Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions"

Transcription

1 Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemical reactions are classified into five groups: A + B AB Synthesis reactions (Combination) H + O H O AB A + B Decomposition reactions (Analysis) NaCl Na +Cl A + BC AC + B Single replacement reactions Fe + CuSO 4 FeSO 4 +Cu AB + CD AD + CB Double replacement reactions NaCl + AgNO 3 NaNO 3 +AgCl AB + xo yco + zh O Combustion C 3 H 8 + 5O 3CO + 4H O Reactants: starting materials. Products: the materials that are created in a reaction. Chemical Equation: we represent a chemical reaction in the form of a chemical equation, using chemical formulas for the reactants and products, and an arrow to indicate the direction in which the reaction proceeds. Note: It is important to show the state of each reactant and product in a chemical equation (immediately following each reactant and product). We use the symbol (g) for gas, (l) for liquid, (s) for solid, and (aq) for a substance dissolved in water (aqueous). 6CO (g) + 6H O(l) C 6 H 1 O 6 (aq) + 6O (g) Note: the term Formula can be used for both ionic and covalent compounds (formula of NaCl). However; the term Molecule is strictly correct only when used covalent compound (molecule of H O). Formula and molecular weight: formula weight (FW) of a compound is the sum of the atomic weights in atomic mass units (amu) of all atoms in the compound s formula (for both ionic and covalent compounds). The molecular weight (MW) is the same as the formula weight; however, it is only used for the covalent compounds. MW of H SO 4 : MW or FW of AlCl 3 : (1 amu) for H + 1(3 amu) for S + 4(16 amu) for O 98 amu 1(7 amu) for Al + 3(35.5 amu) for Cl amu Mole (mol): is the amount of substance that contains as many atoms, molecules, or ions as there are atoms in exactly 1g of carbon-1. Mole is the formula weight of a substance expressed in grams. FW of NaCl 58.5 amu 58.5g of NaCl 1 mole of NaCl MW or FW of AlCl amu 133.5g of AlCl 3 1 mole of AlCl 3

2 Avogadro s number ( ): number of formula units in a mole. 1 mole of hydrogen atoms atoms of hydrogen 1 mole of water molecules molecules of water 1 mole of Na + ions ions of Na + Molar mass: is the mass of one mole of the substance expressed in grams. We can say that it is the formula weight of a compound expressed in grams. Formula weight of H O 18 amu molar mass 18 g (mass of 1 mole H O) Formula weight of NaCl 58.5 amu molar mass 58.5 g (mass of 1 mole NaCl) Balance a chemical equation: in a balanced equation, there must be the same number of atoms of each element on both sides (the law of conservation of mass: atoms are neither destroyed nor created in chemical reactions; they merely shift from one substance to another). How to balance a chemical equation: 1. We begin with atoms that appear in only one compound on the left and only one compound on the right.. If an atom occurs as a free element, we balance this element last. 3. We can change only the coefficients in balancing an equation (we cannot change chemical formulas). C 3 H 8 (g) + O (g) CO (g) + H O(g) We begin with either carbon or hydrogen and we balance oxygen last (free element): C 3 H 8 (g) + 5O (g) 3CO (g) + 4H O(g) Stoichiometry: the study of mass relationships in chemical reactions. The coefficients in a balanced equation refer to the relative numbers of moles, particles (atoms, molecules, ions), and volume, not grams. H O(g) O (g) + H (g) 1 moles 1 mole moles liters 1 liter liters molecules 1 molecule molecules grams 1 gram grams Note: We use the coefficients of a balanced chemical equation for the following conversions. Therefore, there is only one step. mole A mole B volume A volume B # of particles A # of particles B H + O H O How many moles of H O are produced from the reaction of 56 moles of hydrogen?

3 moles HO 56 mole 56 moles HO molesh Note: For other conversions, we use the following diagram: volume volume mass A mole B mole mass Particle (atom) (molecule) Particle (atom) (molecule) H + O H O 1. We have a sample of 74 grams of oxygen. Find the volume (in liter) that this sample can occupy. Note: at STP condition (0ºC as the standard temperature and 1 atm as the standard pressure), one mole of any gas occupies a volume of.4 L (or.4 dm 3 or 400 cc). 1 mole O.4 L O 74g O 3 g O 1mole O 5 L O. A sample of 3.0 grams of hydrogen is reacted with oxygen. How many grams of H O are produced? 1 mole H moles HO 18 grams HO 3.0 grams H 07 grams HO grams H moles H 1 mole H Limiting reagent: is the reactant that is used up first, leaving an excess of another reagent(s) unreacted. Note: The limiting reagent can control a reaction. Whenever, the limiting reagent is used up the reaction will be stopped. Therefore, to determine how much product can be formed a given mixture of reactants, we have to look for the reactant that is limiting. How to find the limiting reagent: 1. Write and balance the equation for the reaction.. Convert known masses of reactants to moles. 3. Using the numbers of moles of reactants to determine which reactant is limiting. Note: If the coefficients of reactants in a balanced reaction are not the same, we need to divide the number of the moles of each reactant by its coefficient.

