# Atoms, Elements, and the Periodic Table (Chapter 2)

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 Atoms, Elements, and the Periodic Table (Chapter 2) Atomic Structure 1. Historical View - Dalton's Atomic Theory Based on empirical observations, formulated as Laws of: Conservation of Mass Definite Proportions Multiple Proportions Summary of Dalton's theory: matter is composed of small particles called atoms in chemical reactions atoms are indestructible atoms of different elements have different masses atoms of the same and/or different elements combine to form new substances (i.e., compounds) in a given compound, the constituent atoms are always combined in the same fixed numerical ratio 2. "Modern" View atom consists of: central nucleus containing protons (+) and neutrons with outer shells of electrons (-) most of an atom's mass is in the nucleus -- relative masses: neutron proton 1 amu electron 10-4 amu (amu = atomic mass unit = 1.66 x g) Page 1

2 3. Atomic Masses and Isotopes A Z X Y Z = atomic number of an element = # protons in nucleus e.g., carbon is atomic number 6 -- all carbon atoms have 6 protons A = mass number (often omitted) = # protons + # neutrons Y = charge (on an ion) = # protons - # electrons isotopes - atoms of the same element with different mass numbers e.g., natural carbon has 2 isotopes (2 types of C atoms): Isotope symbol relative abundance protons neutrons mass number carbon C 99% carbon C 1% atomic mass (atomic weight) of an element is based on the 12 C scale: 1 atom of 12C is defined as exactly 12 amu since most elements are actually mixtures of isotopes, the atomic mass (or weight) is really an "average" atomic mass e.g., atomic mass of chlorine, Cl, is amu 35 Cl 75.77% amu 37 Cl 24.23% amu "weighted average" ( x ) + ( x ) = ( 35.45) Normally, chemists are concerned with such "average" atomic masses Page 2

3 The Mole Concept and Molar Mass 1. Avogadro's Number -- The Chemist's "Dozen" N o = number of atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon-12 = x "things" {a very large number! } this is a conversion factor, just like 12 things per dozen, e.g.: mass of one atom of carbon-12 = (12 g) / (6.022 x 1023 atoms) = 1.99 x g/atom 2. The Mole -- How Chemists "Count" One Mole of a substance contains an Avogadro's Number of formula units 1 mole = x 1023 formula units e.g., 1 mole of iron contains x Fe atoms 3. Molar Mass Molar Mass = the mass (in grams) of one mole of a substance Since 12 grams of 12 C is defined as 1 mole of 12 C and the atomic masses of other elements are defined relative to that, then.. the molar mass of an element = its atomic mass in grams/mole e.g., from the periodic table, the "atomic mass" of Al is What does this mean? mass of one Al atom = amu molar mass of Al = g/mole (mass of one mole of Al) Page 3

4 The Periodic Table 1. General arrangement - increasing atomic number within: groups: periods: vertical columns (also called families) horizontal rows 2. Terminology - parts of the periodic table representative elements... the longer columns (the "A" groups) transition elements... shorter, central columns ("B" groups) alkali metals... group IA (1): Li, Na, K,... alkaline earth metals... group IIA (2): Be, Mg, Ca,... halogens... group VIIA (17): F, Cl, Br,... noble gases... group 0 (18): He, Ne, Ar,... lanthanide elements... # (1st row at bottom) actinide elements... # (2nd row at bottom) 3. Types of elements - by physical properties metals: nonmetals: shinny, malleable, ductile solids with high mp and bp good electrical conductors gases, liquids, or low-melting solids non-conductors of electricity diatomic elements: H 2, O 2, N 2, F 2, Cl 2, Br 2, I 2 metalloids: intermediate properties, often semiconductors (e.g., Si) Page 4

