Section 1 Workbook (unit 2) ANSWERS

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Section 1 Workbook (unit 2) ANSWERS"

Transcription

1 Section 1 Workbook (unit 2) ANSWERS Complete the following table: nucleotide DNA RN Name: B5. Describe DNA replication 1) Label each base given in the diagram below and describe the 4 primary characteristics of DNA. - Deoxyribose sugar, phosphate group and one of nitrogen bases making up a nucleotide. - Double helix shape - Two strands held together by hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen bases Sugar phosphate backbone A G T C 2) Identify the site of DNA replication within the cell. Nucleus 3) Explain the three major steps, and all of the enzymes involved, in semi-conservative replication of DNA. What is meant by semi-conservative replication? 1. Helicase unzips DNA strand 2. DNA polymerase joins DNA bases that are complementary to the template strand. One strand is the original / old one while the other strand is new. = semiconservative replication. Covalent bonds between the backbone and H-bonds between strands are added 3. Proof reading enzyme checks for mistakes semiconservative replication means that there is one new and one original strand of DNA 4) Describe the purpose of DNA replication. To make a copy of the DNA for the new cell during cell division Page 1 of 10

2 5) If a cell is exposed to acidic conditions during cell division, how would this affect the cell s ability to divide? Why? Enzymes are proteins so a specific shape is needed in order to function. The change in ph would cause the enzymes, such as helicase and polymerase to denature. When these enzymes denature, they change shape and therefore, will not function anymore so cell division cannot occur. 6) How does the amount of: a. Adenine compare to the amount of thymine in DNA? Same amount, A pairs with T b. Guanine compare to the amount of cytosine in DNA? Same amount, G pairs with C c. Purines compared to the number of pyrimidines? Same amount 7) How are DNA and RNA chemically similar? Different? Similar: polymers of nucleotides, phosphate groups, nitrogen bases AGC, & pentose sugar Different: DNA has thymine while RNA has uracil. RNA single stranded while DNA double stranded with hydrogen bonds, DNA deoxyribose sugar, RNA ribose sugar. B6. Describe recombinant DNA (rdna) 8) Describe recombinant DNA. Include the enzymes required for the formation of rdna. Use a diagram to help your explanation. 1. DNA from human gene of interest is isolated and removed with restriction enzyme (cuts DNA) 2. Plasmid from bacteria removed and cut with same restriction enzyme 3. Gene put into plasmid = recombined into a single DNA strand = rdna 4. Put into bacteria bacteria divide & give off product such as insulin. 9) Describe at least three uses for recombinant DNA. Make insulin, human growth hormone, TPA Create disease resistant plants Add nutrient to food crop (Golden rice) Page 2 of 10

3 B7. Demonstrate an understanding of the process of protein synthesis 10) Complete the following table: Describe both processes. Use diagrams to help in your explanation Transcription 1. Helicase opens DNA where gene located 2. RNA polymerase adds complementary RNA bases to create mrna molecule from initiation site to termination site. (DNA serves as template for mrna) 3. mrna molecule leaves through nuclear pores to cytoplasm linear so it fits through the nuclear pores. Translation 1. Initiation 2 halves of ribosome (large & small subunits) come around the mrna molecule and the start codon (AUG) turns on translation 2. Elongation trna brings AA to ribosome. Codon on mrna matches with anticodon on trna (A with U & G with C) and AA left to be added to the polypeptide chain with peptide bonds. 3. Termination - elongation continues until a stop codon is reached (3 of these) which turns off translation. Ribosome separates releasing mrna & primary protein structure to be bent and folded into its functional shape 11) Which process, transcription or translation, is depicted here? Label the molecules. ribosome Translation is shown here Amino acids mrna trna 12) Complete the following table: Describe each molecules role in Protein Synthesis DNA Has instructions on how to make a protein = code mrna Copies instructions and takes them to ribosome trna Brings AA to ribosome to be added to polypeptide chain ribosomes Builds polypeptide chain site for codons & anticodons to meet Page 3 of 10

4 13) Of the 5 nitrogen bases, which one is X in the below diagram? How do you know (support your answer)? Adenine has 2 hydrogen bonds and is a purine (double ring) Since molecule X is on an mrna molecule, and RNA does not have thymine, the pyrimidine molecule is uracil. Adenine 14) Label the following in the diagram below: mrna (3 times), ribosome, anticodon, trna, DNA, amino acid, codon, primary protein, nucleus, cytoplasm. cytoplasm DNA Nucleus mrna Amino acid Primary protein trna anticodon codon ribosome Page 4 of 10

5 15) Use the aa codon chart to determine the amino acid sequence produced by the section of an mrna molecule below and determine the DNA strand that provided the instructions. mrna= CGC UAU - UGG DNA= GCG ATA - ACC Amino Acids: 16) = Arg Tyr - Try Use the aa codon chart to predict the amino acid sequence produced by this sequence of bases on a DNA molecule and label transcription and translation DNA= mrna= TAC-GAA-CTT-GGG-TCC AUG -CUU-GAA-CCC-AGG Amino Acids = Met Leu Glu Pro - Arg 17) What anti-codon would be present on the trna that is complementary to the mrna codons given? Anti-codon on trna always complements mrna codon AUG _UAC_ UAA _AUU AGA UCU CGU GCA Page 5 of 10

