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1 Name: Class: Date: Grade 11A Science Related Reading/Physics Conduction, Convention & Radiation Physics Gr11A Pre Reading Activity Using prior knowledge, write the definition for each vocabulary term. After you read, write the scientific definition of each term and compare it with your original definition Term Your Definition Scientific Definition Heat Conductor Conduction Convection Radiation Use the words above to describe what is happening here in the picture 1

2 Reading Text-8 INVESTIGATING HEAT TRANSFERS Heat and temperature are important concepts in all areas of science and in students day-to-day lives. People deal with heat and temperature in their everyday experiences, yet many people hold serious misconceptions about them Heat is the energy transferred from one object to another because of a difference in their temperatures Heat is thermal energy that is in transit. Heat moves (transfers) from warmer matter to cooler matter. But how exactly is heat transferred from warmer matter to cooler matter? Have you ever grabbed the handle of a hot metal pan or walked barefoot across asphalt on a scorching summer day? Why do these objects feel hot to you? In both of these situations, heat is transferred to your body because it is in direct contact with matter that is at a higher temperature. You are at a lower temperature than the hot matter so heat moves from the hot matter to your cooler hand or foot. This form of heat transfer is called conduction. Conduction is the transfer of thermal energy between matter that is in direct contact. Some materials conduct heat better than others. Why? When a metal pan is first placed on a stove and the stove is turned on for a few moments, a person can touch the pan without feeling any discomfort. But as the metal pan heats up, energy moves from the stove burner to the bottom of the pan, then from the bottom of the pan to the metal sides of the pan, and eventually moves up to the handle of the pan. Why does this happen? Energy from the stove burner causes the particles (atoms) making up the pan to move more rapidly. In some materials such as metals which are good conductors of heat, the rapidly moving particles readily cause neighboring particles in the same object to move faster. In turn, these particles cause their neighboring particles to move faster and so on up through the pan, causing a rise in temperature. This explains the experience of discomfort when touching the handle even 2

3 though your hand is not directly touching the stove burner conduction transferred heat to all parts of the pan making the handle hot. Conduction happens through the successive collisions of molecules. Different materials conduct heat differently depending on the way their particles are arranged; the closer the molecules are arranged, the more rapid the transfer. Imagine boiling a pot of water on the stove to cook some elbow pasta. Watching the water heating up you drop in one piece of elbow pasta. You notice the pasta rises to the top of the pan, gets pushed to the side, and then sinks to the bottom of the pan, rises again, and so on moving around in circles from top to bottom in the pot of boiling water. As the water particles at the bottom of the pan heat up they not only move faster but they also spread apart. The cooler water at the top sinks and the warmer, less dense water rises to the top. As the cooler water sinks it heats up and moves back to the top. The circular motion continues for as long as the water is being heated up. Convection is the transfer of heat by the actual movement of the warmed matter. The heat moves with the fluid. Observing the pasta lets us see the cycling movement of heat. Convection occurs in liquids and gases. Radiation is another method of heat transfer, that does not rely upon any contact between the heat source and the heated object. For example, we feel heat from the Sun or a fire even though we are not touching them. Radiation can occur through objects and empty space. Radiation is the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves. All objects possess thermal energy and emit some electromagnetic waves. Hotter objects are more energized than cooler ones. The concept of heat transfer by radiation can be understood using experiences familiar to us in everyday life: the warmth of the Sun, a campfire, or an open oven door. In these examples, we will recognize that matter is not necessary for this type of heat transfer to occur. Some of us may also be familiar with infrared heat lamps at restaurants or pet stores. In most situations, more than one method of heat transfer takes place. For example, in the boiling water and pasta convection example above, water becomes warmer due to the transfer of heat from the stove burner to the pot and then from the pot to the water (conduction). Developing the idea that heat transfers occur in a variety of ways should be emphasized rather than defining in absolute terms the differences between conduction, convection, and radiation. 3

4 It should be recognized that heat transfers, occurring in a variety of ways, can be used to explain everyday phenomenon. Keep in mind that even after knowing some of us may not be able to discuss the heating or cooling of objects in terms of heat transference. This remains a very challenging and abstract idea for many of us. Some students may continue to hold on to their naive belief that heat moves from a colder object to a warmer object or that both heat and cold are transferred at the same time. ACTIVITY-1 - Answer the following questions based on the reading passage 1.What is heat? 2. Define conduction 3. A) You are outside on a cold day and sit down on a metal bench. What does it feel like and why? B) You get up from the bench after sitting for a while. You place your hand where you have just been sitting. Predict what it would feel like and explain your reasoning. 4. A person touches a large chunk of ice with their hand and remarks, This is making me cold. Explain what this person is feeling. Is the ice transferring cold to the person? Is there a heat transfer occurring? Explain. 4