5 Ions and the Periodic Table 1. Elements combine to form compounds -- two general types Molecular Compounds -- more later in Chapter 3! atoms linked together by "chemical bonds" in discrete electrically neutral particles called molecules e.g., H2O CO2 PCl3 C12H22O11 Ionic Compounds result from transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another to yield oppositely-charged particles called ions cation = positive ion anion = negative ion there are not discrete molecules -- the ions are held together by electrostatic forces in a regular, 3-dimensional pattern called a crystalline lattice e.g., LiF lithium fluoride e - Li + F Li + + F - LiF MgCl 2 magnesium chloride Mg e - Cl e - Mg Cl - Cl MgCl 2 Page 5

6 2. Relationship to Periodic Table General trends (Figure 2.14) Ionic compounds usually involve metals and nonmetals group IA (1) +1 cations Li+, Na+, K+,... group IIA (2) +2 cations Be2+, Mg2+, Ca2+,... other metals may form more than one cation, e.g.: Fe2+ and Fe3+ Sn2+ and Sn4+ group VIA (16) -2 anions O2-, S2-, Se2-,... group VIIA (17) -1 anions F -, Cl -, Br -,... Molecular compounds usually result from the combination of two nonmetals and/or metalloids e.g., PH 3 AsF 5 HBr some nonmetallic elements actually exist as molecular compounds e.g., the diatomics (H2, O2, N2, etc. as listed before) also: P 4, As 4, S 8, Se 8 Page 6

### PERIODIC TABLE OF GROUPS OF ELEMENTS Elements can be classified using two different schemes.

1 PERIODIC TABLE OF GROUPS OF ELEMENTS Elements can be classified using two different schemes. Metal Nonmetal Scheme (based on physical properties) Metals - most elements are metals - elements on left

### Atomic Theory: History of the Atom

Atomic Theory: History of the Atom Atomic Theory: experimental observations that led scientists to postulate the existence of the atom (smallest bit of an element). 1. Law of Conservation of Mass -During

### KEY for Unit 1 Your Chemical Toolbox: Scientific Concepts, Fundamentals of Typical Calculations, the Atom and Much More

KEY for Unit 1 Your Chemical Toolbox: Scientific Concepts, Fundamentals of Typical Calculations, the Atom and Much More The Modern Periodic Table The Periodic Law - when elements are arranged according

### PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS Periodic Table: an arrangement of elements in horizontal rows (Periods) and vertical columns (Groups) exhibits periodic repetition of properties First Periodic Table: discovered

### UNIT (2) ATOMS AND ELEMENTS

UNIT (2) ATOMS AND ELEMENTS 2.1 Elements An element is a fundamental substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means into simpler substances. Each element is represented by an abbreviation called

### Chapter 2 Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table

Chapter 2 Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table 2.1 (a) neutron; (b) law of conservation of mass; (c) proton; (d) main-group element; (e) relative atomic mass; (f) mass number; (g) isotope; (h) cation; (i)

### Molecules, Compounds, and Chemical Equations (Chapter 3)

Molecules, Compounds, and Chemical Equations (Chapter 3) Chemical Compounds 1. Classification of Elements and Compounds Types of Pure Substances (Figure 3.4) Elements -- made up of only one type of atom

### 2014 Spring CHEM101 Ch1-2 Review Worksheet Modified by Dr. Cheng-Yu Lai,

Ch1 1) Which of the following underlined items is not an intensive property? A) A chemical reaction requires 3.00 g of oxygen. B) The density of helium at 25 C is 1.64 10-4 g/cm3. C) The melting point

### Elements, Atoms & Ions

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation FOURTH EDITION by Steven S. Zumdahl University of Illinois Elements, Atoms & Ions Chapter 4 1 2 Elements Aims: To learn about the relative abundances of the elements,

### Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions 1. Methane and ethane are both made up of carbon and hydrogen. In methane, there are 12.0 g of carbon for every 4.00 g of hydrogen, a ration of 3:1 by mass. In ethane,

### Untitled Document. 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? 4. Which statement best describes the density of an atom s nucleus?