6 18) Explain what would occur during translation of the following DNA sequence if ACG underwent a mutation and was converted to ACT. Unmutated DNA: GCA CCT ACG GGA ACC DNA mutation: GCA CCT ACT GGA ACC mrna: CGU GGA UGA CCU UGG AA sequence: Arg Gly - stop Explanation: The mutation causes a stop codon to occur early in the synthesis of the protein. Therefore, the protein will be incomplete and not be able to function. 19) Production of mrna is called transcription 20) Production of a protein is called translation 21) Given the following trna sequence, find the DNA strand and polypeptide chain created: trna: UAC ACC GCC CUA CCC AAA mrna: AUG UGG CGG GAU GGG UUU DNA: TAC ACC GCC CTA CCC AAA AA: Met trp arg asp gly phe 22) In an experiment conducted to study proteins synthesis, radioactive thymine and radioactive uracil were added to a culture of human cells. A few hours later, the culture was analyzed and radioactive mrna was found. a. Explain how an mrna molecule is produced: TRANSCRIPTION Helicase opens DNA where gene located RNA polymerase adds complementary RNA bases to create mrna molecule from initiation site to termination site. (DNA serves as template for mrna) mrna molecule leaves through nuclear pores to cytoplasm linear so it fits through the nuclear pores. b. Explain why the mrna produced is radioactive Because uracil was incorporated into the mrna molecule causing it to be radioactive. c. In a different experiment, radioactive uracil was added to a culture of human cells undergoing DNA replication. What will be the characteristic of the resulting DNA in terms of radioactivity? Explain. DNA does not have uracil therefore it would not be incorporated into the DNA molecule. So the DNA would NOT be radioactive Page 6 of 10

7 B8. Explain how mutations in DNA affect protein synthesis 23) Give examples of two environmental mutagens that can cause mutations in humans. How do they cause a mutation? Biological: viruses and bacteria that increase the chance of a mutation Chemical: food additives, hallucinogenic drugs, asbestos, DDT, pesticides, manufactured chemicals. affect enzymes of DNA replication, increasing the chance of mutation Radiation: UV & cosmic rays - increasing the chance of mutation 24) Define transgenic organisms. Give an example. An organism that has the DNA of another organism inserted into it is called a transgenic organism. Example: bacteria with the human insulin gene 25) Use the examples to explain how mutations in DNA change the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain, and as a result, may lead to genetic disorders. a. point mutations, sickle cell anemia Changes the amino acid glutamate into valine. This results in abnormal hemoglobin molecule that causes the red blood cell to have a sickle shape that can clog blood vessels and lead to pain. b. gene mutation, hemophilia / cystic fibrosis A gene mutation that causes a lack of or minimal amount of clotting factors to be produced resulting in excessive bleeding. c. chromosomal mutation, Trisomy 21 An extra chromosome #21 results in Down s syndrome. This causes high levels of purines in the blood which leads to mental deficiencies. 26) Define gene therapy. What is its purpose? = alteration of afflicted individuals genes (of the same species) could help with genetic diseases like cystic fibrosis, Alzheimer s, some cancers, AIDS Page 7 of 10

8 Types of gene mutations Here is a section of DNA before a mutation. DNA: TAC GGG CTC TAG CGA GAT ATT mrna: AUG CCC GAG AUC GCU CUA UAA AA s: Met Pro Glu Ile Ala Leu stop 27) Insertion mutation - What would happen to the AA sequence above if one extra base (a G at the start of the 3 rd codon) were added to the original DNA sequence? Inserted DNA TAC GGG GCT CTA GCG AGA TAT T Resultant mrna AUG CCC CGA GAU CGC UCU AUA Mutated AA Met Pro Arg Asp Arg Ser Ile a. What conclusions can you draw regarding the effect of insertion mutations on the polypeptide chain that would be produced? They cause an incomplete protein to be made there is an extra base that does not make up a codon. Frameshift mutation compared to the original strand, every aa after the insertion changes. b. Do you think that insertion mutations would likely improve or negatively impact the intended function of the protein produced? Negative impact 28) Deletion mutation - What would happen to the AA sequence if one base (the 1 st G in the 2 nd codon) were deleted from the original DNA sequence? DNA TAC GGC TCT AGC GAG ATA TT mrna AUG CCG AGA UCG CUC UAU AA AA Met Pro Arg Ser Leu Tyr a. What conclusions can you draw regarding the effect of deletion mutations on the polypeptide chain that would be produced? There is an incomplete codon because only 2 bases at the end. Frameshift mutation compared to the original strand, every aa after the deletion changes. b. Do you think that deletion would likely improve or negatively impact the intended function of the protein produced? Negative impact 29) Substitution mutation - What would happen to the AA produced if a base were substituted for another base in the original DNA strand? (The substituted bases are highlighted below) DNA TAC CGG CTC TAG CGG GAT ATT mrna AUG GCC GAG AUC GCC CUA UAA AA Met Ala Glu Ile Ala Leu Stop Page 8 of 10

9 a. What can you conclude about the effect of substitution mutations on the polypeptide produced from a strand of DNA? You can get a complete protein made unlike the other types of point mutations. The amino acid may not even change so the same protein could still be made having no affect on the organism. b. Would substitutions improve or negatively impact the intended function of the protein produced? Why? They could negatively impact the function of the protein by changing the amino acid, thereby changing the protein. They could have no impact because the amino acid does not change resulting in the same protein Page 9 of 10

10 Page 10 of 10

B5 B8 ANWERS DNA & ) DNA

B5 B8 ANWERS DNA & ) DNA Review sheet for test B5 B8 ANWERS DNA review 1. What bonds hold complementary bases between 2 strands of DNA together? Hydrogen bonds 2. What bonds exist between sugars and phosphates? Covalent bonds

More information

Unit 6 Study Guide Protein Name pg I can tell the difference between mrna, trna, and rrna.