4 Note: Always use the amounts of a limiting reagent to find the amount of the product. H + O H O If 39 grams oxygen reacts with 87 grams hydrogen, which reactant is limiting. How many grams of H O will be formed? 1 mole O 39g O 3 g O 1. moles O 1 mole H 87g O g H 44 moles H Because the coefficients of reactants (hydrogen and oxygen) are not the same, we have to divide the number of moles of each reactant by its coefficient: 1. mole O 1 1. moles O 44 mole H moles H Therefore, oxygen is the limiting reagent. To find the amount of the product, we need to use the amount of the limiting reagent (which is oxygen): 1mole O moles H O 18 grams H O 39 grams O 44 grams H O 3 grams O 1 moles O 1mole H O Percent Yield: actual yield precent yield 100 theoretical yield Actual yield: the mass of product formed in a chemical reaction (experimental). Theoretical yield: the mass of product that should form in a chemical reaction according to the stoichiometry of the balance equation (it is always more than actual yield). Aqueous solution: a solution in which the solvent is water. Many ionic compounds are soluble in water. Water molecules separate the positive and negative ions from each other (dissociation reactions). HO NaCl(s) Na+ (aq) + Cl -(aq) HO + AgNO 3(s) Ag (aq) + NO - 3 (aq)

5 If we mix the two solutions together: Ag + (aq) + NO - 3 (aq) + Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) AgCl(s) + Na + (aq) + NO - 3 (aq) This equation is called Ionic equation. Na + - and NO 3 ions do not participate in this reaction. They are called Spectator ions and we can eliminate them from both sides: Ag + (aq) + Cl - (aq) AgCl(s) Net ionic equation Oxidation and reduction reactions (redox reactions): Oxidation is the loss of electrons and Reduction is the gain of electrons. Zn(s) + Cu + (aq) Zn + (aq) + Cu(s) Zn(s) Zn + + e - Cu + + e - Cu(s) Zn is oxidized (loses electrons) so it is a reducing agent. Cu + is reduced (gains electrons) so it is an oxidizing agent. In some reactions, it is not easy to see the electron loss and gain, so chemists developed another definition of oxidation and reduction: Oxidation is the gain of oxygen atoms and/or the loss of hydrogen atoms. Reduction is the loss of oxygen atoms and/or the gain of hydrogen atoms. CH 4 (g) + O (g) CO (g) + H O(g) CH 4 gains oxygen (loses hydrogen), therefore it is oxidized (a reducing agent). O gains hydrogen, so it is reduced (an oxidizing agent). Note: all single replacement reactions and all combustion reactions are redox reactions. All double replacement reactions are non-redox reactions. Exothermic reaction: a chemical reaction that gives off heat. C(s) + O (g) CO (g) + heat (energy) Note: All combustion reactions are exothermic. Endothermic reaction: a chemical reaction that absorbs heat (needs heat to accomplish). HgO(s) + heat (energy) Hg(l) + O (g)

I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í CHEMICAL REACTIONS

I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í CHEMICAL REACTIONS Chemical reaction = process during which original substances change to new substances, reactants turn to... The bonds of reactants... and new bonds are... The classification of reactions: 1. Classification

More information

Part B 2. Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part.

Part B 2. Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part. Part B 2 Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part. 51 [1] Allow 1 credit for 3 Mg(s) N 2 (g) Mg 3 N 2 (s). Allow credit even if the coefficient 1 is

More information

Chemistry 2014 Scoring Guidelines

Chemistry 2014 Scoring Guidelines AP Chemistry 2014 Scoring Guidelines 2014 The College Board. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. Visit the College

More information

Mass of thoroughly dried filter paper. Mass of filter paper + precipitate after third drying. Mass of filter paper + precipitate after second drying

Mass of thoroughly dried filter paper. Mass of filter paper + precipitate after third drying. Mass of filter paper + precipitate after second drying Mass of KI tablet Mass of thoroughly dried filter paper Mass of filter paper + precipitate after first drying Mass of filter paper + precipitate after second drying Mass of filter paper + precipitate after

More information

Unit 11 Practice. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Unit 11 Practice. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: Unit 11 Practice Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Crystalline solids. A) have their particles arranged randomly B) have

More information

Unit 8 Chemical Equilibrium Focusing on Acid-Base Systems

Unit 8 Chemical Equilibrium Focusing on Acid-Base Systems Unit 8 Chemical Equilibrium Focusing on Acid-Base Systems unit 8Chemical Equilibrium Chemical Equilibrium Focusing on Acid Base Systems Equilibrium describes any condition or situation of balance. We recognize

More information

(b) As the mass of the Sn electrode decreases, where does the mass go?

(b) As the mass of the Sn electrode decreases, where does the mass go? A student is given a standard galvanic cell, represented above, that has a Cu electrode and a Sn electrode. As current flows through the cell, the student determines that the Cu electrode increases in

More information

Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam

Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Name: Class: Date: Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Acids generally release H 2 gas when they react with a.

More information

Enrollment Services: Rev 12/11/2012 1

Enrollment Services: Rev 12/11/2012 1 Enrollment Services: Rev 12/11/2012 1 Purpose of This Guide Page 3 CSULB Major Specific Requirements Page 4 Using ASSIST to Determine Course Equivalencies Between CSULB and California Community Colleges

More information

Equilibria. Unit Outline

Equilibria. Unit Outline Acid Base Equilibria 17Advanced Unit Outline 17.1 Acid Base Reactions 17.2 Buffers 17.3 Acid Base Titrations 17. Some Important Acid Base Systems In This Unit We will now expand the introductory coverage

More information

Page 1. 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? (1) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? (1) (2) (2) (3) (3) (4) (4)

Page 1. 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? (1) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? (1) (2) (2) (3) (3) (4) (4) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? 7. How many carbon atoms are contained in an ethyl group? 1 3 2 4 2. In the alkane series, each molecule