Name: Date: 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? A. protons and electrons grouped together in a random pattern B. protons and electrons grouped together in an alternating pattern C. a core

### B) atomic number C) both the solid and the liquid phase D) Au C) Sn, Si, C A) metal C) O, S, Se C) In D) tin D) methane D) bismuth B) Group 2 metal

1. The elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing A) atomic mass B) atomic number C) molar mass D) oxidation number 2. Which list of elements consists of a metal, a metalloid, and

### Trends of the Periodic Table Diary

Trends of the Periodic Table Diary Trends are patterns of behaviors that atoms on the periodic table of elements follow. Trends hold true most of the time, but there are exceptions, or blips, where the

### Periodic Table Questions

Periodic Table Questions 1. The elements characterized as nonmetals are located in the periodic table at the (1) far left; (2) bottom; (3) center; (4) top right. 2. An element that is a liquid at STP is

### The Periodic Table: Periodic trends

Unit 1 The Periodic Table: Periodic trends There are over one hundred different chemical elements. Some of these elements are familiar to you such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. Each one has

### 7.4. Using the Bohr Theory KNOW? Using the Bohr Theory to Describe Atoms and Ions

7.4 Using the Bohr Theory LEARNING TIP Models such as Figures 1 to 4, on pages 218 and 219, help you visualize scientific explanations. As you examine Figures 1 to 4, look back and forth between the diagrams

### Chemistry: The Periodic Table and Periodicity

Chemistry: The Periodic Table and Periodicity Name: per: Date:. 1. By what property did Mendeleev arrange the elements? 2. By what property did Moseley suggest that the periodic table be arranged? 3. What

### Chapter 5 Periodic Table. Dmitri Mendeleev: Russian Chemist credited with the discovery of the periodic table.

Chapter 5 Periodic Table Dmitri Mendeleev: Russian Chemist credited with the discovery of the periodic table. How did he organize the elements? According to similarities in their chemical and physical

### EXPERIMENT 4 The Periodic Table - Atoms and Elements

EXPERIMENT 4 The Periodic Table - Atoms and Elements INTRODUCTION Primary substances, called elements, build all the materials around you. There are more than 109 different elements known today. The elements

### Atoms, Ions and Molecules The Building Blocks of Matter

Atoms, Ions and Molecules The Building Blocks of Matter Chapter 2 1 Chapter Outline 2.1 The Rutherford Model of Atomic Structure 2.2 Nuclides and Their Symbols 2.3 Navigating the Periodic Table 2.4 The

### The Mole. 6.022 x 10 23

The Mole 6.022 x 10 23 Background: atomic masses Look at the atomic masses on the periodic table. What do these represent? E.g. the atomic mass of Carbon is 12.01 (atomic # is 6) We know there are 6 protons

### ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE CHAPTER 3 PHYSICAL SCIENCE

ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE CHAPTER 3 PHYSICAL SCIENCE Chapter 3 Vocabulary Words (27 words) Nucleus Atomic number Proton Mass number Neutron Isotopes Electron Atomic mass unit (amu) Energy level Average

### Atomic Structure Chapter 5 Assignment & Problem Set

Atomic Structure Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. Atomic Structure 2 Study Guide: Things You Must Know Vocabulary (know the definition

### Matter. Atomic weight, Molecular weight and Mole

Matter Atomic weight, Molecular weight and Mole Atomic Mass Unit Chemists of the nineteenth century realized that, in order to measure the mass of an atomic particle, it was useless to use the standard

### Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding

Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding 6.1 Organizing the Elements I. The Periodic Law A. The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers B. Elements

### Name Block Date Ch 17 Atomic Nature of Matter Notes Mrs. Peck. atoms- the smallest particle of an element that can be identified with that element

Name Block Date Ch 17 Atomic Nature of Matter Notes Mrs. Peck atoms- the smallest particle of an element that can be identified with that element are the building blocks of matter consists of protons and