Unit 6 Study Guide Protein Name pg I can tell the difference between mrna, trna, and rrna. Unit 6 Study Guide Protein Name pg. 1 1. I can tell the difference between mrna, trna, and rrna. Messenger RNA (mrna) acts as a copy of the instructions for making a protein. mrna carries these instructions

More information

2. Describe (draw) the structure of a chromosome. Identify: DNA, proteins + a gene.

2. Describe (draw) the structure of a chromosome. Identify: DNA, proteins + a gene. Biology 12 DNA Functions Practice Exam - KEY A. DNA Structure 1. DNA is often called the "code of life". Actually it contains the code for a) the sequence of amino acids in a protein b) the sequence of

More information

Transcription and Translation. Chapter Ten

Transcription and Translation. Chapter Ten Transcription and Translation Chapter Ten Central Dogma DNA Transcription RNA Translation Protein Definitions Transcription To copy down, within the same language Language = Nucleic Acids DNA to RNA Translation

More information

a. Ribosomal RNA rrna a type ofrna that combines with proteins to form Ribosomes on which polypeptide chains of proteins are assembled

a. Ribosomal RNA rrna a type ofrna that combines with proteins to form Ribosomes on which polypeptide chains of proteins are assembled Biology 101 Chapter 14 Name: Fill-in-the-Blanks Which base follows the next in a strand of DNA is referred to. as the base (1) Sequence. The region of DNA that calls for the assembly of specific amino

More information

The Structure and Function of DNA

The Structure and Function of DNA Chapter 0 The Structure and Function of PowerPoint Lectures for Campbell Essential Biology, Fifth Edition, and Campbell Essential Biology with Physiology, Fourth Edition Eric J. Simon, Jean L. Dickey,

More information

PRACTICE TEST QUESTIONS

PRACTICE TEST QUESTIONS PART A: MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS PRACTICE TEST QUESTIONS DNA & PROTEIN SYNTHESIS B 1. One of the functions of DNA is to A. secrete vacuoles. B. make copies of itself. C. join amino acids to each other.

More information

DNA TM Review And EXAM Review. Ms. Martinez

DNA TM Review And EXAM Review. Ms. Martinez DNA TM Review And EXAM Review Ms. Martinez 1. Write out the full name for DNA molecule. Deoxyribonucleic acid 2. What are chromosomes? threadlike strands made of DNA and PROTEIN 3. What does DNA control

More information

DNA, RNA, Protein synthesis, and Mutations. Chapters 12-13.3

DNA, RNA, Protein synthesis, and Mutations. Chapters 12-13.3 DNA, RNA, Protein synthesis, and Mutations Chapters 12-13.3 1A)Identify the components of DNA and explain its role in heredity. DNA s Role in heredity: Contains the genetic information of a cell that can

More information

Provincial Exam Questions. 9. Give one role of each of the following nucleic acids in the production of an enzyme.

Provincial Exam Questions. 9. Give one role of each of the following nucleic acids in the production of an enzyme. Provincial Exam Questions Unit: Cell Biology: Protein Synthesis (B7 & B8) 2010 Jan 3. Describe the process of translation. (4 marks) 2009 Sample 8. What is the role of ribosomes in protein synthesis? A.

More information

Unit 8 DNA Structure, Replication, and Protein Synthesis

Unit 8 DNA Structure, Replication, and Protein Synthesis Unit 8 DNA Structure, Replication, and Protein Synthesis Objective 3.01 Analyze the molecular basis of heredity including DNA replication, protein synthesis, and gene regulation 1. Which series is arranged

More information

DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis. This isn t a baaaaaaaddd chapter!!!

DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis. This isn t a baaaaaaaddd chapter!!! DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis This isn t a baaaaaaaddd chapter!!! The Discovery of DNA s Structure Watson and Crick s discovery of DNA s structure was based on almost fifty years of research by other

More information

Ch. 12: DNA and RNA 12.1 DNA Chromosomes and DNA Replication

Ch. 12: DNA and RNA 12.1 DNA Chromosomes and DNA Replication Ch. 12: DNA and RNA 12.1 DNA A. To understand genetics, biologists had to learn the chemical makeup of the gene Genes are made of DNA DNA stores and transmits the genetic information from one generation

More information

Unit 6 ~ Learning Guide

Unit 6 ~ Learning Guide Unit 6 ~ Learning Guide Name: INSTRUCTIONS Complete the following notes and questions as you work through the related lessons. You are required to have this package completed BEFORE you write your unit

More information

Woods Biol Hmwk DNA & Genetic Engineering (key) Pg. 1

Woods Biol Hmwk DNA & Genetic Engineering (key) Pg. 1 Woods Biol Hmwk-6 10-1 DNA & Genetic Engineering (key) Pg. 1 NOTE: Unless otherwise indicated in the problem, DNA will be from the Template strand. Figure 1: Look carefully at Fig s 1 & 2 to determine

More information

In this activity, students investigate the gene that codes for CFTR and explore the transcription and translation of DNA.

