Own Fission Reactor Natural Uranium % U % U-238 Measured at Oklo % U

31 Nuclear Fusion Fusion Reaction 2 H + 2 H 3 H + 1 H H + 3 H 4 He + 1 n Li + 2 H 2 4 He Energy Released 6.3 x J 2.8 x J 3.6 x J solar fusion Tokamak magnetic plasma confinement 31

32 Thyroid images with 125 I-labeled compound normal enlarged 32

33 Radioisotopes in Medicine Research production of 99 Mo 98 Mo + 1 n 99 Mo Commercial production of 99 Mo 235 U + 1 n 99 Mo + other fission products Bone Scan with 99m Tc 99 Mo 99m Tc + 0 b t ½ = 66 hours 99m 43 Tc Tc + g-ray t ½ = 6 hours 33

34 Geiger-Müller Counter 34

35 Biological Effects of Radiation Radiation absorbed dose (rad) 1 rad = 1 x 10-5 J/g of material Roentgen equivalent for man (rem) 1 rem = 1 rad x Q Quality Factor g-ray = 1 b = 1 a = 20 35

36 Chemistry In Action: Food Irradiation 36

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Nuclear Chemistry Chapter 9 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Atomic number (Z) = number of protons in nucleus Mass number (A) = number of protons

More information

Nuclear Terminology. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Reactions. Types of Radioactivity 9/1/12

Nuclear Terminology. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Reactions. Types of Radioactivity 9/1/12 Nuclear Chemistry Up to now, we have been concerned mainly with the electrons in the elements the nucleus has just been a positively charged thing that attracts electrons The nucleus may also undergo changes

More information

Chapter 20: Nuclear Chemistry

Chapter 20: Nuclear Chemistry Chapter 2: Nuclear Chemistry Nuclear Reactions vs. Chemical Reactions There are some very distinct differences between a nuclear reaction and a chemical reaction. in a chemical reaction bonds break, atoms

More information

radioactivity: a spontaneous (naturally-occurring) emission of particles or radiation from the nuclei of atoms

radioactivity: a spontaneous (naturally-occurring) emission of particles or radiation from the nuclei of atoms CHAPTER 20: Atomic Structure Nuclear Chemistry radioactivity: a spontaneous (naturally-occurring) emission of particles or radiation from the nuclei of atoms Historical Background Roentgen (1895) discovery

More information

Radioactivity Review

Radioactivity Review Science Section 7- Name: Block: Radioactivity Review. Complete the following table: Isotope Mass Number Atomic Number (number of protons) Number of Neutrons nitrogen-5 5 7 8 sulfur-3 3 6 neon- magnesium-5

More information

Chapter 4 Radioactivity and Medicine. A CT scan (computed tomography) of the brain using X-ray beams

Chapter 4 Radioactivity and Medicine. A CT scan (computed tomography) of the brain using X-ray beams Chapter 4 Radioactivity and Medicine A CT scan (computed tomography) of the brain using X-ray beams A radioactive isotope has an unstable nucleus; it emits radiation to become more stable and can be one

More information

A) B) C) D) Which particle is represented by the letter X?

A) B) C) D) Which particle is represented by the letter X? 1. Which nuclear emission has the greatest mass and the least penetrating power? an alpha particle a beta particle a neutron a positron 2. Which equation represents alpha decay? 3. An unstable nucleus

More information

Learning Objectives. Success Criteria. Chemistry Matter and Change pp Chemistry the Central Science p

Learning Objectives. Success Criteria. Chemistry Matter and Change pp Chemistry the Central Science p Nuclear Chemistry Why? Nuclear chemistry is the subdiscipline of chemistry that is concerned with changes in the nucleus of elements. These changes are the source of radioactivity and nuclear power. Since

More information

Nuclear Chemistry Chapter 28 Assignment & Problem Set

Nuclear Chemistry Chapter 28 Assignment & Problem Set Nuclear Chemistry Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. Nuclear Chemistry 2 Study Guide: Things You Must Know Vocabulary (know the definition

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Chemistry 1C-Dr. Larson Chapter 21 Review Questions MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) By what process does thorium-230 decay to radium-226?

More information

Chemistry: Nuclear Reactions Guided Inquiry

Chemistry: Nuclear Reactions Guided Inquiry Chemistry: Nuclear Reactions Guided Inquiry Nuclear reactions change the nucleus of an atom. Chemical Reactions vs. Nuclear Reactions Atoms and molecules are striving to achieve the most stable arrangement.

