Forms of Energy. Freshman Seminar

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1 Forms of Energy Freshman Seminar

2 Energy Energy The ability & capacity to do work Energy can take many different forms Energy can be quantified Law of Conservation of energy In any change from one form of energy to other forms, the total quantity of energy remains constant

3 Energy Energy =The ability & capacity to do work Measured by the capability of doing work: potential energy or the conversion of this capability to motion: kinetic energy

4 Examples of Potential Energy: Stretching a rubber band.. -Stores energy Yo Yo in held in your hand.. -Stores energy because of position Water at the top of a waterfall.. -Stores energy Drawing a Bow -Stores energy because of position

5 Calculating Potential Energy Energy due to position or stored energy. Example: PE= (mass) (gravity) (height) Due to gravity In this case potential energy is calculated by: The object s mass, multiplied by the earth s gravitational pull (9.8 m/sec sq), multiplied by the distance the object can fall.

6 Potential Energy Converted to Kinetic Energy When stored energy begins to move, the object now transfers from potential energy into kinetic energy. Standing still Running

7 Examples of Kinetic Energy Shooting a rubber band. Water falling over the fall. A Yo-Yo in motion. Releasing the arrow from the bow.

8 Definition of Kinetic Energy The energy of motion. Measured by: KE= ½ (Mass) (Velocity) 2 Kinetic energy is calculated by one half of the object s mass, multiplied by the object s speed- squared.

9 Mechanical Energy Mechanical energy E is the sum of the potential and kinetic energies of an object. E = U + K The total mechanical energy in any isolated system of objects remains constant if the objects interact only through conservative forces: E = constant E f = E i fi U f + K f = U i + K i

10 Conservation of Mechanical Energy If friction and wind resistance are ignored, a bobsled run illustrates how kinetic and potential energy can be interconverted, while the total mechanical energy remains constant.

11 Heat and temperature Kinetic molecular theory

12 Measures of heat Metric units calorie (cal) - energy needed to raise temperature of 1 g of water 1 degree Celsius kilocalorie (kcal, Calorie, Cal) - energy needed to raise temperature of 1 kg of water 1 degree Celsius English system British thermal unit (BTU) - energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 lb of water 1 degree Fahrenheit Mechanical equivalence J = 1 cal

13 A form of energy transfer between two objects External energy - total potential and kinetic energy of an every-day sized object Internal energy - total kinetic energy of the molecules in that object External can be transferred to internal, resulting in a temperature increase Heat

14 Heat versus temperature Temperature A measure of hotness or coldness of an object Based on average molecular kinetic energy Recall difference in KE and temp. between solids, liquids & gases Heat Based on total internal energy of molecules Doubling amount at same temperature doubles heat

15 Specific heat Variables involved in heating Temperature change Mass Type of material Different materials require different amounts of heat to produce the same temperature change Measure = specific heat Summarized in one equation

16 Energy, heat, and molecular theory Two responses of matter to heat 1. Temperature increase within a given phase Heat goes mostly into internal kinetic energy Specific heat 2. Phase change at constant temperature Related to changes in internal potential energy Latent heat

17 Heat flow Three mechanisms for heat transfer due to a temperature difference 1. Conduction 2. Convection 3. Radiation Natural flow is always from higher temperature regions to cooler ones

18 Heat flowing through matter Mechanism Hotter atoms collide with cooler ones, transferring some of their energy Direct physical contact required; cannot occur in a vacuum Poor conductors = insulators (Styrofoam, wool, air ) Conduction

19 Sample conductivities Material Silver Iron Water Styrofoam Air Vacuum Relative conductivity x x x10-5 0

20 Convection Energy transfer through the bulk motion of hot material Examples Space heater Gas furnace (forced) Natural convection mechanism - hot air rises

21 Radiation Radiant energy - energy associated with electromagnetic waves Can operate through a vacuum All objects emit and absorb radiation Temperature determines Emission rate Intensity of emitted light Type of radiation given off Temperature determined by balance between rates of emission and absorption Example: Global warming

22 Thermodynamics The study of heat and its relationship to mechanical and other forms of energy Thermodynamic analysis includes System Surroundings (everything else) Internal energy (the total internal potential and kinetic energy of the object in question) Energy conversion Friction - converts mechanical energy into heat Heat engines - devices converting heat into mechanical energy Other applications: heat pumps, refrigerators, organisms, hurricanes, stars, black holes,, virtually any system with energy inputs and outputs

23 The first law of thermodynamics Conservation of energy Components Internal energy Heat Work Stated in terms of changes in internal energy Application: heat engines

24 A flow of charge is called an electric current Electric current I = Q / t Note: net charge =0 It is measured in ampere (A=C/s) Need free charge to have electric current. Use conductors

25 Skiing electric circuit High PE High PE Low PE Low PE Skiers Charges go from points with high PE to low PE To complete the circuit need a device that brings you back to high PE: Ski lift Battery

26 Ohm s law Electric current is proportional to voltage. I V V = IR I R Coefficient in this dependence is called resistance R Resistance is measured in Ohm (W = V/A) V

27 Resistance and Temperature When electrons move through the conductor they collide with atoms: Temperature of the conductor increases because of the current (through collisions) Electrical energy is transformed into thermal energy Resistors dissipate energy Power energy per unit of time- (in W=J/s) dissipated by a resistor P = I 2 R

28 Electric power Electric energy can be converted into other kinds of energy: Thermal ( toaster) Light (bulbs) Mechanical (washer) Chemical Electric power (energy per unit of time): P = IV

29 What Produces Voltage? A Battery 9 V Lab Power Supply Solar Cell 1.5 V Electric Power Plant A few Volts 13,500 V Nerve Cell A few millivolts when activated by a synapse

30 Simple Electromagnetic Energy Moving electric charges. Examples: Power lines carry electricity Electric motors are driven by electromagnetic energy Light is this form of energy (X-rays, radio waves, laser light etc.)

31 Or Radiation Energy? Electromagnetic radiation -- photons (visible light, infrared, ultraviolet, x-rays, and radio waves). Light is an electromagnetic wave

32 Chemical Energy Energy that exists in the bonds that hold atoms together. When bonds are broken, chemical energy is released. Examples: Digesting food bonds are broken to release energy for your body to store and use. Sports your body uses energy stored in your muscles obtained from food. Fire a chemical change. Sodium metal reacts with water.

33 Nuclear Energy When the nucleus of an atom splits, nuclear energy is released. Nuclear energy is the most concentrated form of energy. Fission/fusion

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