In this activity, students investigate the gene that codes for CFTR and explore the transcription and translation of DNA. In this activity, students investigate the gene that codes for CFTR and explore the transcription and translation of DNA. For each student: Science notebook Reproducible Master 6, Cooking Up a Protein

More information

Chapter 10: Protein Synthesis. Biology

Chapter 10: Protein Synthesis. Biology Chapter 10: Protein Synthesis Biology Let s Review What are proteins? Chains of amino acids Some are enzymes Some are structural components of cells and tissues More Review What are ribosomes? Cell structures

More information

Grundlagen der Bioinformatik, SS 08, D. Huson, April 21,

Grundlagen der Bioinformatik, SS 08, D. Huson, April 21, Grundlagen der Bioinformatik, SS 08, D. Huson, April 21, 2008 7 2 Introduction to Molecular Biology We will start with a very short repetition of the basics of molecular biology, including a summary of

More information

Coding sequence the sequence of nucleotide bases on the DNA that are transcribed into RNA which are in turn translated into protein

Coding sequence the sequence of nucleotide bases on the DNA that are transcribed into RNA which are in turn translated into protein Assignment 3 Michele Owens Vocabulary Gene: A sequence of DNA that instructs a cell to produce a particular protein Promoter a control sequence near the start of a gene Coding sequence the sequence of

More information

DNA, RNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

DNA, RNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS DNA, RNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS Evolution of Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotes are larger, more complex cells that contain a nucleus and membrane bound organelles. Oldest eukarytotic fossil is 1800 million years

More information

OUTCOMES. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IB Biology Core Topic 3.5 Transcription and Translation OVERVIEW ANIMATION CONTEXT RIBONUCLEIC ACID (RNA)

OUTCOMES. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IB Biology Core Topic 3.5 Transcription and Translation OVERVIEW ANIMATION CONTEXT RIBONUCLEIC ACID (RNA) OUTCOMES PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IB Biology Core Topic 3.5 Transcription and Translation 3.5.1 Compare the structure of RNA and DNA. 3.5.2 Outline DNA transcription in terms of the formation of an RNA strand

More information

What s the Point? --- Point, Frameshift, Inversion, & Deletion Mutations

What s the Point? --- Point, Frameshift, Inversion, & Deletion Mutations What s the Point? --- Point, Frameshift, Inversion, & Deletion Mutations http://members.cox.net/amgough/mutation_chromosome_translocation.gif Introduction: In biology, mutations are changes to the base

More information

Study Guide Chapter 12

Study Guide Chapter 12 Study Guide Chapter 12 1. Know ALL of your vocabulary words! 2. Name the following scientists with their contributions to Discovering DNA: a. Strains can be transformed (or changed) into other forms while

More information

Academic Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis Test

Academic Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis Test Academic Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis Test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Each organism has a unique combination

More information

From DNA to Protein. Chapter 14

From DNA to Protein. Chapter 14 From DNA to Protein Chapter 14 Impacts, Issues: Ricin and your Ribosomes Ricin is toxic because it inactivates ribosomes, the organelles which assemble amino acids into proteins, critical to life processes

More information

(DNA) 2 = = RNA - DNA

(DNA) 2 = = RNA - DNA Genetics and Cellular Function Genes and nucleic acids Protein synthesis and secretion DNA replication and the cell cycle Chromosomes and heredity Organization of the Chromatin Threadlike chromatin = chromosomes

More information

Hands on Simulation of Mutation

Hands on Simulation of Mutation Hands on Simulation of Mutation Charlotte K. Omoto P.O. Box 644236 Washington State University Pullman, WA 99164-4236 omoto@wsu.edu ABSTRACT This exercise is a hands-on simulation of mutations and their

More information

This activity will help you to learn how a gene provides the instructions for making a protein.

This activity will help you to learn how a gene provides the instructions for making a protein. NAME: PERIOD: From Gene to Protein Transcription and Translation By Dr. Ingrid Waldron and Jennifer Doherty, Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Copyright, 2009 i This activity will help

More information

Just One Nucleotide! Exploring the Effects of Random Single Nucleotide Mutations

Just One Nucleotide! Exploring the Effects of Random Single Nucleotide Mutations Just One Nucleotide! Exploring the Effects of Random Single Nucleotide Mutations By Beatriz Gonzalez beatriz.gonzalez@sfcollege.edu Associate Professor, Santa Fe College, Gainesville, Florida In this exercise,

More information

This activity will help you to learn how a gene provides the instructions for making a protein.

This activity will help you to learn how a gene provides the instructions for making a protein. From Gene to Protein Transcription and Translation By Dr. Ingrid Waldron and Jennifer Doherty, Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Copyright, 2009 1 This activity will help you to learn

More information

Exercise 7: DNA and Protein Synthesis

Exercise 7: DNA and Protein Synthesis Exercise 7: DNA and Protein Synthesis Introduction DNA is the code of life, and it is the blueprint for all living things. DNA is contained in all cells, and it is replicated every time a cell divides.

More information

Transcription, Translation & Protein Synthesis

Transcription, Translation & Protein Synthesis Transcription, Translation & Protein Synthesis Do you remember what proteins are made of? Hundreds of Amino Acids link together to make one Protein There are 20 types of amino acids, some we can make,

More information

DNA Proccesses. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

DNA Proccesses. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: DNA Proccesses Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Mutations within a DNA sequence are a. natural processes that produce

More information

Molecular Genetics. RNA, Transcription, & Protein Synthesis

Molecular Genetics. RNA, Transcription, & Protein Synthesis Molecular Genetics RNA, Transcription, & Protein Synthesis Section 1 RNA AND TRANSCRIPTION Objectives Describe the primary functions of RNA Identify how RNA differs from DNA Describe the structure and