More information

4. Acid Base Chemistry

4. Acid Base Chemistry 4. Acid Base Chemistry 4.1. Terminology: 4.1.1. Bronsted / Lowry Acid: "An acid is a substance which can donate a hydrogen ion (H+) or a proton, while a base is a substance that accepts a proton. B + HA

More information

AMMONIA AND UREA PRODUCTION

AMMONIA AND UREA PRODUCTION AMMONIA AND UREA PRODUCTION Urea (NH 2 CONH 2 ) is of great importance to the agriculture industry as a nitrogen-rich fertiliser. In Kapuni, Petrochem manufacture ammonia and then convert the majority

More information

Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration

Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration GOAL AND OVERVIEW Antacids are bases that react stoichiometrically with acid. The number of moles of acid that

More information

Experiment 13: Determination of Molecular Weight by Freezing Point Depression

Experiment 13: Determination of Molecular Weight by Freezing Point Depression 1 Experiment 13: Determination of Molecular Weight by Freezing Point Depression Objective: In this experiment, you will determine the molecular weight of a compound by measuring the freezing point of a

More information

Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions

Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions Chapter 17 An example of equilibrium: Acid base chemistry What are acids and bases? Every day descriptions Chemical description of acidic and basic solutions by Arrhenius

More information

AP*Chemistry The Chemistry of Acids and Bases

AP*Chemistry The Chemistry of Acids and Bases AP*Chemistry The Chemistry of Acids and Bases "ACID"--Latin word acidus, meaning sour. (lemon) "ALKALI"--Arabic word for the ashes that come from burning certain plants; water solutions feel slippery and

More information

Chemistry 201. Practical aspects of buffers. NC State University. Lecture 15

Chemistry 201. Practical aspects of buffers. NC State University. Lecture 15 Chemistry 201 Lecture 15 Practical aspects of buffers NC State University The everyday ph scale To review what ph means in practice, we consider the ph of everyday substances that we know from experience.

More information

Solutions. A Chem1 Reference Text Stephen K. Lower Simon Fraser University. 1 Solutions 2

Solutions. A Chem1 Reference Text Stephen K. Lower Simon Fraser University. 1 Solutions 2 Solutions A Chem1 Reference Text Stephen K. Lower Simon Fraser University Contents 1 Solutions 2 2 Types of solutions 2 2.1 Gaseous solutions.................................... 4 2.2 Solutions of gases

More information

The final numerical answer given is correct but the math shown does not give that answer.

The final numerical answer given is correct but the math shown does not give that answer. Note added to Homework set 7: The solution to Problem 16 has an error in it. The specific heat of water is listed as c 1 J/g K but should be c 4.186 J/g K The final numerical answer given is correct but

More information

TOPIC-1: CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM A MATTER OF BALANCE

TOPIC-1: CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM A MATTER OF BALANCE Chemistry 534 CHAPTER 6 Chemical Equilibrium The subject of any investigation is called a system. When the study involves experimentation, the system is said to be real. When the study involves ideas,

More information

A Grignard reagent formed would deprotonate H of the ethyl alcohol OH.

A Grignard reagent formed would deprotonate H of the ethyl alcohol OH. 216 S11-E2 Page 2 Name Key I. (9 points) Answer in the boxes below the following questions for the Grignard reagent C 3 -Mg. (1) (2 points) Is the carbon atom associated with magnesium electrophilic or

More information

Chapter 8, Acid-base equilibria

Chapter 8, Acid-base equilibria Chapter 8, Acid-base equilibria Road map of acid-base equilibria On first encounter, the study of acid-base equilibria is a little like a strange land with seemingly confusing trails that make passage

More information

Combustion Reactions An Example of Change Taking Place in Our World

Combustion Reactions An Example of Change Taking Place in Our World Combustion Reactions An Example of Change Taking Place in Our World by Jane and Ken, period 3 How to... Define a combustion reaction Recognize and identify a reaction Predict the products for a reaction

More information

Acid-Base Extraction.

Acid-Base Extraction. Acid-Base Extraction. Extraction involves dissolving a compound or compounds either (1) from a solid into a solvent or (2) from a solution into another solvent. A familiar example of the first case is

More information

COURSE SYLLABUS. Luis Hernandez Chemical & Environmental Building J TBA. luis.hernandez@harlingen.tstc.edu

COURSE SYLLABUS. Luis Hernandez Chemical & Environmental Building J TBA. luis.hernandez@harlingen.tstc.edu COURSE SYLLABUS COURSE NUMBER AND TITLE: CHEM 1311 General Chemistry I COURSE (CATALOG) DESCRIPTION: Fundamental principles of chemistry for majors in the sciences, health sciences, and engineering; topics

More information

Energy Savings in Methanol Synthesis : Use of Heat Integration Techniques and Simulation Tools.