More information

Radioactivity and Balancing Nuclear Reactions: Balancing Nuclear Reactions and Understanding which Particles are Involves

Radioactivity and Balancing Nuclear Reactions: Balancing Nuclear Reactions and Understanding which Particles are Involves 1 General Chemistry II Jasperse Nuclear Chemistry. Extra Practice Problems Radioactivity and Balancing Nuclear Reactions: Balancing Nuclear Reactions and Understanding which Particles are Involved The

More information

Chapter 21 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Chapter 21 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Chapter 21 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) In balancing the nuclear reaction 293 92 U 234 90 E + 4 He, the identity of element

More information

CHEM J-4 June 2014

CHEM J-4 June 2014 CHEM1101 014-J-4 June 014 Technetium-99m is an important radionuclide for medical imaging. It is produced from molybdenum-99. Fill in the box below to give a balanced nuclear equation for the production

More information

102 Sample Test 8 SAMPLE TEST FOR CHAPTER 20.

102 Sample Test 8 SAMPLE TEST FOR CHAPTER 20. 102 Sample Test 8 SAMPLE TEST FOR CHAPTER 20. 1. Radioactivity is a. emission of visible light after exposure to light. b. spontaneous emission of penetrating radiation that is not stimulated by light.

More information

Answer Key, Problem Set 10

Answer Key, Problem Set 10 Chemistry 22 Mines, Spring 206 Answer Key, Problem Set 0. NT. Write an equation describing the radioactive decay of each of the following nuclides. (The particle produced is shown in parentheses, except

More information

REVIEW NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY 3/31/16 NAME: PD 3

REVIEW NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY 3/31/16 NAME: PD 3 3/31/16 NAME: PD 3 1. Given the equation representing a nuclear reaction in which X represents a nuclide: Which nuclide is represented by X? 2. Which nuclear emission has the greatest mass and the least

More information

Chemistry 1000 Lecture 2: Nuclear reactions and radiation. Marc R. Roussel

Chemistry 1000 Lecture 2: Nuclear reactions and radiation. Marc R. Roussel Chemistry 1000 Lecture 2: Nuclear reactions and radiation Marc R. Roussel Nuclear reactions Ordinary chemical reactions do not involve the nuclei, so we can balance these reactions by making sure that

More information

Objectives 404 CHAPTER 9 RADIATION

Objectives 404 CHAPTER 9 RADIATION Objectives Explain the difference between isotopes of the same element. Describe the force that holds nucleons together. Explain the relationship between mass and energy according to Einstein s theory

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which one of the following statements about the atomic nucleus is accurate? A) The nucleus

More information

Nuclear Reactions- chap.31. Fission vs. fusion mass defect..e=mc 2 Binding energy..e=mc 2 Alpha, beta, gamma oh my!

Nuclear Reactions- chap.31. Fission vs. fusion mass defect..e=mc 2 Binding energy..e=mc 2 Alpha, beta, gamma oh my! Nuclear Reactions- chap.31 Fission vs. fusion mass defect..e=mc 2 Binding energy..e=mc 2 Alpha, beta, gamma oh my! Definitions A nucleon is a general term to denote a nuclear particle - that is, either

More information

Chapter 4 & 25 Notes Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Page 1

Chapter 4 & 25 Notes Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Page 1 Chapter 4 & 25 Notes Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Page 1 DEFINING THE ATOM Early Models of the Atom In this chapter, we will look into the tiny fundamental particles that make up matter. An atom

More information

Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist s View

Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist s View Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist s View Big Idea: Changes in the nucleus of an atom can result in the ejection of particles, the transformation of the atom into another element, and the release of energy.

More information

Regents Review Nuclear Worksheet Mr. Beauchamp

Regents Review Nuclear Worksheet Mr. Beauchamp Regents Review Mr. Beauchamp. Given the nuclear equation: H + X 6 3 Li + 4 He The particle repr esented by X is 9 4 Li 9 4 Be 0 5 Be 0 6 C. Which isotope will spontaneously decay and emit particles with

More information

Keep in mind that less stable means more radioactive and more stable means less radioactive.