More information

Beloit College BIOL Emerging Infectious Diseases

Beloit College BIOL Emerging Infectious Diseases Virus classification and life cycle activity For reference Transcription: Krasner p 131 Translation: Krasner p 132-135 Genetic code: Krasner p 135 A virus is an obligate intracellular parasite, meaning

More information

DNA Lecture II Protein Synthesis Notes. Using the Code of Life DNA & RNA. Page #1 (Stratton 2010) Name: 2. : production of proteins

DNA Lecture II Protein Synthesis Notes. Using the Code of Life DNA & RNA. Page #1 (Stratton 2010) Name: 2. : production of proteins Page #1 Using the Code of Life DNA & RNA Slide #2 Two process involve DNA : making an copy of DNA a. purpose: b. occurs: c. uses: DNA : production of proteins a. purpose: & b. occurs: between nucleus &

More information

DNA: Molecule of Life

DNA: Molecule of Life DNA: Molecule of Life History DNA Structure Protein Synthesis Gene Regulation History of DNA H I S T O By the 1940 s, scientists knew that chromosomes consisted of both DNA and protein but did not know

More information

Solution Key Problem Set 3

Solution Key Problem Set 3 Solution Key- 7.016 Problem Set 3 Question 1 The following human pedigree shows the inheritance pattern of a specific disease within a family. Assume that the individuals marrying into the family for all

More information

Biology DNA Protein Synthesis and Fingerprinting. Spring 2009

Biology DNA Protein Synthesis and Fingerprinting. Spring 2009 Biology DNA Protein Synthesis and Fingerprinting Spring 2009 Chains of amino acids 20 named types Create/build structure within organisms Function as important biochemicals Ex: hair, skin, tissues in organs,

More information

Multiple Choice Review- Genes

Multiple Choice Review- Genes Multiple Choice Review- Genes 1. Deoxyribonucleic acid nucleotides are composed of a. Ribose sugar, a phosphate group and one of four bases (adenine, cytosine, thymine and guanine) b. Ribose sugar, a phosphate

More information

Transcription and Translation of DNA

Transcription and Translation of DNA Transcription and Translation of DNA Genotype our genetic constitution ( makeup) is determined (controlled) by the sequence of bases in its genes Phenotype determined by the proteins synthesised when genes

More information

2. The number of different kinds of nucleotides present in any DNA molecule is A) four B) six C) two D) three

2. The number of different kinds of nucleotides present in any DNA molecule is A) four B) six C) two D) three Chem 121 Chapter 22. Nucleic Acids 1. Any given nucleotide in a nucleic acid contains A) two bases and a sugar. B) one sugar, two bases and one phosphate. C) two sugars and one phosphate. D) one sugar,

More information

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) Genetic material of cells GENES units of genetic material that CODES FOR A SPECIFIC TRAIT Called NUCLEIC ACIDS DNA is made up of repeating molecules called NUCLEOTIDES Phosphate

More information

I. DNA, Chromosomes, Chromatin, and Genes. II. DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid Located in the of the cell Codes for your - discovered DNA in 1928

I. DNA, Chromosomes, Chromatin, and Genes. II. DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid Located in the of the cell Codes for your - discovered DNA in 1928 Name: Period: Date: = passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring How?...! I. DNA, Chromosomes, Chromatin, and Genes = blueprint of life (has the instructions for making an organism) = uncoiled

More information

From DNA to Protein. Proteins. Chapter 13. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. The Path From Genes to Proteins. All proteins consist of polypeptide chains

From DNA to Protein. Proteins. Chapter 13. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. The Path From Genes to Proteins. All proteins consist of polypeptide chains Proteins From DNA to Protein Chapter 13 All proteins consist of polypeptide chains A linear sequence of amino acids Each chain corresponds to the nucleotide base sequence of a gene The Path From Genes

More information

DNA and Protein Synthesis Grade 10

DNA and Protein Synthesis Grade 10 Ohio Standards Connection: Life Sciences Benchmark C Explain the genetic mechanisms and molecular basis of inheritance. Indicator 5 Illustrate the relationship of the structure and function of DNA to protein

More information

1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category?

1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category? DNA and Genetics 1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category? A. genome chromosome gene DNA molecule B. genome chromosome DNA

More information

Genetics Notes C. Molecular Genetics

Genetics Notes C. Molecular Genetics Genetics Notes C Molecular Genetics Vocabulary central dogma of molecular biology Chargaff's rules messenger RNA (mrna) ribosomal RNA (rrna) transfer RNA (trna) Your DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, contains

More information

trna and Protein Building Lab Date Period

trna and Protein Building Lab Date Period trna and Protein Building Lab Name Date Period Purpose: RNA produced in the nucleus of a cell moves out of the nucleus to the cell s ribosomes. This RNA is a specific sequence of bases copied from the

More information

Lesson Overview. Fermentation. Lesson Overview 13.1 RNA

Lesson Overview. Fermentation. Lesson Overview 13.1 RNA Lesson Overview 13.1 RNA Similarities between DNA & RNA They are both nucleic acids They both have: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, a nitrogenous base. Comparing RNA and DNA There are three important

More information

From Gene to Protein Transcription and Translation i

From Gene to Protein Transcription and Translation i From Gene to Protein Transcription and Translation i How do the genes in our DNA influence our characteristics? For example, how can a gene determine whether a person is an albino with very pale skin and

More information

Lab #5: DNA, RNA & Protein Synthesis. Heredity & Human Affairs (Biology 1605) Spring 2012