Energy Savings in Methanol Synthesis : Use of Heat Integration Techniques and Simulation Tools. Page 1 Energy Savings in Methanol Synthesis : Use of Heat Integration Techniques and Simulation Tools. François Maréchal a, Georges Heyen a, Boris Kalitventzeff a,b a L.A.S.S.C., Université de Liège, Sart-Tilman

More information

Courtesy of Professor Daley, Foothill College Chemistry Dept. 1

Courtesy of Professor Daley, Foothill College Chemistry Dept. 1 Foothill College Department of Chemistry Safety Rules and Regulations Safety Rules: 1. Prepare for each experiment by reading all of the directions before lab starts. 2. Locate the Safety Equipment. Know

More information

Chemistry at Work. How Chemistry is used in the Water Service

Chemistry at Work. How Chemistry is used in the Water Service Chemistry at Work How Chemistry is used in the Water Service WATER TREATMENT Everyday, more than 100 water treatment works in Northern Ireland put approximately 680 million litres of water into the supply

More information

Microbial Nutrition And bacterial Classification Microbiology Unit-I. Muhammad Iqbal Lecturer KMU

Microbial Nutrition And bacterial Classification Microbiology Unit-I. Muhammad Iqbal Lecturer KMU Microbial Nutrition And bacterial Classification Microbiology Unit-I Muhammad Iqbal Lecturer KMU Objectives At the end of this lecture the students will be able to: Define key terms. Identify the basic

More information

- The value of a state function is independent of the history of the system. - Temperature is an example of a state function.

- The value of a state function is independent of the history of the system. - Temperature is an example of a state function. First Law of hermodynamics 1 State Functions - A State Function is a thermodynamic quantity whose value deends only on the state at the moment, i. e., the temerature, ressure, volume, etc - he value of

More information

Investigating Matter Through Inquiry

Investigating Matter Through Inquiry T H I R D E D I T I O N Investigating Matter Through Inquiry A project of the American Chemical Society Education Division Office of K 8 Science American Chemical Society American Chemical Society Inquiry

More information

Teacher Questionnaire

Teacher Questionnaire Identification Label Teacher Name: Class Name: Teacher ID: Teacher Link # Teacher Questionnaire SCIENCE International Association for the Evaluation

More information

NANOCOMPOSIX'S GUIDE TO ICP-MS MEASUREMENT

NANOCOMPOSIX'S GUIDE TO ICP-MS MEASUREMENT NANOCOMPOSIX'S GUIDE TO ICP-MS MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS SEPTEMBER 2012, V 1.1 4878 RONSON CT STE K SAN DIEGO, CA 92111 858-565 - 4227 NANOCOMPOSIX.COM Note to the Reader: We at nanocomposix have published

More information

Particulate matter sources in Helsinki area and effects on air quality - an overview

Particulate matter sources in Helsinki area and effects on air quality - an overview Particulate matter sources in Helsinki area and effects on air quality - an overview Risto Hillamo 1, Topi Rönkkö 2 and Liisa Pirjola 3 1 Research and Development, Finnish Meteorological Institute 2 Department

More information

CHAPTER 6: ACID-BASE AND DONOR-ACCEPTOR CHEMISTRY

CHAPTER 6: ACID-BASE AND DONOR-ACCEPTOR CHEMISTRY 82 Chapter 6 Acid-ase and Donor-Acceptor Chemistry CATER 6: ACID-ASE AD DR-ACCETR CEMISTRY 6.1 Acid ase Definition a. Alr 3 r Lewis b. Cl 4 C 3 C Lewis, rønsted-lowry c. i 2+ 3 Lewis d. Cl 3 Lewis e. S

More information

Symmetric Stretch: allows molecule to move through space

Symmetric Stretch: allows molecule to move through space BACKGROUND INFORMATION Infrared Spectroscopy Before introducing the subject of IR spectroscopy, we must first review some aspects of the electromagnetic spectrum. The electromagnetic spectrum is composed

More information

GT2011 46090 ANALYSIS OF A MICROGASTURBINE FED BY NATURAL GAS AND SYNTHESIS GAS: MGT TEST BENCH AND COMBUSTOR CFD ANALYSIS

GT2011 46090 ANALYSIS OF A MICROGASTURBINE FED BY NATURAL GAS AND SYNTHESIS GAS: MGT TEST BENCH AND COMBUSTOR CFD ANALYSIS ASME Turbo Expo 2011 June 6 10, 2011 Vancouver, Canada GT 2011 46090 ANALYSIS OF A MICROGASTURBINE FED BY NATURAL GAS AND SYNTHESIS GAS: MGT TEST BENCH AND COMBUSTOR CFD ANALYSIS M. Cadorin 1,M. Pinelli

More information

Use of Ionic Liquids in Produced Water Clean Up

Use of Ionic Liquids in Produced Water Clean Up Use of Ionic Liquids in Produced Water Clean Up NGOTP Upstream Environmental Technology Review Wednesday, February 25, 2004 Houston, TX David DePaoli Joe Birdwell, Sheng Dai, Huimin Luo, Joanna McFarlane

More information

The Potentiodynamic Polarization Scan. Technical Report 33

The Potentiodynamic Polarization Scan. Technical Report 33 Technical Report 33 Technical Report 33 David G Enos Center for Electrochemical Science & Engineering Department of Materials Science & Engineering University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA Louie L Scribner

More information

REVISION NO : 3 August 2010

REVISION NO : 3 August 2010 1. PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION Product Name Magnesium Powder Chemical Symbol Mg CAS No 7439-95-4 EINECS No 231-104-6 Supplier Name & Address THE METAL POWDER COMPANY LTD Thirumangalam - 625706 Tamil

More information

CHEMICAL ABSORPTION OF H 2 S FOR BIOGAS PURIFICATION

CHEMICAL ABSORPTION OF H 2 S FOR BIOGAS PURIFICATION Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering ISSN 14-6632 Printed in Brazil Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 415-422, July - September 24 CHEMICAL ABSORPTION OF H 2 S FOR BIOGAS PURIFICATION M.S. Horikawa 1, F. Rossi