Keep in mind that less stable means more radioactive and more stable means less radioactive. Nuclear Stability What is the nuclear stability? Nuclear stability means that nucleus is stable meaning that it does not spontaneously emit any kind of radioactivity (radiation). On the other hand, if

More information

Nuclear Reactions Fission And Fusion

Nuclear Reactions Fission And Fusion Nuclear Reactions Fission And Fusion Describe and give an example of artificial (induced) transmutation Construct and complete nuclear reaction equations Artificial transmutation is the changing or manipulation

More information

Note: Due to the characteristics of my word processor, and for time efficiency, I have written isotopes in the form of A XZ

Note: Due to the characteristics of my word processor, and for time efficiency, I have written isotopes in the form of A XZ PHY 1160C Homewk Chapter 30: Nuclear Physics Ch 30: 1, 2, 13, 20, 22, 25, 40, 46, 49 Note: Due to the characteristics of my wd process, and f time efficiency, I have written isotopes in the fm of A XZ

More information

Nuclear Decay. Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist s View. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay

Nuclear Decay. Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist s View. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay Big Idea: Changes in the nucleus of an atom can result in the ejection of particles, the transformation of the atom into another element, and the release of energy. 1 Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist

More information

1. In the general symbol cleus, which of the three letters. 2. What is the mass number of an alpha particle?

1. In the general symbol cleus, which of the three letters. 2. What is the mass number of an alpha particle? 1. In the general symbol cleus, which of the three letters Z A X for a nu represents the atomic number? 2. What is the mass number of an alpha particle? 3. What is the mass number of a beta particle? 4.

More information

Chapter 28. Radioactivity. Types of Radiation. Beta Radiation. Alpha Radiation. Section 28.1 Nuclear Radiation. Objectives: Nuclear Radiation

Chapter 28. Radioactivity. Types of Radiation. Beta Radiation. Alpha Radiation. Section 28.1 Nuclear Radiation. Objectives: Nuclear Radiation Section 28.1 Nuclear Radiation Chapter 28 Nuclear Radiation Objectives: Discuss the processes of radioactivity and radioactive decay Characterize alpha, beta, and gamma radiation in terms of composition

More information

Exam Review: Topic 07 Nuclear Physics Practice Test: 33 marks (43 minutes) Additional Problem: 31 marks (46 minutes)

Exam Review: Topic 07 Nuclear Physics Practice Test: 33 marks (43 minutes) Additional Problem: 31 marks (46 minutes) Practice Test: 33 marks (43 minutes) Additional Problem: 3 marks (46 minutes). Which of the following causes the greatest number of ionizations as it passes through cm of air? (The total energy of the

More information

Nuclear Physics. Nuclear Physics comprises the study of:

Nuclear Physics. Nuclear Physics comprises the study of: Nuclear Physics Nuclear Physics comprises the study of: The general properties of nuclei The particles contained in the nucleus The interaction between these particles Radioactivity and nuclear reactions

More information

2. All of the atoms of argon have the same. 1. The atomic number of an atom is always equal to the total number of. A. mass number B.

2. All of the atoms of argon have the same. 1. The atomic number of an atom is always equal to the total number of. A. mass number B. 1. The atomic number of an atom is always equal to the total number of A. neutrons in the nucleus B. protons in the nucleus 2. All of the atoms of argon have the same A. mass number B. atomic number C.

More information

Nuclear Physics. Remember: Particles have a wave nature. Only certain wavelengths meet the boundary conditions, so only certain energies are allowed.

Nuclear Physics. Remember: Particles have a wave nature. Only certain wavelengths meet the boundary conditions, so only certain energies are allowed. Nuclear Physics The forces holding together the nucleus are large. And so are the energies involved. Radioactivity is a natural process. Certain nuclei fall apart and emit ionizing radiation as they do.

More information

Atomic Origins: Chapter Problems

Atomic Origins: Chapter Problems Atomic Origins: Chapter Problems Big Bang 1. How old is the Universe? 2. Name and describe the three subatomic particles. 3. Nuclear fusion reactions power stars. Name 2 elements that can be formed in

More information

Take notes while watching the following video tutorials to prepare for the Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Activity.

Take notes while watching the following video tutorials to prepare for the Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Activity. Take notes while watching the following video tutorials to prepare for the Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Activity. Atomic Structure Introduction dabe page 1 Atoms & Elements Part 0: Atomic Structure

More information

Basics of Nuclear Physics and Fission

Basics of Nuclear Physics and Fission Basics of Nuclear Physics and Fission A basic background in nuclear physics for those who want to start at the beginning. Some of the terms used in this factsheet can be found in IEER s on-line glossary.

