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1 AP Chem Summer Assignment Worksheet #1 Atomic Structure 1. a) For the ion 39 K +, state how many electrons, how many protons, and how many 19 neutrons are present? b) Which of these particles has the smallest mass? 2. An atom has a net charge of -1.it has 18 electrons and 20 neutrons. Give a) its isotopic symbol b) its atomic number c) the charge on its nucleus d) the number of protons. a) b) c) d) 3. What is the number of electrons in 87 Rb +? Determine the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons in 80 Br - and 79 Se? Complete the following table. Symbol Atomic Mass # of number number protons 90 Sr # of electrons # of neutrons Net charge Na Br

2 6. Complete the following table. Isotopic Symbol 13 C. # of protons # of neutrons Atomic mass# 6 7 Cl Fe H Sn Which of the following statements is wrong for structure of an atom? A) Protons and neutrons are in the center. B) Electrons are moving around the nucleus. C) Electrons are negatively charged particle. D) Neutrons are positively charged particles. E) Mass of one proton is equal to mass of one neutron. 8. Which of the following statements is (are) true for structure of an atom? I. Volume of a nucleus is smaller than volume of its atom. II. The atomic mass number is the sum of proton and neutron numbers. III. The atomic number is the sum of protons and electrons. A) I B) II C) III D) I, II E) I, II, III 9. 1) Proton number 2) Neutron number 3) Chemical properties 4) Physical properties Which of the above is (are) different for isotopes? A) II B) III C) I, IV D) II, III E) II, IV 10. If X +2 has 28 electrons and 35 neutrons, what is the atomic mass number of X? A) 68 B) 67 C) 65 D) 63 E) If atomic mass number of 24 X is 51, what is the number of neutrons of X? A) 27 B) 24 C) 51 D) 75 E) 40

3 12. If X +2 has 28 electrons and 35 neutrons, what is the atomic mass number of X? A) 68 B) 67 C) 65 D) 63 E) If atomic mass number of 24 X is 51, what is the number of neutrons of X? A) 27 B) 24 C) 51 D) 7 5 E) 40 14) What is the atomic mass number of U? a) 92 b) 144 c) 236 d) ) What is the neutron number of U? a) 92 b) 144 c) 236 d) The element F has 10 neutrons and a mass number = 19. How many electrons are in its outermost shell? A) 10 B) 3 C) 9 D) 7 E) cannot tell from the information given 17. Which one is a stable isotope of Cl. A) X B) X C) X D) X 18. The most common form of iron has 26 protons and 30 neutrons in its nucleus. State its atomic number, atomic mass, and number of electrons if it's electrically neutral. Atomic number: Atomic mass: # of electrons: 19. Consider the following three atoms: Atom 1 has 7 protons and 8 neutrons; atom 2 has 8 protons and 7 neutrons; atom 3 has 8 protons and 8 neutrons. Which two are isotopes of the same element?

4 20. Consider fluorine atoms with 9 protons and 10 neutrons. What are the atomic number and atomic mass of this fluorine? Suppose we could add a proton to this fluorine nucleus. Would the result still be fluorine? Explain. What if we added a neutron to the fluorine nucleus? Atomic number: Atomic mass: 21. How many neutrons are in the nucleus of an atom of tungsten-184 which has an atomic number of 74? # of neutrons: 22. Which of the following combinations of particles represents an ion of net charge -1 and of mass number 82? (A) 46 neutrons, 35 protons, 36 electrons (C) 46 neutrons, 36 protons, 36 electrons (E) 47 neutrons, 35 protons, 36 electrons (B) 46 neutrons, 36 protons, 35 electrons (D) 47 neutrons, 35 protons, 35 electrons 23. One species of element M has an atomic number of 10 and a mass number of 20; one species of element N has an atomic number of 11 and a mass number of 20. Which of the following statements about these two species is true? (A) They are isotopes. (B) They are isomers. (C) They are isoelectronic (D) They contain the same number of neutrons in their atoms. (E) They contain the same total number of protons plus neutrons in their atoms. 24. A neutral atom has an atomic number of 30 and a mass number of 62, the atom must contain: (A) 92 neutrons (C) 29 neutrons (B) 62 electrons (D) 30 electrons 25. Atom X has 12 protons, 12 electrons, and 13 neutrons. Atom Y has 10 protons, 10 electrons, and 15 neutrons. It can therefore be concluded that: (A) atoms X and Y are isotopes. (B) atom X is more massive than atom Y. (C) atoms X and Y have the same mass number. (D) atoms X and Y have the same atomic number. 26. A neutral atom which has 42 electrons and a mass number of 93 has (A) an atomic number of 51. (C) a nucleus containing 40 neutrons. (B) a nucleus containing 51 neutrons. (D) a nucleus containing 51 protons. 27. A sodium ion, Na+, contains the same number of electrons as (A) a sodium atom, Na. (C) a potassium ion, K+. (B) a magnesium atom, Mg. (D) a neon atom, Ne.