### Chemistry - Elements Electron Configurations The Periodic Table. Ron Robertson

Chemistry - Elements Electron Configurations The Periodic Table Ron Robertson History of Chemistry Before 16 th Century Alchemy Attempts (scientific or otherwise) to change cheap metals into gold no real

### Chapter 5 TEST: The Periodic Table name

Chapter 5 TEST: The Periodic Table name HPS # date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The order of elements in the periodic table is based

### TOPIC 7. CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS I - atomic and formula weights.

TOPIC 7. CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS I - atomic and formula weights. Atomic structure revisited. In Topic 2, atoms were described as ranging from the simplest atom, H, containing a single proton and usually

### Periodic Table. 1. In the modern Periodic Table, the elements are arranged in order of increasing. A. atomic number B. mass number

Name: ate: 1. In the modern, the elements are arranged in order of increasing. atomic number. mass number. oxidation number. valence number 5. s the elements in Group I are considered in order of increasing

### Unit 3 Study Guide: Electron Configuration & The Periodic Table

Name: Teacher s Name: Class: Block: Date: Unit 3 Study Guide: Electron Configuration & The Periodic Table 1. For each of the following elements, state whether the element is radioactive, synthetic or both.

### Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of the Chemical Bonding

Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of the Chemical Bonding 1. There are paired and unpaired electrons in the Lewis symbol for a phosphorus atom. (a). 4, 2 (b). 2, 4 (c). 4, 3 (d). 2, 3 Explanation: Read the question

### 2 The Structure of Atoms

CHAPTER 4 2 The Structure of Atoms SECTION Atoms KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What do atoms of the same element have in common? What are isotopes? How is an element

### ATOMS A T O M S, I S O T O P E S, A N D I O N S. The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 1 of 39)

ATOMS A T O M S, I S O T O P E S, A N D I O N S The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 1 of 39) THE ATOM All elements listed on the periodic table are made up of atoms.

### 1. How many hydrogen atoms are in 1.00 g of hydrogen?

MOLES AND CALCULATIONS USING THE MOLE CONCEPT INTRODUCTORY TERMS A. What is an amu? 1.66 x 10-24 g B. We need a conversion to the macroscopic world. 1. How many hydrogen atoms are in 1.00 g of hydrogen?

### Chapter 2 Atoms and Molecules

Chapter 2 Atoms and Molecules 2-1 Elements and their symbols Most of the chemicals you find in everyday life can be broken down into simper substances Key Concepts: A substance that cannot be broken down

### Chemical Building Blocks: Chapter 3: Elements and Periodic Table

Name: Class: Date: Chemical Building Blocks: Chapter 3: Elements and Periodic Table Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

### The Mole Concept. The Mole. Masses of molecules

The Mole Concept Ron Robertson r2 c:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 final slides for web\mole concept.docx The Mole The mole is a unit of measurement equal to 6.022 x 10 23 things (to 4 sf) just like there

### CHM 1311: General Chemistry 1, Fall 2004 Exam #1, September 8, 2004. Name (print) SSN

CHM 1311: General Chemistry 1, Fall 2004 Exam #1, September 8, 2004 Name (print) SSN Pledge: I have neither given nor received aid on this exam: Signature For ALL problems: SHOW ALL WORK TO GET FULL CREDIT

### Nuclear Structure. particle relative charge relative mass proton +1 1 atomic mass unit neutron 0 1 atomic mass unit electron -1 negligible mass

Protons, neutrons and electrons Nuclear Structure particle relative charge relative mass proton 1 1 atomic mass unit neutron 0 1 atomic mass unit electron -1 negligible mass Protons and neutrons make up

### Element of same atomic number, but different atomic mass o Example: Hydrogen

Atomic mass: p + = protons; e - = electrons; n 0 = neutrons p + + n 0 = atomic mass o For carbon-12, 6p + + 6n 0 = atomic mass of 12.0 o For chlorine-35, 17p + + 18n 0 = atomic mass of 35.0 atomic mass

### 2. John Dalton did his research work in which of the following countries? a. France b. Greece c. Russia d. England

CHAPTER 3 1. Which combination of individual and contribution is not correct? a. Antoine Lavoisier - clarified confusion over cause of burning b. John Dalton - proposed atomic theory c. Marie Curie - discovered

### Chemical Calculations: The Mole Concept and Chemical Formulas. AW Atomic weight (mass of the atom of an element) was determined by relative weights.