More information

Nuke review. Figure 1

Nuke review. Figure 1 Name: Tuesday, June 10, 2008 Nuke review The radioisotopes carbon-14 and nitrogen-16 are present in a living organism. Carbon-14 is commonly used to date a once-living organism. Figure 1 A sample of wood

More information

Chem 1151 Lab 5 - Nuclear Chemistry

Chem 1151 Lab 5 - Nuclear Chemistry Chem 1151 Lab 5 - Nuclear Chemistry Learning Objectives: 1) Understand the concept of radioactive decay 2) Know the change associated with an alpha, beta or gamma decay of a nucleus 3) Write the product

More information

............... [2] At the time of purchase of a Strontium-90 source, the activity is 3.7 10 6 Bq.

............... [2] At the time of purchase of a Strontium-90 source, the activity is 3.7 10 6 Bq. 1 Strontium-90 decays with the emission of a β-particle to form Yttrium-90. The reaction is represented by the equation 90 38 The decay constant is 0.025 year 1. 90 39 0 1 Sr Y + e + 0.55 MeV. (a) Suggest,

More information

5. In the equation: 1. Which equation represents the radioactive decay of 226. Ra -

5. In the equation: 1. Which equation represents the radioactive decay of 226. Ra - . Which equation represents the radioactive decay of 6 Ra? 6 Ra - 6 Rn + He 6 6 Ra - 9 Ac + 0 e 6 6 Ra - 7 Fr + 0 + e 6 5 Ra - Ra + 0 n. The chart below shows the spontaneous nuclear decay of U-3 to Th-3

More information

CHEMISTRY LESSON PLANS FOR HSTI ATOM MODULE

CHEMISTRY LESSON PLANS FOR HSTI ATOM MODULE CHEMISTRY LESSON PLANS FOR HSTI ATOM MODULE Lesson 1: Introduction to Radioactivity (1) Discuss the discovery of radiation/radioactive emissions and the scientists involved. (2) Identify the three types

More information

Atomic Structure. 1. What is the total number of electrons in the 2p sublevel of a chlorine atom in the ground state? (1) 6; (2) 2; (3) 3; (4) 5.

Atomic Structure. 1. What is the total number of electrons in the 2p sublevel of a chlorine atom in the ground state? (1) 6; (2) 2; (3) 3; (4) 5. Atomic Structure 1. What is the total number of electrons in the 2p sublevel of a chlorine atom in the ground state? (1) 6; (2) 2; (3) 3; (4) 5. 2. Which is the electron configuration of an atom in the

More information

Nuclear Stability. From Hyperphysics:

Nuclear Stability. From Hyperphysics: Radioactive Decay Certain isotopes of elements are unstable and decompose through one of several processes that release particles or high-energy electromagnetic radiation. In this unit we'll cover examples

More information

Development of the Atomic Bomb

Development of the Atomic Bomb Chapter 28 Nuclear Fission Fission, Fusion, Binding Energy, and Half Life How would we write this Nuclear Reaction? Uranium Isotopes Naturally occurring Uranium contains two major isotopes Uranium-238

More information

[Note] In the questions Y-N means that the mass number of nuclide Y is N.

[Note] In the questions Y-N means that the mass number of nuclide Y is N. Problem Set #1: Nuclear Transformations [Note] In the questions Y-N means that the mass number of nuclide Y is N. 1. Among the following physical units, which is not the unit of energy? a) Joule, J b)

More information

1. According to quantum theory, light energy is carried in discrete units called. A) protons B) photons C) photoelectrons D) quarks

1. According to quantum theory, light energy is carried in discrete units called. A) protons B) photons C) photoelectrons D) quarks Name: Photon Energy. ccording to quantum theory, light energy is carried in discrete units called. ) protons ) photons ) photoelectrons ) quarks 2. In which part of the electromagnetic spectrum does a

More information

1. According to the modern model of the atom, the nucleus of an atom is surrounded by one or more

1. According to the modern model of the atom, the nucleus of an atom is surrounded by one or more 1. According to the modern model of the atom, the nucleus of an atom is surrounded by one or more 8. The diagram below represents the nucleus of an atom. A) electrons B) neutrons C) positrons D) protons

More information

1/7/2013. Chapter 2. Atoms and the Periodic Table. Chemistry: Atoms First Julia Burdge & Jason Overby. 2.1 Atoms First

1/7/2013. Chapter 2. Atoms and the Periodic Table. Chemistry: Atoms First Julia Burdge & Jason Overby. 2.1 Atoms First Chemistry: Atoms First Julia Burdge & Jason Overby 2 Atoms and the Periodic Table Chapter 2 Atoms and the Periodic Table Kent L. McCorkle Cosumnes River College Sacramento, CA Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill

More information

Physics 11 (Fall 2012) Chapter 30: Nuclear Physics

Physics 11 (Fall 2012) Chapter 30: Nuclear Physics Physics 11 (Fall 2012) Chapter 30: Nuclear Physics You've got a lot of choices. If getting out of bed in the morning is a chore and you're not smiling on a regular basis, try another choice. Steven D.