5 AP Chem Summer Assignment Worksheet #2 Electronic Configuration Write the electron configurations using arrows of the following elements: 1) Magnesium 2) Cobalt 3) Krypton 4) Beryllium 5) Scandium Write the electron configurations of the following elements: 6) Nickel 7) Cadmium 8) Selenium 9) Strontium 10) Lithium Determine what elements are denoted by the following electron configurations: 11) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 5

6 12) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 13) [Kr] 5s 2 4d 10 5p 4 14) [Xe] 6s 2 4f 14 5d 7 15) [Rn] 7s 2 5f 12 Determine whether the following electron configurations are or are not valid: 16) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 4d 10 4p 6 17) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 3 3d 6 18) [Rn] 7s 2 5f 9 19) [Xe] 20) [Ne] 3p 5 3s 2

7 AP Chem Summer Assignment Worksheet #3 Periodic Table 1. A gaseous ion X 2+ has two unpaired electrons in its most stable state. If X is a representative element, to which groups could the element X belong? a) IA and VIA b) IVA c) VA and VIIA d) IA and IIIA e) VIA and VIIA 2. In the fourth period of the Periodic Table, how many elements have one or more 4p electrons? a) 2 b) 6 c) 10 d) 18 d) A horizontal row in the periodic table containing a sequence of elements is a: a) Group b) family c) subgroup d) period 4. The modern periodic table has the elements arranged in order of: a) their date of discovery. b) increasing radii of the atoms. c) increasing number of neutrons. d) increasing number of protons. e) number of isotopes. 5. Which of the following electron configurations is correct for chromium, (atomic number 24)? a) [Ar]4s 2 4p 4 b) [Ar]3d 5 4s 1 c) [Ar]3d 4 5s 2 d) [Kr]4d 5 5s 1 e) [Ar]4s 14 p 5 6. The electron configuration of Pt is [Xe]4f 14 5d 9 6s 1. How many unpaired electrons are in this atom? a) 1 b) 2 c) 7 d) 8 e) 9 7. Which of the following statements is false? a) The s orbital is spherical. b) There are 10 d orbitals in a d subshell. c) The third energy level has no f orbitals. d) The fifth energy level has a set of f orbitals. e) A set of p orbitals can have a maximum of 6 electrons.

8 8. For a group in the periodic table, the elements have in common: a) the same number of electrons. b) the same number of electrons in all subshells. c) the same number of filled subshells. d) the same number of electrons in the highest energy subshell containing electrons. e) the same number of orbitals. 9. Which of the following electron configurations belong to an element that is the most chemically reactive? a) 1s 2 b) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 c) 1s 2 2s 2 2p5 (d) 1s2 2 s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p How many valence electrons does the element with the electron configuration 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3s 6 4s 1 have? a. 0 b) 1 c) 9 d) How is the electron configuration similar for each element in a group? 12. How is the electron configuration similar for each element in a period? 13. Refer to a periodic table. In which period is calcium? a. Period 2 b. Period 4 c. Period 6 d. Period Refer to a periodic table. In which group is calcium? a. Group 1 b. Group 2 c. Group 17 d. Group An element that has the electron configuration [Ne]3s23p5 is in which period? a. Period 2 b. Period 3 c. Period 5 d. Period An element that has the electron configuration [Ne]3s23p5 is in which group? a. Group 2 b. Group 5 c. Group 7 d. Group 17

9 AP Chem Summer Assignment Worksheet #4 Mole Concept Complete the following problems showing all work and with answers using the correct significant digits. 1) How many grams does moles of NaCl weigh? 2) How many molecules are there in moles of C 6 H 14? 3) How many moles are there in x molecules of water? 4) How many grams does2.408 x molecules of SiO 2 weigh? 5) How many molecules are there in 21.6 grams of CH 4? 6) Calculate the molecular mass for the following: A. KOH B. N 2 O 2 C. Cu 2 SO 3 D. Sr 3 (PO 4 )2 7) Convert each of the following from grams to moles. A. 15.O g C 2 H 6 C. 80 g NaOH B. 36 g H 2 O D. 50 g CaCO 3

10 8) Convert moles to grams in each of the following: A. 2 mole NH 3 B. 0.5 mole H 2 SO 4 9) Convert the following to moles: A X atoms Na B X molecules CO 2 10) Calculate the molecular mass of the following compounds: a. acetone, CH 3 COCH 3 b. ethyl ether, C 4 H 10 11) How many moles of hydrogen atoms are there in 1 mole of following molecules? a. C 3 H 8 b. C 2 H 5 OH 12) How many moles of atoms are there in 2 moles of following molecules? a. C 10 H 22 b. CH 3 COOH

