Cellular Respiration: Supplying Energy to Metabolic Reactions

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1 Cellular Respiration: Supplying Energy to Metabolic Reactions ATP powers most of the processes in a cell including: * Muscle movement * Active Transport ATP also provides the necessary activation energy to * Synthesise organic compounds (endergonic, anabolic reactions) * Speed up many exergonic, catabolic reactions. You use HEAPS of ATP. Here are some estimates * 10 million molecules per muscle cell per second! * The average vertebrate consumes its own body weight in ATP every day! It is important, therefore, that ATP/ADP is recyclable- like a rechargeable battery. Respiration is the metabolic reaction that recharges ADP to ATP. Cellular Respiration

2 Coenzymes Coenzymes are relatively small organic non-protein molecules that catalyse reactions by acting as carriers of electrons and protons. They may also carry specific atoms or groups of atoms, such as phosphate, that are required for, or produced by, chemical reactions. The coenzymes we study in VCE Biology cycle between loaded and unloaded states. The process of respiration draws on 3 of these listed molecules. Coenzyme Unloaded Abbreviation Loaded Function Adenosine Triphosphate ADP ATP Energy Transfer in many processes Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate NADP NADPH Transfer of electrons and protons in photosynthesis Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NAD+ NADH Flavin adenine dinucleotide FAD FADH2 Transfer of electrons and protons in respiration Transfer of electrons and protons in respiration Cellular Respiration: Coenzymes

3 The ATP Cycle Remember this? ATP is the most important molecule for the transport of usable chemical energy in cells. Anabolic reactions build molecules Catabolic reactions break down molecules Endergonic reactions absorb energy Exergonic reactions release energy The ATP Cycle After it unloads energy its terminal phosphate group an ADP molecule can undergo a second reaction that adds a new phosphate group and reloads it as ATP. Cellular Respiration: The ATP Cycle

4 Cellular Respiration Pathways Respiration is the metabolic process by which glucose is broken down to release energy and make ATP There are three different pathways for cellular respiration to occur. Each pathway has multiple stages. A. Aerobic Cellular Respiration (oxygen present) 1. Glycolysis 2. Krebs Cycle 3. Electron Transport Chain B. Anaerobic Respiration (oxygen absent) 1. Glycolysis 2. Alcohol Fermentation C. Anaerobic Respiration (oxygen absent) 1. Glycolysis 2. Lactic Acid Fermentation As you can see, glycolysis is common to all respiration pathways. Cellular Respiration: Pathways

5 Cellular Respiration Pathways Respiration is the metabolic process by which glucose is broken down to release energy and make ATP There are three different pathways for cellular respiration to occur. Each pathway has multiple stages. A. Aerobic Cellular Respiration (oxygen present) 1. Glycolysis 2. Krebs Cycle 3. Electron Transport Chain B. Anaerobic Respiration (oxygen absent) 1. Glycolysis 2. Alcohol Fermentation C. Anaerobic Respiration (oxygen absent) 1. Glycolysis 2. Lactic Acid Fermentation As you can see, glycolysis is common to all respiration pathways. Cellular Respiration: Pathways

6 Cellular Respiration Pathways Respiration is the metabolic process by which glucose is broken down to release energy and make ATP There are three different pathways for cellular respiration to occur. Each pathway has multiple stages. A. Aerobic Cellular Respiration (oxygen present) 1. Glycolysis 2. Krebs Cycle 3. Electron Transport Chain Bork Bork Bork! B. Anaerobic Respiration (oxygen absent) 1. Glycolysis 2. Alcohol Fermentation C. Anaerobic Respiration (oxygen absent) 1. Glycolysis 2. Lactic Acid Fermentation As you can see, glycolysis is common to all respiration pathways. Cellular Respiration: Pathways

7 Location The mitochondrion is the primary location for respiration. It consists of; * A smooth outer membrane * An inner membrane whose many folds make up the cristae * A fluid rich intermembrane space * The matrix Do not rely too much on shape. Mitochondria can look like a ball, jellybean or cigar! Cellular Respiration: Location

8 1. Glycolysis Reaction All respiration begins in the cytoplasm with glycolysis. This is a very complex 10 step reaction and you needn t learn it all- an appreciation of the reactions is enough. Watch and note: * Inputs and Outputs; especially involving ATP * The location where glycolysis occurs * The formation of G3P and its conversion to pyruvate. Video Link Cellular Respiration: Glycolysis

9 1. Glycolysis: Inputs and Outputs Know your net inputs and outputs IN OUT Glucose 2 x 2 x Pyruvate 2 x 2 x Cellular Respiration: Glycolysis