5 5.Nate was stirring hot soup on the stove. Why should he use a wooden spoon instead of a metal spoon? 6.Amber bought a coat with goose down insulation to keep her warm in the winter in Utah. Explain why a coat filled with goose down is a good choice to keep her warm. 7.Define convection 8.Define Radiation 2. Decide whether the following statements are True or False. Circle the correct answer. a) Power stations use heat to generate electricity. b) Heat, energy and temperature are all different names for the same thing. c) Potential energy is stored energy. d) Energy cannot be changed into different forms. e) Heat travels from warmer to colder places. f) Conduction of heat only occurs in liquids. g) When an object is heated, the particles present move more slowly. h) All materials conduct heat as well as each other. i) Materials containing air are usually good insulators. 5

6 j) Convection occurs in fluids due to movement of these fluids. k) The Sun is a major source of infrared radiation. l) Silver and shiny surface are good absorbers of heat radiation. m) Heat transfer occurs only with solids. n) Heat can occur as a result of physical and chemical changes. o) Infrared rays travel at the speed of light. p) Only objects that feel warm to the touch have heat energy. ACTIVITY-2 (Select the correct options in the following examples) 1.Which of the following is an example of heat conduction? a) An air vent from a furnace sending hot air into the house. b) A metal cup heating up when hot water is poured into it. c) The sun melting the ice formed on a frosty lawn. d) Cool air sinking to the ground on a cold night. 2.By what process does heat energy travel from the sun to the earth? a) Heat is radiated through space. b) Heat is conducted through air molecules. c) Convection of heat through air currents. d) Heat travels through the wind. 3.In a room in the wintertime, where would you find the warmest air? a) near the ceiling b) near the floor c) in the corners d) by a window 4.Which of the following is not a method of heat transfer? a) Conduction b) Convection c) Condensation d) Radiation 5.Heat transfer by conduction a) is not possible from human beings to their environment. 6

7 b) does not occur from light bulbs they are too bright. c) None of the above. d) requires some sort of material to facilitate the heat transfer. 6.Which of the following is the best conductor of heat? a) air c) plastic b) water d) aluminum 7.Which of the following is the worst conductor of heat in the group? a) air c) a vacuum b) plastic d) aluminum 8. The fact that, in general, liquids and gases expand when heated gives rise to a) convection currents in fluids due to changing masses. b) convection currents in fluids due to changing densities. c) heat transfer by conduction. d) convection currents in fluids due to constant temperatures. 9. In which of the following can convection currents be set up? a) air c) a vacuum b) plastic d) aluminum 10.The predominant method of heat transfer that causes a pot of water to boil is a) conduction. c) convection. b) radiation. d) boiling. 7

8 11.The process by which a pot of water on your electric stove starts to heat is a) conduction. c) convection. b) radiation. d) evaporation. 12.The method through which the entire pot of water boils on that hot stove is a) conduction. c) convection. b) radiation. d) evaporation. 13.This type of heat transfer can occur in a vacuum: a) Conduction. c) Convection. b) Radiation. d) Blackbody. 14. Heat transfer by radiation a) is not possible from human beings to their environment. b) does not occur from light bulbs they are too bright. c) does not require any material between the radiator and the object receiving the radiation. d) none of the above. 15. Which one of the following statements concerning the transfer of heat is not correct? a) Conduction and convection may take place in solids. b) Convection may take place in liquids and gases. c) Convection and radiation may take place in gases. d) Radiation and conduction may take place in solids. e) Conduction may take place in solids and liquids. 16. Which of the following methods of heat transfer involves the actual physical movement of high temperature molecules to regions of lower temperature? 8

9 a) condensation b) conduction c) convection d) radiation 17.If one's hands are being warmed by holding them to one side of a flame, the dominate form of heat transfer is which of these processes? a) conduction b) radiation c) convection d) Vaporization 18. The transfer of energy by the movement of fluids or gases with different temperatures is called a) convection. b) conduction. c) radiation. d) contact. ACTIVITY-3 1-(Select the correct mode of Heat Transfer for the following examples) Conduction, convection, or radiation? The heat you feel from a fireplace This type of heat transfer causes plates to move Boiling water Heat you feel from a hot stove Frying a pancake Fast particles colliding with slower particles Air travels this way Transfer through solids Transfer through space Moves as a wave Moves as a current Sun rays reaching earth Occurs with fluids 9

10 A coil on an electric stove This type of transfer is affected by color You feel the steam rising from a cup of hot chocolate. You burn your tongue drinking hot chocolate. A spoon in the hot chocolate becomes warm You are warmed standing in front of a fireplace _ On a sunny day, the sand at the beach can get very hot, if you step on it you feel the heat The side of the moon that faces the sun becomes extremely hot 2-Explain each of the following cases 1)A saucepan might have a copper bottom but a plastic handle 2)The smoke from a bonfire rises upwards 3)Why air conditioners are never installed near the floor of the room 4)Why newspaper wrapping keeps hot things hot ef fish and chips and cold things cold eg ice cream 10

11 5)If you put your hand above a buring match, your hand feels hot. However your hand does not feel particularly hot when it is underneath the burning match Post Reading Activity Concept Map-- students should construct a concept map using the terms heat, conduction, convection, and radiation. The main concept (heat) should be at the top. students should place the terms in ovals and connect the ovals with lines on which linking words are placed. For each mechanism of heat transfer, they should include a brief description and some examples. 11

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