Lab #5: DNA, RNA & Protein Synthesis. Heredity & Human Affairs (Biology 1605) Spring 2012 Lab #5: DNA, RNA & Protein Synthesis Heredity & Human Affairs (Biology 1605) Spring 2012 DNA Stands for : Deoxyribonucleic Acid Double-stranded helix Made up of nucleotides Each nucleotide= 1. 5-carbon

More information

Biology Genes

Biology Genes Slide 1 / 111 Slide 2 / 111 Biology Genes www.njctl.org Slide 3 / 111 Vocabulary Click on each word below to go to the definition. P site 3' end polymerase chain reaction 5' end parent strand A site promoter

More information

www.lessonplansinc.com Topic: Gene Mutations WS Summary: Students will learn about frame shift mutations and base substitution mutations. Goals & Objectives: Students will be able to demonstrate how mutations

More information

Name Date Period. 2. When a molecule of double-stranded DNA undergoes replication, it results in

Name Date Period. 2. When a molecule of double-stranded DNA undergoes replication, it results in DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis Keystone 1. During the process shown above, the two strands of one DNA molecule are unwound. Then, DNA polymerases add complementary nucleotides to each strand which results

More information

2. The instructions for making a protein are provided by a gene, which is a specific segment of a molecule.

2. The instructions for making a protein are provided by a gene, which is a specific segment of a molecule. From Gene to Protein Transcription and Translation By Dr. Ingrid Waldron and Dr. Jennifer Doherty, Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Copyright, 2010 1 In this activity you will learn how

More information

II. DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid Located in the nucleus of the cell Codes for your genes

II. DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid Located in the nucleus of the cell Codes for your genes HEREDITY = passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring How?...DNA! I. DNA, Chromosomes, Chromatin, and Genes DNA = blueprint of life (has the instructions for making an organism) Chromatin=

More information

Mutation. Mutation provides raw material to evolution. Different kinds of mutations have different effects

Mutation. Mutation provides raw material to evolution. Different kinds of mutations have different effects Mutation Mutation provides raw material to evolution Different kinds of mutations have different effects Mutational Processes Point mutation single nucleotide changes coding changes (missense mutations)

More information

Genes DNA Replication

Genes DNA Replication Genes DNA Replication Classwork 1. Explain why it is necessary to be able to replicate DNA in order to sustain life. 2. What is the appropriate scientific term used to describe a series of bases that code

More information

Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism )

Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism ) Biology 1406 Exam 3 Notes Structure of DNA Ch. 10 Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism ) Proteins

More information

Name Class Date. Figure 13 1. 2. Which nucleotide in Figure 13 1 indicates the nucleic acid above is RNA? a. uracil c. cytosine b. guanine d.

Name Class Date. Figure 13 1. 2. Which nucleotide in Figure 13 1 indicates the nucleic acid above is RNA? a. uracil c. cytosine b. guanine d. 13 Multiple Choice RNA and Protein Synthesis Chapter Test A Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. 1. Which of the following are found in both

More information

RNA and Protein Synthesis

RNA and Protein Synthesis RNA and Protein Synthesis Answer Key Vocabulary: amino acid, anticodon, codon, gene, messenger RNA, nucleotide, ribosome, RNA, RNA polymerase, transcription, transfer RNA, translation Prior Knowledge Questions

More information

Biology 3 Transcription, Translation, and Mutations

Biology 3 Transcription, Translation, and Mutations Biology 3 Transcription, Translation, and Mutations Dr. Terence Lee Overview 1. DNA and RNA structure 2. DNA replication 3. Transcription makes RNA 4. Translation makes protein James Watson, Francis Crick,

More information

Structure and Function of DNA

Structure and Function of DNA Structure and Function of DNA DNA and RNA Structure DNA and RNA are nucleic acids. They consist of chemical units called nucleotides. The nucleotides are joined by a sugar-phosphate backbone. The four

More information

RNA Transcription and Translation

RNA Transcription and Translation RNA Transcription and Translation How is information in DNA used to make protein? RNA acts as DNA and protein synthesis machinery Transcription - copying of Translation - production of Whole process =

More information

RNA and Protein Synthesis Biology Mr. Hines

RNA and Protein Synthesis Biology Mr. Hines RNA and Protein Synthesis 12.3 Biology Mr. Hines Now we know how DNA (genes) are copied. But how is it used to make a living organism? Most of the structures inside of a cell are made of protein - so we

More information

It took a while for biologists to figure out that genetic information was carried on DNA.

It took a while for biologists to figure out that genetic information was carried on DNA. DNA Finally, we want to understand how all of the things we've talked about (genes, alleles, meiosis, etc.) come together at the molecular level. Ultimately, what is an allele? What is a gene? How does

More information

Students complete all index cards. 10 min. Completion of the anticipation guide.

Students complete all index cards. 10 min. Completion of the anticipation guide. 1 Tuesday, June 9 Objective Domain: Cells and Heredity Students explain the process of inheritance of genetic traits. Students differentiate between DNA and RNA, recognizing the role of each in heredity.