10 The next step... oxygen present Glycolysis oxygen absent oxygen absent Krebs Cycle Lactic Acid Fermentation Alcohol Fermentation Electron Transport Chain Aerobic Respiration Most plants, animals, protists, fungi, bacteria Anaerobic Respiration Animals Anaerobic Respiration Many microorganisms (eg. yeast, some bacteria) Cellular Respiration: Pathways

11 Aerobic Cellular Respiration You will be familiar with this equation from Yr 11 6O2 + C6H12O6 6H2O + 6CO Oxygen + Glucose Water + Carbon Dioxide + 38 ATP This basic equation applies to aerobic respiration and you need to have memorised this. The energy captured as ATP and sent to where it is needed elsewhere in the cell. What does this suggest to you about cells possessing high numbers of mitochondria? Cellular Respiration: Aerobic

12 2. Aerobic Respiration- Krebs Cycle (Complex) If oxygen is available, glycolysis will be followed by the Krebs Cycle (also called citric acid cycle) in the matrix. Watch and note: * Inputs and Outputs * Conversion of pyruvate to Acetyl CoA prior to entering the Krebs Cycle * The location in which the Krebs Cycle occurs Video Link Cellular Respiration: Aerobic

13 2. Aerobic Respiration- Krebs Cycle Know the significant inputs and outputs: At this stage I have only included numbers where significant. INPUT NET OUTPUT Carbon Dioxide 2 x Acetyl CoA (from pyruvate) 6 x 2 x (from glycolysis) 2 x 2 x FAD+ 2 x FADH2 Cellular Respiration: Aerobic

14 3. Aerobic Respiration- Electron Transport Chain The NADPH and FADH2 produced in both glycolysis and the Krebs cycle is fed into the Electron Transport Chain. The Electron Transport produces far more ATP than the previous two stages and happens on the inner membrane. Watch and note * The purpose of the electron carriers in driving the proton gradient * The purpose of oxygen and its conversion to water * The use of the chemical gradient to drive ATP synthesis. Cellular Respiration: Aerobic

15 3. Aerobic Respiration- Electron Transport Chain Know the significant inputs and outputs: I have only included numbers where significant. IN OUT or FADH2 or FAD+ Oxygen Water + 34 x Cellular Respiration: Aerobic

16 Aerobic Respiration- Overview DO NOT PANIC- in all likelihood knowing this diagram will be enough! Cellular Respiration: Aerobic

17 Aerobic Respiration- Overview Video here Cellular Respiration: Aerobic

18 Anaerobic Pathways: Fermentation oxygen present Glycolysis oxygen absent oxygen absent Krebs Cycle Lactic Acid Fermentation Alcohol Fermentation Electron Transport Chain Aerobic Respiration Most plants, animals, protists, fungi, bacteria Anaerobic Respiration Animals Anaerobic Respiration Many microorganisms (eg. yeast, some bacteria) Cellular Respiration: Pathways

19 Anaerobic Respiration: Lactic Acid & Alcohol Fermentation In anaerobic respiration oxygen is not available to drive the Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Chain. * Instead the cell enters either a lactic acid or alcohol fermentation stage. * Essentially this pathway provides a way to metabolise the pyruvate and recycle the NADH/NAD+ that was produced by glycolysis. * Lactic acid or ethanol are the final products of glucose catabolism. Overall the only ATP produced in this reaction was from the glycolysis stage making fermentation highly inefficient. Lactic Acid Fermentation- Animals Remember the word equations C6H12O6 2CH3CH(OH)COOH + 2 Glucose Lactic Acid + 2 ATP Alcohol Fermentation- Yeast and other Microorganisms C6H12O6 2CH3CH2OH + 2CO2 + 2 Glucose Ethanol + 2 ATP + Carbon Dioxide Cellular Respiration: Anaerobic

20 Anaerobic Respiration: Lactic Acid & Alcohol Fermentation Video here Cellular Respiration: Anaerobic

21 Cellular Respiration: Overview of all Pathways Cellular Respiration: Overview

22 Respiration and Evolution: Interesting Facts Aerobic Respiration recovers about 40% of the energy in glucose- more efficient than a modern car engine. Glycolysis recovers only about 3% of the energy stored in glucose; nevertheless for a long period much of the history of life was written by organisms that could perform only glycolysis. Many of the most successful organisms in existence are anaerobic and thus only achieve 3% efficiency. Nonetheless it was only after the evolution of the Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Chain that respiration could achieve a level of efficiency capable of sustaining larger, and more complex, multicellular organisms. Facultative bacteria are able to meet energy demands by either aerobic or anaerobic respiration. Respiration and Evolution

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