More information

WoundSeal Powder (Packaged in individual packages)

WoundSeal Powder (Packaged in individual packages) SDS Safety Data Sheet Effective Date: January 17, 2015 From: 8163 25 th Court East Sarasota, FL 34243 Phone: 941-360-1300 or Local Poison Control WoundSeal Powder (Packaged in individual packages) 1. Chemical

More information

Acids and Bases. Problem Set: Chapter 17 questions 5-7, 9, 11, 13, 18, 43, 67a-d, 71 Chapter 18 questions 5-9, 26, 27a-e, 32

Acids and Bases. Problem Set: Chapter 17 questions 5-7, 9, 11, 13, 18, 43, 67a-d, 71 Chapter 18 questions 5-9, 26, 27a-e, 32 Acids and Bases Problem Set: Chapter 17 questions 5-7, 9, 11, 13, 18, 43, 67a-d, 71 Chapter 18 questions 5-9, 26, 27a-e, 32 Arrhenius Theory of Acids An acid base reaction involves the reaction of hydrogen

More information

Application Note: Absorbance

Application Note: Absorbance Units Units Theory of absorbance Light absorption occurs when atoms or molecules take up the energy of a photon of light, thereby reducing the transmission of light as it is passed through a sample. Light

More information

Cross section, Flux, Luminosity, Scattering Rates

Cross section, Flux, Luminosity, Scattering Rates Cross section, Flux, Luminosity, Scattering Rates Table of Contents Paul Avery (Andrey Korytov) Sep. 9, 013 1 Introduction... 1 Cross section, flux and scattering... 1 3 Scattering length λ and λ ρ...

More information

INTDUCTIN T LEWIS ACID-BASE CEMISTY DEINITINS Lewis acids and bases are defined in terms of electron pair transfers. A Lewis base is an electron pair donor, and a Lewis acid is an electron pair acceptor.

More information

Acid-base Chemistry of Aquatic Systems

Acid-base Chemistry of Aquatic Systems i Acid-base Chemistry of Aquatic Systems An introduction to the chemistry of acid-base equilibria with emphasis on the carbon dioxide system in natural waters eith A. Hunter Professor in Chemistry Department

More information

HOW TO STUDY CHEMISTRY

HOW TO STUDY CHEMISTRY AN OVERALL STUDY STRATEGY HOW TO STUDY CHEMISTRY For an introductory science course such as Chemistry 1A, lectures usually provide the best guide to the study of the subject. The instructor presents and

More information

IV. Molecular Clouds. 1. Molecular Cloud Spectra

IV. Molecular Clouds. 1. Molecular Cloud Spectra IV. Molecular Clouds Dark structures in the ISM emit molecular lines. Dense gas cools, Metals combine to form molecules, Molecular clouds form. 1. Molecular Cloud Spectra 1 Molecular Lines emerge in absorption:

More information

Data Compilation and Evaluation at National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI)

Data Compilation and Evaluation at National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI) Data Center for Plasma Properties Data Compilation and Evaluation at National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI) Jung-Sik YOON and DCPP Members CM on Data Evaluation and the Establishment of a Standard Library

More information

1. Molecular computation uses molecules to represent information and molecular processes to implement information processing.

1. Molecular computation uses molecules to represent information and molecular processes to implement information processing. Chapter IV Molecular Computation These lecture notes are exclusively for the use of students in Prof. MacLennan s Unconventional Computation course. c 2013, B. J. MacLennan, EECS, University of Tennessee,

More information

Molecular Engineering for Solar Energy Conversion and Lighting Materials

Molecular Engineering for Solar Energy Conversion and Lighting Materials 193 Figure 5.1 Schematic representation of photochemical water splitting (artificial photosynthesis). Five fundamental components are needed: (1) an antenna for light harvesting, (2) a charge-separation

More information

Innovative Educational Practice: Using Virtual Labs in the Secondary Classroom

Innovative Educational Practice: Using Virtual Labs in the Secondary Classroom Innovative Educational Practice: Using Virtual Labs in the Secondary Classroom Marcel Satsky Kerr, Texas Wesleyan University. Kimberly Rynearson, Tarleton State University. Marcus C. Kerr, Texas Wesleyan

More information

Bachelor s Programme in Agricultural and Environmental Management Study line: Environmental Management. Total Study description 2011-2013

Bachelor s Programme in Agricultural and Environmental Management Study line: Environmental Management. Total Study description 2011-2013 Bachelor s Programme in Agricultural and Environmental Management Study line: Environmental Management Total Study description 2011-2013 Table of contents: 1. The Programme... 3 2. Total study overview...

More information

Isomers Have same molecular formula, but different structures

Isomers Have same molecular formula, but different structures Isomers ave same molecular formula, but different structures Constitutional Isomers Differ in the order of attachment of atoms (different bond connectivity) Stereoisomers Atoms are connected in the same

More information

BUSINESS LICENSE (2014) CHARTER TOWNSHIP OF FLINT 1490 S. DYE ROAD, FLINT Ml 48532 (810) 732-1350 OR FAX (810) 733-6919

BUSINESS LICENSE (2014) CHARTER TOWNSHIP OF FLINT 1490 S. DYE ROAD, FLINT Ml 48532 (810) 732-1350 OR FAX (810) 733-6919 BUSINESS LICENSE (2014) CHARTER TOWNSHIP OF FLINT 1490 S. DYE ROAD, FLINT Ml 48532 (810) 732-1350 OR FAX (810) 733-6919 PLEASE CHECK: NEW BUSINESS FEE: $75.00 YEARLY LICENSE RENEWAL FEE: $45.00 NAME OF