More information

Genetics Module B, Anchor 3

Genetics Module B, Anchor 3 Genetics Module B, Anchor 3 Key Concepts: - An individual s characteristics are determines by factors that are passed from one parental generation to the next. - During gamete formation, the alleles for

More information

2006 7.012 Problem Set 3 KEY

2006 7.012 Problem Set 3 KEY 2006 7.012 Problem Set 3 KEY Due before 5 PM on FRIDAY, October 13, 2006. Turn answers in to the box outside of 68-120. PLEASE WRITE YOUR ANSWERS ON THIS PRINTOUT. 1. Which reaction is catalyzed by each

More information

CH107 Mock Exam 2. 3) Which of the following is a purine base? A) Uracil B) Adenine C) Thymine D) Cysteine E) Orotate

CH107 Mock Exam 2. 3) Which of the following is a purine base? A) Uracil B) Adenine C) Thymine D) Cysteine E) Orotate 100 pts. 1-34 2pts, 35-40 8pts. (choose 4 of 6) 1) What are the components of DNA? A) Ribonucleic acid, B) Amino group, phosphate group, pentose sugar C) Sugar-phosphate backbone D) fructose sugar, nitrogen

More information

Gene Finding CMSC 423

Gene Finding CMSC 423 Gene Finding CMSC 423 Finding Signals in DNA We just have a long string of A, C, G, Ts. How can we find the signals encoded in it? Suppose you encountered a language you didn t know. How would you decipher

More information

Transcription & Translation. Part of Protein Synthesis

Transcription & Translation. Part of Protein Synthesis Transcription & Translation Part of Protein Synthesis Three processes Initiation Transcription Elongation Termination Initiation The RNA polymerase binds to the DNA molecule upstream of the gene at the

More information

Transcription Activity Guide

Transcription Activity Guide Transcription Activity Guide Teacher Key Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Introduction Central Dogma: DNA to RNA to Protein Almost all dynamic functions in a living organism depend on proteins. Proteins are molecular

More information

LEVEL TWO BIOLOGY: GENE EXPRESSION

LEVEL TWO BIOLOGY: GENE EXPRESSION LEVEL TWO BIOLOGY: GENE EXPRESSION Protein synthesis DNA structure and replication Polypeptide chains and amino acids Mutations Metabolic pathways Protein Synthesis: I can define a protein in terms of

More information

Tuesday 11/13. Agenda 1.Warm Up (Stamp HW) 2.Protein Synthesis Notes 3.HW Time (Transcription/ Translation Worksheet)

Tuesday 11/13. Agenda 1.Warm Up (Stamp HW) 2.Protein Synthesis Notes 3.HW Time (Transcription/ Translation Worksheet) Tuesday 11/13 Warm Up 1.What are the three parts of a nucleotide? How do two nucleotides link together 2.What binds the two strands of DNA together? Be Specific 3.What are the three main enzymes of DNA

More information

Molecular Facts and Figures

Molecular Facts and Figures Nucleic Acids Molecular Facts and Figures DNA/RNA bases: DNA and RNA are composed of four bases each. In DNA the four are Adenine (A), Thymidine (T), Cytosine (C), and Guanine (G). In RNA the four are

More information

INTRODUCTION TO DNA. DNA, CHROMOSOMES AND GENES How do these terms relate to one another?

INTRODUCTION TO DNA. DNA, CHROMOSOMES AND GENES How do these terms relate to one another? INTRODUCTION TO DNA You've probably heard the term a million times. You know that DNA is something inside cells; you probably know that DNA has something to do with who we are and how we get to look the

More information

DNA to Protein BIOLOGY INSTRUCTIONAL TASKS

DNA to Protein BIOLOGY INSTRUCTIONAL TASKS BIOLOGY INSTRUCTIONAL TASKS DNA to Protein Grade-Level Expectations The exercises in these instructional tasks address content related to the following science grade-level expectations: Contents LS-H-B1

More information

Section 12 3 RNA and Protein Synthesis

Section 12 3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Name Class Date Section 12 3 RNA and Protein Synthesis (pages 300 306) Key Concepts What are the three main types of RNA? What is transcription? What is translation? The Structure of RNA (page 300) 1.

More information

REVISING DNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS (LIVE) 01 JULY 2015 Exam Questions

REVISING DNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS (LIVE) 01 JULY 2015 Exam Questions REVISING DNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS (LIVE) 01 JULY 2015 Exam Questions Question 1 (Adapted from Feb/March 2015 Paper 2 DBE, Question 1.4) The diagram below represents DNA replication. 1.1 Identify the following:

More information

Aipotu Part III: Molecular Biology

Aipotu Part III: Molecular Biology Aipotu Part III: Molecular Biology Introduction: The Biological Phenomenon Under Study In this lab, you will continue to explore the biological mechanisms behind the expression of flower color in a hypothetical

More information

Figure During transcription, RNA nucleotides base-pair one by one with DNA

Figure During transcription, RNA nucleotides base-pair one by one with DNA Objectives Describe the process of DNA transcription. Explain how an RNA message is edited. Describe how RNA is translated to a protein. Summarize protein synthesis. Key Terms messenger RNA (mrna) RNA

More information

(http://genomes.urv.es/caical) TUTORIAL. (July 2006)

(http://genomes.urv.es/caical) TUTORIAL. (July 2006) (http://genomes.urv.es/caical) TUTORIAL (July 2006) CAIcal manual 2 Table of contents Introduction... 3 Required inputs... 5 SECTION A Calculation of parameters... 8 SECTION B CAI calculation for FASTA

More information

2.1 Nucleic acids the molecules of life

2.1 Nucleic acids the molecules of life 1 2.1 Nucleic acids the molecules of life Nucleic acids information molecules of the cells form new cells stored in chromosomes in nucleus of the cell in the form of a code in DNA / parts of the code are

More information

DNA Structure and Replication How is genetic information stored and copied?