11 AP Chem Summer Assignment Worksheet #5 Chemical Formula /Percent Composition Complete the following problems showing all work and with answers using the correct significant digits. 1. A gram piece of magnesium metal is heated and reacts with oxygen. The resulting oxide weighed grams. Determine the percent composition of each element in the compound. 2. Determine the empirical formula given the following data for each compound: (a) Fe = 63.53%, S = 36.47% (b) Fe = 46.55%, S = 53.45% (a) (b) 3. A compound contains 21.6% sodium, 33.0% chlorine, 45.1% oxygen. Determine the empirical formula of the compound. 4. A gram sample of uranium was heated in air. The resulting oxide weighed gram. Determine the empirical formula of the oxide. {Hint: Carry out the calculations to four decimal places}.

12 5. When g of zinc vapor is burned in air, grams of the oxide is produced. a) What elements are present in the oxide? b) Determine the percent composition of each element in the oxide. c) Determine the empirical formula of the compound. (a) (b) (c) 6. A compound has the empirical formula of CH 3 Br and a vapor density of 6.00 g/l, at 375 K and atm. Using these data, determine the following: a) The molar mass of the compound. b) The molecular formula of the compound. (a) (b) 7. A compound containing the elements C, H, N, and O is analyzed. When a gram is burned in excess oxygen, g of CO 2 (g) is formed. The combustion analysis showed that the sample contained g of H. a) Determine the mass, in grams, of C in the g sample of the compound. b) When the compound is analyzed for N content only, the mass percent of N is found to be 28.84%. Determine the mass, in grams, of N in the original g sample of compound. c) Determine the mass, in grams, of O in the original g sample of the compound. d) Determine the empirical formula of the compound. (a) (b) (c) (d)

13 AP Chem Summer Assignment Worksheet #6 Stoichiometry Balance all of the equations that need to be balanced. The answers are given in parenthesis at the end of each problem. 1. In the decomposition of sodium hydroxide, how many moles of sodium hydroxide are needed to produce 30.0 moles of water? (60.0 moles NaOH) 2. In the single replacement reaction of lithium and magnesium nitrate, what mass of lithium combines with 75.0 grams of magnesium nitrate? (7.02 g Li) 3. How many grams of lead (II) nitrate are needed to produce 60.0 grams of potassium nitrate in the double replacement reaction of potassium iodide and lead (II) nitrate. (98.3 g lead (II) nitrate) 4. In the synthesis reaction of zinc(ii) and sulfur, what mass of zinc (II) sulfide is produced from grams of sulfur? (303.9 g ZnS) 5. A synthesis reaction of calcium and oxygen was completed in a lab and grams of calcium oxide were produced from grams of oxygen. What is the percent yield? (89.36%) 6. In the single replacement reaction of magnesium and aluminum phosphate, if 7.00 moles of magnesium react, how many moles of aluminum phosphate would be needed? (4.67 mol AlPO 4 )

14 7. When methane and oxygen react (complete combustion reaction) how many grams of water would be produced from 25.0 grams of methane? (56.1g water) 8. A 26.3 gram sample of potassium chlorate decomposed and produced 9.45 grams of oxygen. What is the percent yield for oxygen? (91.7%) 9. If 7.40 grams of calcium hydroxide react with nitric acid to produce 2.01 grams of water, what is the percent yield? (55.8%) 10. Lime, CaO, reacts with hydrochloric acid to form calcium chloride and water. How many moles of HCl would be required to react with 7.5 moles of lime? How many moles of water would be formed? (15 mol HCl; 7.5 mol water) For each of the following write balanced chemical equations and then solve the problem. 11. What is the maximum number of grams of PH 3 that can be formed when 6.2 g of phosphorus reacts with 6.0 g of hydrogen to form PH 3? 12. Copper is formed when aluminum reacts with cupric sulfate in a singlereplacement reaction. How many grams of copper can be obtained when 29.0 g of Al reacts with 156 g or cupric sulfate? 13. If you begin with 1250 g of N 2 and 225 of H 2 in the reaction that forms ammonia gas (NH 3 ), how much ammonia will be formed? What is the limiting reagent? How much of the reagent is left when the maximum amount of ammonia is formed?

15 AP Chem Summer Assignment Worksheet #7 Predicting Reaction Products Balance the equations and predict the products and states of matter (assumer reactions are taking place at STP) for the following reactions. If no reaction occurs write NR. 1) Na + FeBr 3 2) NaOH + H 2 SO 4 3) C 2 H 4 O 2 + O 2 4) NH 3 + H 2 O 5) PbSO 4 + AgNO 3 6) PBr 3 7) HBr + Fe 8) KMnO 4 + ZnCl 2 9) MnO 2 + Sn(OH) 4 10) O 2 + C 5 H 12 O 2 11) H 2 O 2 12) PtCl 4 + Cl 2

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