More information

AS/A Level GCE. GCE Chemistry A. version 4 September 2013. OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Chemistry A H034 OCR Advanced GCE in Chemistry A H434

AS/A Level GCE. GCE Chemistry A. version 4 September 2013. OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Chemistry A H034 OCR Advanced GCE in Chemistry A H434 AS/A Level GCE GCE Chemistry A OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Chemistry A H034 OCR Advanced GCE in Chemistry A H434 version 4 September 2013 QAN 500/2425/5 QAN 500/2347/0 Contents 1 About these Qualifications

More information

GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON FOR WATER & WASTEWATER TREATMENT

GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON FOR WATER & WASTEWATER TREATMENT GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON FOR WATER & WASTEWATER TREATMENT CARBTROL Corporation September 1992 Rev. 10/92 TP-3 INTRODUCTION Carbon has been used as an adsorbent for centuries. Early uses of carbon were

More information

AUTOIGNITION OF HYDROGEN/AIR MIXTURES BY A THIN CATALYTIC WIRE

AUTOIGNITION OF HYDROGEN/AIR MIXTURES BY A THIN CATALYTIC WIRE Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Volume 8, 000/pp. 1359 1364 AUTOIGNITION OF HYDROGEN/AIR MIXTURES BY A THIN CATALYTIC WIRE C. TREVIÑO,* A. LIÑÁN and V. KURDYUMOV Universidad Politécnica de Madrid

More information

Euler-Euler and Euler-Lagrange Modeling of Wood Gasification in Fluidized Beds

Euler-Euler and Euler-Lagrange Modeling of Wood Gasification in Fluidized Beds Euler-Euler and Euler-Lagrange Modeling of Wood Gasification in Fluidized Beds Michael Oevermann Stephan Gerber Frank Behrendt Berlin Institute of Technology Faculty III: School of Process Sciences and

More information

Master of Arts in Science Education for Grade 5 9 Teachers

Master of Arts in Science Education for Grade 5 9 Teachers Master of Arts in Science Education for Grade 5 9 Teachers The Master of Arts in Science Education (5 9) is a competency-based degree program that prepares already licensed teachers both to be licensed

More information

BINARY SYSTEMS. Definition of Composition: Atomic (molar) fraction. Atomic percent. Mass fraction. Mass percent (weight percent)

BINARY SYSTEMS. Definition of Composition: Atomic (molar) fraction. Atomic percent. Mass fraction. Mass percent (weight percent) BINARY SYSTEMS Definition of Composition: Atomic (molar) fraction Atomic percent Mass fraction Mass percent (weight percent) na =, x i n = A i i i Weight percent mainly in industry! x at % A = x 100 A

More information

Clouds. Ulrike Lohmann Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N. S., Canada

Clouds. Ulrike Lohmann Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N. S., Canada Clouds Ulrike Lohmann Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N. S., Canada Outline of this Lecture Overview of clouds Warm cloud formation Precipitation formation

More information

Alarm and Detection/Suppression

Alarm and Detection/Suppression Alarm and Detection/Suppression Fire Safety American Fire Technologies To provide special hazard services world wide to the industrial market through the integration of components and services Clean Agent

More information

Mg 2 FeH 6 -BASED NANOCOMPOSITES WITH HIGH CAPACITY OF HYDROGEN STORAGE PROCESSED BY REACTIVE MILLING

Mg 2 FeH 6 -BASED NANOCOMPOSITES WITH HIGH CAPACITY OF HYDROGEN STORAGE PROCESSED BY REACTIVE MILLING Mg 2 FeH 6 -BASED NANOCOMPOSITES WITH HIGH CAPACITY OF HYDROGEN STORAGE PROCESSED BY REACTIVE MILLING A. A. C. Asselli (1)*, C. S. Kiminami (2), A. M. Jorge Jr. (2), T.T. Ishikawa (2), and W. J. Botta

More information

Modeling of a Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell for Carbon Dioxide Electrolysis

Modeling of a Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell for Carbon Dioxide Electrolysis This is the Pre-Published Version. Modeling of a Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell for Carbon Dioxide Electrolysis Meng Ni Department of Building and Real Estate, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Hung

More information

Methods for the preparation of the test sample from the laboratory sample (Part 1 Material & Methods) Work Package 6 Task 6.4

Methods for the preparation of the test sample from the laboratory sample (Part 1 Material & Methods) Work Package 6 Task 6.4 Methods for the preparation of the test sample from the laboratory sample (Part 1 Material & Methods) Work Package 6 Task 6.4 Validation of prcen/ts 15413 (WI 343027) Paolo de Zorzi APAT - Italian Environmental

More information

Evaluation of Alternatives to Domestic Ion Exchange Water Softeners. Mara Wiest Dr. Peter Fox Dr. Lee Wontae, HDR Tim Thomure, HDR

Evaluation of Alternatives to Domestic Ion Exchange Water Softeners. Mara Wiest Dr. Peter Fox Dr. Lee Wontae, HDR Tim Thomure, HDR Evaluation of Alternatives to Domestic Ion Exchange Water Softeners Mara Wiest Dr. Peter Fox Dr. Lee Wontae, HDR Tim Thomure, HDR April 26, 2011 OUTLINE Water Quality and reuse in the Southwest US Ion