1 Introduction to Chemistry Atomic Weights (Definitions) Chemical Calculations: The Mole Concept and Chemical Formulas AW Atomic weight (mass of the atom of an element) was determined by relative weights.

### Chemistry 65 Chapter 6 THE MOLE CONCEPT

THE MOLE CONCEPT Chemists find it more convenient to use mass relationships in the laboratory, while chemical reactions depend on the number of atoms present. In order to relate the mass and number of

### List the 3 main types of subatomic particles and indicate the mass and electrical charge of each.

Basic Chemistry Why do we study chemistry in a biology course? All living organisms are composed of chemicals. To understand life, we must understand the structure, function, and properties of the chemicals

### In the box below, draw the Lewis electron-dot structure for the compound formed from magnesium and oxygen. [Include any charges or partial charges.

Name: 1) Which molecule is nonpolar and has a symmetrical shape? A) NH3 B) H2O C) HCl D) CH4 7222-1 - Page 1 2) When ammonium chloride crystals are dissolved in water, the temperature of the water decreases.

### Chapter 7 Periodic Properties of the Elements

Chapter 7 Periodic Properties of the Elements 1. Elements in the modern version of the periodic table are arranged in order of increasing. (a). oxidation number (b). atomic mass (c). average atomic mass

### Chemistry Diagnostic Questions

Chemistry Diagnostic Questions Answer these 40 multiple choice questions and then check your answers, located at the end of this document. If you correctly answered less than 25 questions, you need to

### Chapter 3, Elements, Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table

1. Which two scientists in 1869 arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic masses to form a precursor of the modern periodic table of elements? Ans. Mendeleev and Meyer 2. Who stated that the

### Chapter 3. Elements, Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table

Chapter 3. Elements, Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table In the early 1800's many elements had been discovered and found to have different properties. In 1817 Döbreiner's

### ******* KEY ******* Atomic Structure & Periodic Table Test Study Guide

Atomic Structure & Periodic Table Test Study Guide VOCABULARY: Write a brief definition of each term in the space provided. 1. Atoms: smallest unit of an element that has all of the properties of that

### Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 4

1 Introductory Chemistry, 3 rd Edition Nivaldo Tro Atoms and Elements Opening figure showing a shore scene with molecules of O 2, N 2, triethyl amine (CH 3 CH 2 ) 3 N, and rocks made of silicates containing

### ( + and - ) ( - and - ) ( + and + ) Atoms are mostly empty space. = the # of protons in the nucleus. = the # of protons in the nucleus

Atoms are mostly empty space Atomic Structure Two regions of every atom: Nucleus - is made of protons and neutrons - is small and dense Electron cloud -is a region where you might find an electron -is

### Chapter 1: Moles and equations. Learning outcomes. you should be able to:

Chapter 1: Moles and equations 1 Learning outcomes you should be able to: define and use the terms: relative atomic mass, isotopic mass and formula mass based on the 12 C scale perform calculations, including

### 47374_04_p25-32.qxd 2/9/07 7:50 AM Page 25. 4 Atoms and Elements

47374_04_p25-32.qxd 2/9/07 7:50 AM Page 25 4 Atoms and Elements 4.1 a. Cu b. Si c. K d. N e. Fe f. Ba g. Pb h. Sr 4.2 a. O b. Li c. S d. Al e. H f. Ne g. Sn h. Au 4.3 a. carbon b. chlorine c. iodine d.