More information

2. No, coal-fired power plants also pose risks. A partial list of risks is:

2. No, coal-fired power plants also pose risks. A partial list of risks is: CHAPTER 9 THE UCLEUS: A CHEMIST'S VIEW Questions. Characteristic frequencies of energies emitted in a nuclear reaction suggest that discrete energy levels exist in the nucleus. The extra stability of certain

More information

Exampro GCSE Physics. P2 Radioactivity Self Study Questions Higher tier. Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 80. Marks: 80. Comments: Page 1 of 30

Exampro GCSE Physics. P2 Radioactivity Self Study Questions Higher tier. Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 80. Marks: 80. Comments: Page 1 of 30 Exampro GCSE Physics P2 Radioactivity Self Study Questions Higher tier Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 80 Marks: 80 Comments: Page of 30 Q. A beta particle is a high-energy electron. (i) Which part of

More information

AS91172 version 1 Demonstrate understanding of atomic and nuclear physics Level 2 Credits 3

AS91172 version 1 Demonstrate understanding of atomic and nuclear physics Level 2 Credits 3 AS91172 version 1 Demonstrate understanding of atomic and nuclear physics Level 2 Credits 3 This achievement standard involves demonstrating understanding of atomic and nuclear physics. Assessment typically

More information

Nuclear Energy. Nuclear Energy. Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Energy. Nuclear Energy. Nuclear Energy Nuclear energy - energy from the atomic nucleus. Nuclear fission (i.e. splitting of nuclei) and nuclear fusion (i.e. combining of nuclei) release enormous amounts of energy. Number of protons determines

More information

CHAPTER What type of particle is emitted when a U-235 decays to Np-235? a. alpha particle b. beta particle c. neutron d. helium nuclei.

CHAPTER What type of particle is emitted when a U-235 decays to Np-235? a. alpha particle b. beta particle c. neutron d. helium nuclei. CHAPTER 13 1. What type of particle is emitted when a U-235 decays to Np-235? a. alpha particle b. beta particle c. neutron d. helium nuclei 2. Stable nuclei (that is, nonradioactive nuclei) have mass

More information

GCSE RADIOACTIVITY. Radioactivity. Table 1 Atomic number 38. Mass number 90

GCSE RADIOACTIVITY. Radioactivity. Table 1 Atomic number 38. Mass number 90 Radioactivity Name & set 1 Table 1 gives some information about the radioisotope strontium-90. Table 1 Atomic number 38 Mass number 90 Half-life 28.1 years Strontium-90 emits ß (beta) particles. Table

More information

The Atom. The atom is made of subatomic particles, the proton neutron and electron. A summary of these particles is shown below.

The Atom. The atom is made of subatomic particles, the proton neutron and electron. A summary of these particles is shown below. The Atom Homework from the book: Exercises: 1-23, 25-27, 31-36 Questions: 4-6 Problems 15 In the study guide: All the Multiple choice starting on page 101. The Atom All matter in the universe if made of

More information

Masses in Atomic Units

Masses in Atomic Units Nuclear Composition - the forces binding protons and neutrons in the nucleus are much stronger (binding energy of MeV) than the forces binding electrons to the atom (binding energy of ev) - the constituents

More information

Li Lithium Nuclear Physics. Atom Basics. Atom Basics. Symbol Charge Mass(u) Electron e p Proton. Neutron

Li Lithium Nuclear Physics. Atom Basics. Atom Basics. Symbol Charge Mass(u) Electron e p Proton. Neutron atom the smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element An atom is composed of Nucleons Protons Subatomic Neutrons Particles Electrons Atom Basics The number of protons

More information

Chapter 7: The Fires of Nuclear Fission

Chapter 7: The Fires of Nuclear Fission Chapter 7: The Fires of Nuclear Fission What is nuclear fission? Is using nuclear energy safe for humans and the environment? Is nuclear energy better to use than electric generated energy? What happens

More information

Nuclear Fission and Fusion

Nuclear Fission and Fusion Why? Nuclear Fission and Fusion Fission and fusion are two processes that alter the nucleus of an atom. Nuclear fission provides the energy in nuclear power plants and fusion is the source of the sun s

More information

More general mathematical solution: T half T half. = 0.25 This is the fraction left after 25 years.