More information

Automotive Base Oil Presentation

Automotive Base Oil Presentation Automotive Base Oil Presentation What is a Base Oil? The refined petroleum mineral or synthetic material that is produced by a refinery to a required set of specifications. A lubricant s quality can depend

More information

General Chemistry I / Chemical Principles Fall 2012

General Chemistry I / Chemical Principles Fall 2012 General Chemistry I / Chemical Principles Fall 2012 Instructor: Marta Wloch Phone: (248) 370-2333 E-mail: wloch@oakland.edu Office: 269 SEB Office Hrs: MW 3:30 4:30 PM or by appointment Course: CHM 157

More information

Investigation on Enhancement of Heat Transfer Using Different Type of Nanofluids Review

Investigation on Enhancement of Heat Transfer Using Different Type of Nanofluids Review Review Paper Investigation on Enhancement of Heat Transfer Using Different Type of Nanofluids Review Authors 1 Ramesh Bhoi *, 2 Dinesh Dabhi, 3 Chetan Jaiswal Address for Correspondence: 1, 2 Mechanical

More information

Determining the Quantity of Iron in a Vitamin Tablet. Evaluation copy

Determining the Quantity of Iron in a Vitamin Tablet. Evaluation copy Determining the Quantity of Iron in a Vitamin Tablet Computer 34 As biochemical research becomes more sophisticated, we are learning more about the role of metallic elements in the human body. For example,

More information

Nauki ścisłe priorytetem społeczeństwa opartego na wiedzy Artykuły na platformę CMS

Nauki ścisłe priorytetem społeczeństwa opartego na wiedzy Artykuły na platformę CMS S t r o n a 1 Author: Marta Miedźwiedziew METAL CORROSION AND PROTECTION AGAINST CORROSION Introduction The article is intended for high school students having courses in chemistry at both the basic and

More information

PEROXIDE SAFETY DATA SHEET (60% H2O2) Safety Data Sheet

PEROXIDE SAFETY DATA SHEET (60% H2O2) Safety Data Sheet SAYFA : 1/6 1. Identification of the substance Identification of the product Product name : Hydrogen peroxide solution 60% Manufacturer / supplier identification Company : A.Ş. 600Evler Mahallesi Atatürk

More information

Contamination of Refrigerated Container Systems

Contamination of Refrigerated Container Systems Contamination of Refrigerated Container Systems UNEP - Joint Meeting of the Regional Ozone Network For South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific Paro, Bhutan, May 2012 Mark Bennett Container Owners Association

More information

Chapter 3. The Structure of Matter and. Review Skills

Chapter 3. The Structure of Matter and. Review Skills Chapter 3 The Structure of Matter and the Chemical Elements One doesn t discover new lands without consenting to lose sight of the shore for a very long time. Andre Gide French Novelist and Essayist n

More information

6 Cloud droplet formation and Köhler theory

6 Cloud droplet formation and Köhler theory 6 Cloud droplet formation and Köhler theory This chapter discusses the details of cloud droplet formation. Cloud droplet formation requires phase changes. Some phase changes require a nucleation process,

More information

Acid-base Equilibria and Calculations

Acid-base Equilibria and Calculations Acid-base Equilibria and Calculations A Chem1 Reference Text Stephen K. Lower Simon Fraser University Contents 1 Proton donor-acceptor equilibria 4 1.1 The ion product of water... 4 1.2 Acid and base strengths...

More information

Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. California Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (CA/FACE) Program

Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. California Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (CA/FACE) Program TO: FROM: SUBJECT: Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health California Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (CA/FACE) Program A Chemist Dies from Burns Caused by Mixing Chemicals

More information

(Formerly Vanessa Barker, Lecturer in Science Education, Institute of Education, University of London)

(Formerly Vanessa Barker, Lecturer in Science Education, Institute of Education, University of London) Beyond Appearances: Students misconceptions about basic chemical ideas 2 nd Edition Vanessa Kind School of Education Durham University Durham DH1 1TA Tel: 0191 334 8369 Fax: 0191 334 8311 email: Vanessa.kind@durham.ac.uk

More information

Chapter 6 Atmospheric Aerosol and Cloud Processes Spring 2015 Cloud Physics Initiation and development of cloud droplets Special interest: Explain how droplet formation results in rain in approximately

More information

Calculation of Combustion, Explosion and Detonation Characteristics of Energetic Materials

Calculation of Combustion, Explosion and Detonation Characteristics of Energetic Materials Calculation of Combustion, Explosion and Detonation Characteristics... 97 Central European Journal of Energetic Materials, 2010, 7(2), 97-113 ISSN 1733-7178 Calculation of Combustion, Explosion and Detonation

More information

E. Marenna a, E. Santacesaria b, P. Pernice a, M. Di Serio b, A. Aronne a

E. Marenna a, E. Santacesaria b, P. Pernice a, M. Di Serio b, A. Aronne a UNIVERSITA DEGLI STUDI DI NAPOLI FEDERICO II SYNTHESIS VIA SOL-GEL OF Nb 2 O 5 SiO 2 CATALYSTS FOR EPOXIDATION REACTIONS E. Marenna a, E. Santacesaria b, P. Pernice a, M. Di Serio b, A. Aronne a a Dipartimento

More information

CEM, First in Microwave Peptide Synthesis

CEM, First in Microwave Peptide Synthesis CEM, First in Microwave Peptide Synthesis In 2002, a CEM biochemist named Jonathan Collins presented his concept of a microwave-assisted peptide synthesis system to several colleagues. Collins concept