### Chemistry CP Unit 2 Atomic Structure and Electron Configuration. Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 2 will assess the following:)

Chemistry CP Unit 2 Atomic Structure and Electron Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 2 will assess the following:) 2. Atomic Structure and Electron 2-1. Give the one main contribution to the

### 9/13/2013. However, Dalton thought that an atom was just a tiny sphere with no internal parts. This is sometimes referred to as the cannonball model.

John Dalton was an English scientist who lived in the early 1800s. Dalton s atomic theory served as a model for how matter worked. The principles of Dalton s atomic theory are: 1. Elements are made of

### 3 CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS: ELEMENTS, ATOMS AND IONS

3 CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS: ELEMENTS, ATOMS AND IONS All matter is built up from chemical combinations of elements. As of 2003, there are 114 known elements, of which 88 are naturally occurring; the remaining

### Atoms and Elements. Outline Atoms Orbitals and Energy Levels Periodic Properties Homework

Atoms and the Periodic Table The very hot early universe was a plasma with cationic nuclei separated from negatively charged electrons. Plasmas exist today where the energy of the particles is very high,

### Chapter Outline. 3 Elements and Compounds. Elements and Atoms. Elements. Elements. Elements 9/4/2013

3 Elements and Compounds Chapter Outline 3.1 Elements A. Distribution of Elements Foundations of College Chemistry, 14 th Ed. Morris Hein and Susan Arena Copyright This reclining Buddha in Thailand is

### Horizontal Rows are called Periods. Elements in the same period have the same number of energy levels for ground state electron configurations.

The Periodic Table Horizontal Rows are called Periods. Elements in the same period have the same number of energy levels for ground state electron configurations. Vertical Rows are called Families or Groups.

### Trends of the Periodic Table Basics

Trends of the Periodic Table Basics Trends are patterns of behaviors that atoms on the periodic table of elements follow. Trends hold true most of the time, but there are exceptions, or blips, where the

### About the course GENERAL CHEMISTRY. Recommended literature: Chemistry: science of the matter. Responsible for the course: Dr.

About the course GENERAL CHEMISTRY University of Pécs Medical School Academic year 2009-2010. Responsible for the course: Dr. Attila AGÓCS Optional course for 2 credit points. To have grade at the and

### Questions on Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding

Questions on Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding Circle the Correct Answer: 1) Which ion below has a noble gas electron configuration? A) Li 2+ B) Be 2+ C) B2+ D) C2+ E) N 2-2) Of the ions below,

### Chapter Test. Teacher Notes and Answers 5 The Periodic Law TEST A 1. b 2. d 3. b 4. b 5. d 6. a 7. b 8. b 9. b 10. a 11. c 12. a.

Assessment Chapter Test A Teacher Notes and Answers 5 The Periodic Law TEST A 1. b 2. d 3. b 4. b 5. d 6. a 7. b 8. b 9. b 10. a 11. c 12. a 13. c 14. d 15. c 16. b 17. d 18. a 19. d 20. c 21. d 22. a

### Calculating Atoms, Ions, or Molecules Using Moles

TEKS REVIEW 8B Calculating Atoms, Ions, or Molecules Using Moles TEKS 8B READINESS Use the mole concept to calculate the number of atoms, ions, or molecules in a sample TEKS_TXT of material. Vocabulary

### neutrons are present?

AP Chem Summer Assignment Worksheet #1 Atomic Structure 1. a) For the ion 39 K +, state how many electrons, how many protons, and how many 19 neutrons are present? b) Which of these particles has the smallest

### Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table Chapter 13 & 14 Assignment & Problem Set

Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table 2 Study Guide: Things You

### Periodic Table Trends in Element Properties Ron Robertson

Periodic Table Trends in Element Properties Ron Robertson r2 n:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\ch9trans2.doc The Periodic Table Quick Historical Review Mendeleev in 1850 put together

Page 1 of 14 Amount of Substance Key terms in this chapter are: Element Compound Mixture Atom Molecule Ion Relative Atomic Mass Avogadro constant Mole Isotope Relative Isotopic Mass Relative Molecular