More general mathematical solution: T half T half. = 0.25 This is the fraction left after 25 years. Physics 07 Problem 2. O. A. Pringle Tritium has a half-life of 2.5 y against beta decay. What fraction of a sample will remain undecayed after 25 y? Simple solution: time (y) # of half-lives fraction left

More information

Chapter 2: You must understand chemistry to understand life

Chapter 2: You must understand chemistry to understand life Chapter 2: You must understand chemistry to understand life 1. Describe the difference between the terms element and atom. What are chemical symbols, and what is the periodic table? 2. Draw a model of

More information

2 ATOMIC SYSTEMATICS AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE

2 ATOMIC SYSTEMATICS AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE 2 ATOMIC SYSTEMATICS AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE In this chapter the principles and systematics of atomic and nuclear physics are summarised briefly, in order to introduce the existence and characteristics of

More information

CHEM-100-chapter-2 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

CHEM-100-chapter-2 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. CHEM-100-chapter-2 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1.Which metric prefix means 1 10-6? a. milli b. kilo c. pico d. micro e. nano 2.Which metric

More information

Main properties of atoms and nucleus

Main properties of atoms and nucleus Main properties of atoms and nucleus. Atom Structure.... Structure of Nuclei... 3. Definition of Isotopes... 4. Energy Characteristics of Nuclei... 5. Laws of Radioactive Nuclei Transformation... 3. Atom

More information

Unit 4: The Nucleus-key Regents Chemistry Mr. Murdoch. Unit 4: The Nucleus. Student Name: Key. Class Period: Page 1 of 55. Website upload 2014

Unit 4: The Nucleus-key Regents Chemistry Mr. Murdoch. Unit 4: The Nucleus. Student Name: Key. Class Period: Page 1 of 55. Website upload 2014 Unit 4: The Nucleus Student Name: Key Class Period: Page 1 of 55 Page intentionally blank Page 2 of 55 Unit 4 Vocabulary: 1. Artificial transmutation: Changing one element into another by bombarding it

More information

Chapter 16 Nuclear Chemistry

Chapter 16 Nuclear Chemistry Chapter 16 275 Chapter 16 Nuclear Chemistry Review Skills 16.1 The Nucleus and Radioactivity Nuclear Stability Types of Radioactive Emissions Nuclear Reactions and Nuclear Equations Rates of Radioactive

More information

Because the tritium in water is being replenished, we assume that the amount is constant until the wine

Because the tritium in water is being replenished, we assume that the amount is constant until the wine Physics 111 Fall 007 Radioactive Decay Problems Solutions 1 The 3 1 H isotope of hydrogen, which is called tritium (because it contains three nucleons), has a half-life of 133 yr It can be used to measure

More information

LI 1 Revision of Atomic Structure and Nuclide Notations

LI 1 Revision of Atomic Structure and Nuclide Notations Topic 13 National 5 Chemistry Summary Notes Nuclear Chemistry In this topic you will learn about radioactive elements whose atoms are so unstable that they have to release radiation in order to become

More information

Physics 1104 Midterm 2 Review: Solutions

Physics 1104 Midterm 2 Review: Solutions Physics 114 Midterm 2 Review: Solutions These review sheets cover only selected topics from the chemical and nuclear energy chapters and are not meant to be a comprehensive review. Topics covered in these

More information

NOTES ON The Structure of the Atom

NOTES ON The Structure of the Atom NOTES ON The Structure of the Atom Chemistry is the study of matter and its properties. Those properties can be explained by examining the atoms that compose the matter. An atom is the smallest particle

More information

NUCLEAR FISSION DOE-HDBK-1019/1-93 Atomic and Nuclear Physics NUCLEAR FISSION

NUCLEAR FISSION DOE-HDBK-1019/1-93 Atomic and Nuclear Physics NUCLEAR FISSION NUCLEAR FISSION DOE-HDBK-101/1-3 Atomic and Nuclear Physics NUCLEAR FISSION Nuclear fission is a process in which an atom splits and releases energy, fission products, and neutrons. The neutrons released