DNA Structure and Replication How is genetic information stored and copied? Why? DN Structure and Replication How is genetic information stored and copied? Deoxyribonucleic acid or DN is the molecule of heredity. It contains the genetic blueprint for life. For organisms to grow

More information

Protein Synthesis. Page 41 Page 44 Page 47 Page 42 Page 45 Page 48 Page 43 Page 46 Page 49. Page 41. DNA RNA Protein. Vocabulary

Protein Synthesis. Page 41 Page 44 Page 47 Page 42 Page 45 Page 48 Page 43 Page 46 Page 49. Page 41. DNA RNA Protein. Vocabulary Protein Synthesis Vocabulary Transcription Translation Translocation Chromosomal mutation Deoxyribonucleic acid Frame shift mutation Gene expression Mutation Point mutation Page 41 Page 41 Page 44 Page

More information

Genetics. Chapter 9. Chromosome. Genes Three categories. Flow of Genetics/Information The Central Dogma. DNA RNA Protein

Genetics. Chapter 9. Chromosome. Genes Three categories. Flow of Genetics/Information The Central Dogma. DNA RNA Protein Chapter 9 Topics - Genetics - Flow of Genetics/Information - Regulation - Mutation - Recombination gene transfer Genetics Genome - the sum total of genetic information in a organism Genotype - the A's,

More information

Gene Translation:RNA -> Protein

Gene Translation:RNA -> Protein Gene Translation:RN -> Protein How does a particular sequence of nucleotides specify a particular sequence of amino acids? The answer: by means of transfer RN molecules, each specific for one amino acid

More information

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems 22 Answers and Solutions to Text roblems 22.1 DA contains two purines, adenine (A) and guanine (G) and two pyrimidines, cytosine (C) and thymine (T). RA contains the same bases, except thymine (T) is replaced

More information

Complementary Base Pairs: A and T. DNA contains complementary base pairs in which adenine is always linked by two hydrogen bonds to thymine (A T).

Complementary Base Pairs: A and T. DNA contains complementary base pairs in which adenine is always linked by two hydrogen bonds to thymine (A T). Complementary Base Pairs: A and T DNA contains complementary base pairs in which adenine is always linked by two hydrogen bonds to thymine (A T). Complementary Base Pairs: G and C DNA contains complementary

More information

12/22/2014. Read the introduction. How does a cell make proteins with the information from DNA? Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation

12/22/2014. Read the introduction. How does a cell make proteins with the information from DNA? Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation EQ How does a cell make proteins with the information from DNA? Protein Synthesis: Get Started Get Started Think of a corn cell that is genetically modified to contain the Bt gene and a corn cell that

More information

Biology - Student Reader & Workbook Unit 3, Chapter 4: Molecular Genetics - DNA Structure and Protein Synthesis

Biology - Student Reader & Workbook Unit 3, Chapter 4: Molecular Genetics - DNA Structure and Protein Synthesis Biology - Student Reader & Workbook Unit 3, Chapter 4: Molecular Genetics - DNA Structure and Protein Synthesis UNIT 3, CHAPTER 4: MOLECULAR GENETICS: DNA STRUCTURE AND... 3 PROTEIN SYNTHESIS... 3 LESSON

More information

Ingenious Genes Curriculum Links for AQA AS (7401) and A-Level Biology (7402)

Ingenious Genes Curriculum Links for AQA AS (7401) and A-Level Biology (7402) Ingenious Genes Curriculum Links for AQA AS (7401) and A-Level Biology (7402) 3.1.1 Monomers and Polymers 3.1.4 Proteins 3.1.5 Nucleic acids are important information-carrying molecules 3.2.1 Cell structure

More information

The Genetic Code There are 20 amino acids, but there are only four nucleotide bases in DNA. How many nucleotides correspond to an amino acid?

The Genetic Code There are 20 amino acids, but there are only four nucleotide bases in DNA. How many nucleotides correspond to an amino acid? CH 17 Transcription & Translation Basic Principles of Transcription & Translation RNA is the bridge between genes and the proteins for which they code. Transcription is the synthesis of RNA under the direction

More information

From DNA to Protein! (Transcription & Translation)! I. An Overview

From DNA to Protein! (Transcription & Translation)! I. An Overview Protein Synthesis! From DNA to Protein! (Transcription & Translation)! I. An Overview A. Certain sequences of nucleotides in DNA [called genes], can be expressed/used as a code to determine the sequence

More information

Level 2 Biology, 2013

Level 2 Biology, 2013 91159 911590 2SUPERVISOR S Level 2 Biology, 2013 91159 Demonstrate understanding of gene expression 9.30 am Friday 22 November 2013 Credits: Four Achievement Achievement with Merit Achievement with Excellence

More information

NUCLEIC ACIDS. An INTRODUCTION. Two classes of Nucleic Acids

NUCLEIC ACIDS. An INTRODUCTION. Two classes of Nucleic Acids NUCLEIC ACIDS An INTRODUCTION Two classes of Nucleic Acids Deoxynucleic Acids (DNA) Hereditary molecule of all cellular life Stores genetic information (encodes) Transmits genetic information Information

More information

1) The first codon translated by all eukaryotes is a. 2) The corresponding amino acid is.

1) The first codon translated by all eukaryotes is a. 2) The corresponding amino acid is. 1) The first codon translated by all eukaryotes is a. 2) The corresponding amino acid is. 3) Translation is terminated when the ribosome encounters. 4) Nucleic acid chains are synthesized in the to direction.

More information

16 Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation

16 Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation 16 Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Ge n e s c a r r y t h e information that, along with environmental factors, determines an organism s traits. How does this work? Although the complete

More information