### Study Guide For Chapter 7

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Study Guide For Chapter 7 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The number of atoms in a mole of any pure substance

### 2 ATOMIC SYSTEMATICS AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE

2 ATOMIC SYSTEMATICS AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE In this chapter the principles and systematics of atomic and nuclear physics are summarised briefly, in order to introduce the existence and characteristics of

### The Advanced Placement Examination in Chemistry. Part I Multiple Choice Questions Part II Free Response Questions Selected Questions from1970 to 2010

The Advanced Placement Examination in Chemistry Part I Multiple Choice Questions Part II Free Response Questions Selected Questions from1970 to 2010 Atomic Theory and Periodicity Part I 1984 1. Which of

### Chemistry. The student will be able to identify and apply basic safety procedures and identify basic equipment.

Chemistry UNIT I: Introduction to Chemistry The student will be able to describe what chemistry is and its scope. a. Define chemistry. b. Explain that chemistry overlaps many other areas of science. The

### Sample Exercise 8.1 Magnitudes of Lattice Energies

Sample Exercise 8.1 Magnitudes of Lattice Energies Without consulting Table 8.2, arrange the following ionic compounds in order of increasing lattice energy: NaF, CsI, and CaO. Analyze: From the formulas

### Unit 1 Chemical Changes and Structure Revision Notes

Unit 1 Revision Notes Rates of reaction The rate of reaction can be increased by: increasing the concentration of a solution decreasing the particle size of a solid increasing the temperature adding a

### How much does a single atom weigh? Different elements weigh different amounts related to what makes them unique.

How much does a single atom weigh? Different elements weigh different amounts related to what makes them unique. What units do we use to define the weight of an atom? amu units of atomic weight. (atomic

### CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING

CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING Essential Standard: STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER AND THEIR INTERACTIONS ARE A CONSEQUENCE OF THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER,

### WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA

WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA For ionic compounds, the chemical formula must be worked out. You will no longer have the list of ions in the exam (like at GCSE). Instead you must learn some and work out others.

### Sample Exercise 2.1 Illustrating the Size of an Atom

Sample Exercise 2.1 Illustrating the Size of an Atom The diameter of a US penny is 19 mm. The diameter of a silver atom, by comparison, is only 2.88 Å. How many silver atoms could be arranged side by side

### W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY

INTRODUCTION W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY These notes and exercises are designed to introduce you to the basic concepts required to understand a chemical formula or equation. Relative atomic masses of

### Name Date Class CHEMICAL QUANTITIES. SECTION 10.1 THE MOLE: A MEASUREMENT OF MATTER (pages 287 296)

Name Date Class 10 CHEMICAL QUANTITIES SECTION 10.1 THE MOLE: A MEASUREMENT OF MATTER (pages 287 296) This section defines the mole and explains how the mole is used to measure matter. It also teaches

### Copyrighted by Gabriel Tang B.Ed., B.Sc.

Chapter 8: The Periodic Table 8.1: Development of the Periodic Table Johann Dobereiner: - first to discover a pattern of a group of elements like Cl, Br, and I (called triads). John Newland: - suggested

### Name Date Class CHEMICAL QUANTITIES. SECTION 10.1 THE MOLE: A MEASUREMENT OF MATTER (pages 287 296)

10 CHEMICAL QUANTITIES SECTION 10.1 THE MOLE: A MEASUREMENT OF MATTER (pages 287 296) This section defines the mole and explains how the mole is used to measure matter. It also teaches you how to calculate

### Honors Chemistry: Unit 6 Test Stoichiometry PRACTICE TEST ANSWER KEY Page 1. A chemical equation. (C-4.4)

Honors Chemistry: Unit 6 Test Stoichiometry PRACTICE TEST ANSWER KEY Page 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Question What is a symbolic representation of a chemical reaction? What 3 things (values) is a mole of a chemical

### 3. What would you predict for the intensity and binding energy for the 3p orbital for that of sulfur?

PSI AP Chemistry Periodic Trends MC Review Name Periodic Law and the Quantum Model Use the PES spectrum of Phosphorus below to answer questions 1-3. 1. Which peak corresponds to the 1s orbital? (A) 1.06

### IB Chemistry 1 Mole. One atom of C-12 has a mass of 12 amu. One mole of C-12 has a mass of 12 g. Grams we can use more easily.