More information

INTERATOMIC DISTANCES IN COVALENT AMOLECULES ANAD RESONANCE BETWEEN TWO OR MORE LEWIS ELECTRONIC

INTERATOMIC DISTANCES IN COVALENT AMOLECULES ANAD RESONANCE BETWEEN TWO OR MORE LEWIS ELECTRONIC VOL. 18, 1932 CEMISTRY: L. PA ULING 293 INTERATOMIC DISTANCES IN COVALENT AMOLECULES ANAD RESONANCE BETWEEN TWO OR MORE LEWIS ELECTRONIC STR UCTUR.8S BY LINuS PAULING GATES CEMICAL LABORATORY, CALIFORNIA

More information

Laboratory Specific Standard Operating Procedures Mandated by the Settlement Agreement

Laboratory Specific Standard Operating Procedures Mandated by the Settlement Agreement Laboratory Specific Standard Operating Procedures Mandated by the Settlement Agreement General guidance regarding laboratory work with hazardous chemicals 1 is contained within the Chemical Hygiene Plan

More information

4.1 Studying Atom. Early evidence used to develop models of atoms.

4.1 Studying Atom. Early evidence used to develop models of atoms. 4.1 Studying Atom Early evidence used to develop models of atoms. Democritus said that all matter consisted of extremely small particles that could NOT be divided called these particles atoms from the

More information

Unstable, Reactive & Energetic Chemicals. University of Nebraska-Lincoln Chemistry Department & Environmental Health & Safety

Unstable, Reactive & Energetic Chemicals. University of Nebraska-Lincoln Chemistry Department & Environmental Health & Safety Unstable, Reactive & Energetic Chemicals University of Nebraska-Lincoln Chemistry Department & Environmental Health & Safety Background Unstable, reactive and energetic compounds use at colleges and universities

More information

PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AP Chemistry Acids and Bases Special Focus The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission

More information

Standard Operation Procedure. Elemental Analysis of Solution samples with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

Standard Operation Procedure. Elemental Analysis of Solution samples with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Standard Operation Procedure Elemental Analysis of Solution samples with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Soil & Plant Analysis Laboratory University of Wisconsin Madison http://uwlab.soils.wisc.edu

More information

Isotope effects on selected physicochemical properties of nitromethane and 1-pentanol

Isotope effects on selected physicochemical properties of nitromethane and 1-pentanol NUKLEONIKA 2006;51(Supplement 2):S81 S85 PROCEEDINGS Isotope effects on selected physicochemical properties of nitromethane and 1-pentanol Anna Makowska, Jerzy Szydłowski Abstract Densities, kinematic

More information

CHEMISTRY HIGHER SECONDARY - SECOND YEAR VOLUME - II

CHEMISTRY HIGHER SECONDARY - SECOND YEAR VOLUME - II CHEMISTRY HIGHER SECNDARY - SECND YEAR VLUME - II Untouchability is a sin Untouchability is a crime Untouchability is inhuman TAMILNADU TEXTBK CRPRATIN College Road, Chennai - 600 006 Government of Tamilnadu

More information

Group A/B Dust Explosion Classification Chilworth Hazard and Risk Profile (CHARP) - Standard package of tests

Group A/B Dust Explosion Classification Chilworth Hazard and Risk Profile (CHARP) - Standard package of tests Item Description Item Remarks Explosion severity analysis (20L sphere): Triplicate test Explosion severity analysis (20L sphere): Single series screening test Explosion severity analysis (20L sphere):

More information

CHEMICAL PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION FORM

CHEMICAL PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION FORM 1. PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION Product Name: ROSCA CORTE Application: Oil for machining (threading) Manufacturer s CNPJ: 43.995.646/0001-69 IN CONFORMITY WITH ABNT RULE NBR 14725:2009 2. HAZARD

More information

Photolithography. Class: Figure 12.1. Various ways in which dust particles can interfere with photomask patterns.

Photolithography. Class: Figure 12.1. Various ways in which dust particles can interfere with photomask patterns. Photolithography Figure 12.1. Various ways in which dust particles can interfere with photomask patterns. 19/11/2003 Ettore Vittone- Fisica dei Semiconduttori - Lectio XIII 16 Figure 12.2. Particle-size

More information

Technical Data Sheet

Technical Data Sheet Februar, 2014 Technical Data Sheet PLA Polylactide Cas No. 9051-89-2 PLA is a thermoplastic resin derived from annually renewable resources Product Characteristics Typical Properties Value Unit Physical

More information

limit.) Every group so defined would be still further sub-divided if we Thus a heterogeneous substance such as a mixture of ice and water naturally

limit.) Every group so defined would be still further sub-divided if we Thus a heterogeneous substance such as a mixture of ice and water naturally VloL. 11, 1925 PHYSICS: G. N. LEWIS A NEW PRINCIPLE OF EQ UILIBRI UMI By GILBERT N. LEwIs DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Communicated January 21, 1925 The Non-Existence of Cyclic Equilibrium.-At

More information

11.4 Calcium Carbide Manufacturing. 11.4.1 General

11.4 Calcium Carbide Manufacturing. 11.4.1 General 11.4 Calcium Carbide Manufacturing 11.4.1 General Calcium carbide (CaC 2 ) is manufactured by heating a lime and carbon mixture to 2000 to 2100 C (3632 to 3812 F) in an electric arc furnace. At those temperatures,

More information