More information

location in the atom relative mass relative charge

location in the atom relative mass relative charge WAHS Chemistry Unit 4: Atomic Structure 1 Unit Assignment #1 Complete the Important Chemistry Scientists assignment that will be assigned. Be sure to know all of the scientists and their important contribution

More information

Print your name. NAID number

Print your name. NAID number October 18, 2001 Chemistry 117 Exam 1 Print your name. NAID number Important Instructions: This exam consists of multiple parts. For the multiple choice component follow the instructions below. 1) Use

More information

CHM1 Review for Exam 8

CHM1 Review for Exam 8 The following are topics and sample questions for the first exam. Topics 1. Subatomic particles a. Alpha, α 42He 2+ b. Beta, β 0-1e c. Positron, β + 0 +1e 0 d. gamma, γ 0γ 1 e. neutron, n 0n 1 f. proton,

More information

Name KEY Period. CRHS Academic Chemistry Unit 3 Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry NOTES. Key Dates

Name KEY Period. CRHS Academic Chemistry Unit 3 Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry NOTES. Key Dates Name KEY Period CRHS Academic Chemistry Unit 3 Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry NOTES 52 24 Cr Mass Number Symbol Atomic Number Quiz Date Key Dates Exam Date Lab Dates Notes, Homework, Exam Reviews

More information

Atomic Concepts Review

Atomic Concepts Review 1. Which phrase describes an atom? A) a negatively charged nucleus surrounded by positively charged protons B) a negatively charged nucleus surrounded by positively charged electrons C) a positively charged

More information

The Structure of the Atom

The Structure of the Atom The Structure of the Atom Section 4.1 Early Ideas About Matter In your textbook, read about the philosophers, John Dalton, and defining the atom. For each statement below, write true or false. 1. Ancient

More information

Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity

Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity 1. The number of electrons in an atom of atomic number Z and mass number A is 1) A 2) Z 3) A+Z 4) A-Z 2. The repulsive force between the positively charged protons does

More information

Chapter 31: Nuclear Physics & Radioactivity. The Nucleus

Chapter 31: Nuclear Physics & Radioactivity. The Nucleus Chapter 31: Nuclear Physics & Radioactivity Nuclear structure, nuclear size The strong nuclear force, nuclear stability, binding energy Radioactive decay, activity The neutrino Radioactive age measurement

More information

Natural Radioactivity

Natural Radioactivity Natural Radioactivity True or false The food we eat is a natural source of radiation. True or false Radiation dose can be measured in rem, gray or rad. True or false Older homes are more susceptible to

More information

End-of-Chapter Exercises

End-of-Chapter Exercises The equation that describes the exponential decay in the number of nuclei of a particular radioactive isotope as a function of time t is, (Equation 29.12: The exponential decay of radioactive nuclei) where

More information

CHEM 103 Spring 2006 Final Exam 5 June 2006

CHEM 103 Spring 2006 Final Exam 5 June 2006 Name CHEM 103 Spring 2006 Final Exam 5 June 2006 Multiple Choice (5 points each) Write the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question in the blank provided 1. An aqueous

More information

Radioactive Decay. Chapter 14: Nuclear Chemistry. Radioactive Decay. Radioactive Decay

Radioactive Decay. Chapter 14: Nuclear Chemistry. Radioactive Decay. Radioactive Decay Chapter 4: Nuclear Chemistry Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions Kinetics of Radioactive Decay Nuclear Stability Energetics of Nuclear Reactions Interaction of Radiation and Matter Modern Medical Imaging

More information

UCCS Energy Science II ENSC 1510 Spring 2012 Test 3 name:

UCCS Energy Science II ENSC 1510 Spring 2012 Test 3 name: UCCS Energy Science II ENSC 1510 Spring 2012 Test 3 name: 1. The particles that make up neutrons and protons are called: a. electrons b. positrons c. quarks d. strings 2. The antiparticle for the electron

More information

This is Nuclear Chemistry, chapter 20 from the book Principles of General Chemistry (index.html) (v. 1.0).