The Mole Atomic mass units and atoms are not convenient units to work with. The concept of the mole was invented. This was the number of atoms of carbon-12 that were needed to make 12 g of carbon. 1 mole

### Atoms, Ions and Molecules The Building Blocks of Matter

Atoms, Ions and Molecules The Building Blocks of Matter Chapter 2 1 Chapter Outline 2.1 The Rutherford Model of Atomic Structure 2.2 Nuclides and Their Symbols 2.3 Navigating the Periodic Table 2.4 The

### Find a pair of elements in the periodic table with atomic numbers less than 20 that are an exception to the original periodic law.

Example Exercise 6.1 Periodic Law Find the two elements in the fifth row of the periodic table that violate the original periodic law proposed by Mendeleev. Mendeleev proposed that elements be arranged

### Woods Chem-1 Lec-02 10-1 Atoms, Ions, Mole (std) Page 1 ATOMIC THEORY, MOLECULES, & IONS

Woods Chem-1 Lec-02 10-1 Atoms, Ions, Mole (std) Page 1 ATOMIC THEORY, MOLECULES, & IONS Proton: A positively charged particle in the nucleus Atomic Number: We differentiate all elements by their number

### (1) e.g. H hydrogen that has lost 1 electron c. anion - negatively charged atoms that gain electrons 16-2. (1) e.g. HCO 3 bicarbonate anion

GS106 Chemical Bonds and Chemistry of Water c:wou:gs106:sp2002:chem.wpd I. Introduction A. Hierarchy of chemical substances 1. atoms of elements - smallest particles of matter with unique physical and

### Electron Configurations, Isoelectronic Elements, & Ionization Reactions. Chemistry 11

Electron Configurations, Isoelectronic Elements, & Ionization Reactions Chemistry 11 Note: Of the 3 subatomic particles, the electron plays the greatest role in determining the physical and chemical properties

Contents Getting the most from this book...4 About this book....5 Content Guidance Topic 1 Atomic structure and the periodic table...8 Topic 2 Bonding and structure...14 Topic 2A Bonding....14 Topic 2B

### Ionic and Metallic Bonding

Ionic and Metallic Bonding BNDING AND INTERACTINS 71 Ions For students using the Foundation edition, assign problems 1, 3 5, 7 12, 14, 15, 18 20 Essential Understanding Ions form when atoms gain or lose

### Chapter 3. Chemical Reactions and Reaction Stoichiometry. Lecture Presentation. James F. Kirby Quinnipiac University Hamden, CT

Lecture Presentation Chapter 3 Chemical Reactions and Reaction James F. Kirby Quinnipiac University Hamden, CT The study of the mass relationships in chemistry Based on the Law of Conservation of Mass

### SCPS Chemistry Worksheet Periodicity A. Periodic table 1. Which are metals? Circle your answers: C, Na, F, Cs, Ba, Ni

SCPS Chemistry Worksheet Periodicity A. Periodic table 1. Which are metals? Circle your answers: C, Na, F, Cs, Ba, Ni Which metal in the list above has the most metallic character? Explain. Cesium as the

### CHAPTER 4: ATOMS AND ELEMENTS

CHAPTER 4: ATOMS AND ELEMENTS Problems: 1-70 then after Chapter 9, complete 71-94, 103-104, 107-108, 113-114 4.1 Experiencing Atoms at Tiburon atom: smallest identifiable unit of an element All matter