This is Nuclear Chemistry, chapter 20 from the book Principles of General Chemistry (index.html) (v. 1.0). This is Nuclear Chemistry, chapter 2 from the book Principles of General Chemistry (index.html) (v. 1.). This book is licensed under a Creative Commons by-nc-sa 3. (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/

More information

Matter. Atomic weight, Molecular weight and Mole

Matter. Atomic weight, Molecular weight and Mole Matter Atomic weight, Molecular weight and Mole Atomic Mass Unit Chemists of the nineteenth century realized that, in order to measure the mass of an atomic particle, it was useless to use the standard

More information

Nuclear Transmutations ( Nucleosynthesis )

Nuclear Transmutations ( Nucleosynthesis ) Nuclear Transmutations ( Nucleosynthesis ) Nucleosynthesis reactions in the interior of stars have produced nearly all of the naturally occurring elements on earth. In a nuclear transmutation a nucleus

More information

VO Atomic bombs, nuclear power plants, and the sun are powered as the result of releasing of nuclear energy.

VO Atomic bombs, nuclear power plants, and the sun are powered as the result of releasing of nuclear energy. Physics and Chemistry 1501 Nuclear Science Part I Atomic bombs, nuclear power plants, and the sun are powered as the result of releasing of nuclear energy. (Read objectives on screen.) In this program,

More information

SECTION A. Define the activity of a radioactive sample. ...

SECTION A. Define the activity of a radioactive sample. ... 3 N00/430/H(2) SECTION A Candidates must answer all questions in the spaces provided. A1. Radioactive decay measurement A medical physicist wishes to investigate the decay of a radioactive isotope and

More information

Physics 107 Problem 11.1 O. A. Pringle State the number of neutrons and protons in each of the following: 3. Li 6, 10

Physics 107 Problem 11.1 O. A. Pringle State the number of neutrons and protons in each of the following: 3. Li 6, 10 Physics 07 Problem. O. A. Pringle State the number of neutrons and protons in each of the following: Li 6, 0 Ne 22, 40 Zr 94, 72 Hf 80. Note that I haven't figured out how to makemathcad write both a superscript

More information

The Nucleus of the Atom

The Nucleus of the Atom The Nucleus of the Atom Chapter 12 Great Idea: Nuclear energy depends on the conversion of mass into energy Chapter Outline Empty Space, Explosive Energy The Organization of the Nucleus Radioactivity Energy

More information

The Chart of Nuclides

The Chart of Nuclides Purpose: The term nuclide refers to an atom or nucleus a characterized by the number of protons (Z) and neutrons (N) that the nucleus contains. By listing the known nuclei, both stable and radioactive,

More information

COLLATED QUESTIONS: RADIOACTIVE DECAY

COLLATED QUESTIONS: RADIOACTIVE DECAY COLLATED QUESTIONS: RADIOACTIVE DECAY 2011(1): CARBON DATING C has a half-life of 5 730 years. It decays by beta decay to nitrogen. C dating is accurate to approximately 50 000 years. A sample of dead

More information

Increasing Energy Decreasing Energy Increasing Frequency Decreasing Frequency Decreasing Wavelength Increasing Wavelength

Increasing Energy Decreasing Energy Increasing Frequency Decreasing Frequency Decreasing Wavelength Increasing Wavelength Chapter 7 Radiation and Nuclear Energy radiation - energy given off by a body electromagnetic radiation - energy which is made up of a varying electrical field and a varying magnetic field. The fields

More information

Unit 1 Practice Test. Matching

Unit 1 Practice Test. Matching Unit 1 Practice Test Matching Match each item with the correct statement below. a. proton d. electron b. nucleus e. neutron c. atom 1. the smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of

More information

not to be republished NCERT NUCLEI Chapter Thirteen MCQ I

not to be republished NCERT NUCLEI Chapter Thirteen MCQ I Chapter Thirteen NUCLEI MCQ I 131 Suppose we consider a large number of containers each containing initially 10000 atoms of a radioactive material with a half life of 1 year After 1 year, (a) all the containers

More information

Name: Regents Chemistry Review Packet A

Name: Regents Chemistry Review Packet A Name: Regents Chemistry Review Packet A 1. According to the modern model of the atom, the nucleus of an atom is surrounded by one or more A) electrons B) neutrons A) an alpha particle B) a beta particle

More information

Nuclear Chemistry. Opal reactor ANSTO. Production of materials.

Nuclear Chemistry. Opal reactor ANSTO. Production of materials. Nuclear Chemistry Opal reactor ANSTO Production of materials http://www.cbms.mq.edu.au/~biophysical/ Atoms contain protons and neutrons in a nucleus surrounded by electrons in energy level shells. Isotopes

More information