CPI Links Content Guide & Five Items Resource

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1 CPI Links Content Guide & Five Items Resource Introduction The following information should be used as a companion to the CPI Links. It provides clarifications concerning the content and skills contained in the CPI Links. Remember that instruction should be much richer than assessment and that the examples contained herein do not represent the variety of instructional strategies and supports necessary for meaningful teaching and learning of academic content. The information and examples are intended to clarify the intentions of the CPI Links so that assessment activities aligned to the links and thus to the state standards can be developed or chosen appropriately for students who participate in the NJ APA. For each standard, you will find that this resource includes The Test Specifications followed by the corresponding CPIs and Links A Glossary of terms contained in the CPI Links Further Clarifications concerning specific content, skills, language, and/or activity development considerations Five Items examples that show what constitutes five items for certain links where that may not be clear as well as the semantic intent of the link language. How to Use This Resource 1) Review the Steps to Developing an Entry in Modules IV and V of the Fall Training. 2) Remember to make your decisions regarding which CPI Link you will use to assess your students based on the individual needs of your students. Just because a particular link may be best for one student does not mean it is best for another, especially given the diverse needs of the students who participate in the NJ APA. 3) Once you have selected a CPI Link, use the Glossary to look up the definitions of any/all content vocabulary terms contained in the language of the link. This will ensure your understanding of those terms is consistent with the understanding set forth by the NJ DOE for the NJ APA. 4) Check the Further Clarifications section to see if there is additional information about the CPI and/or CPI Link you have chosen that will be helpful as you choose or design the activities you will use as the assessment evidence in your students APA portfolios. 5) If the CPI Link has an asterisk at the end of the link statement, you will find an example of that link in the Five Items section to use as a guide/reference/model NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 1

2 8 th Grade Science - Test Specifications and Links for Standard Physics (Portfolio Entry 3) The following are the required CPIs for Standard 5.7: Physics. Both CPIs are from Strand B: Energy Transformations. You must select a CPI Link from one of the CPIs to develop an entry for the APA portfolio. STRAND B: Energy Transformations You MUST CHOOSE only one of the following CPIs: CPI 5.7.8B3 Describe how heat can be conducted through materials or transferred across space by radiation and know that if the material is fluid, convection currents may aid the transfer of heat. Essence of the CPI: Understand that heat can be transferred by conduction (through materials), radiation (across space), and convection (through fluids) Matched Link Near Link Far Link Explain that certain objects may lose or gain their thermal energy at different rates Distinguish the difference between temperature variations in several locations* Describe an insulator and conductor and explain how they work* OR Classify objects as insulators or conductors of heat both insulators and conductors must be represented* Describe practical uses of insulators and conductors in relation to the transfer of heat* Classify examples of thermal energy as conduction, convection, or radiation all types must be represented* Explain characteristics of conduction, convection, and radiation* CPI 5.7.8B4 Show light is reflected, refracted, or absorbed when it interacts with matter and that colors may appear as a result of this interaction. Essence of the CPI: Light is made up of different colors that may appear separately as a rainbow or when light passes through a prism. Matched Link Near Link Far Link Describe how reflection and absorption create visible light Illustrate examples of refracted light versus reflected light* Explain the impact glass and water have on light* Compare and contrast light absorption on two different objects* Compare and contrast reflection and refraction Identify examples of reflected, refracted, and/or absorbed light* Recognize the colors that make up white light* Please note: Always consult the Glossary and Further Clarifications sections of this resource when working with any of these Links. Additionally, an asterisk at the end of a Link statement denotes there is an example for that specific Link in the Five Items section of this resource NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 2

3 Glossary 5.7 Glossary 5.7 Compare - to examine (two or more objects, ideas, people, etc.) in order to note similarities and/or differences Conduction, Convection, and Radiation: Conduction - the transfer of heat by molecular motion through a solid or a liquid from a region of high temperature to a region of lower temperature by direct contact of molecules Convection - the movement of heated molecules of a gas or a liquid from a heat source to another area due to density differences within the gas or liquid Radiation - the transfer of heat energy by waves of visible or infrared light moving through space Conductors - materials through which heat flows easily; most familiar conductors are metallic; for instance, copper is an excellent conductor of heat; pots and pans made of copper transfer heat quickly; the heat in the pan also moves quickly into the surrounding cooler air (Sources: PhysicsClassroom.com, TeachEngineering.org, National Digital Science Library.org) Contrast - to compare in order to show differences; to note the opposite natures, purposes, etc. Electromagnetic spectrum - Electromagnetic energy travels in waves. It is composed of a variety of wavelengths that span from very long waves (called radio waves) to very short waves (called gamma rays). Long waves have a low frequency and low energy; short waves have a high frequency and high energy. The entire span of energy is called the electromagnetic spectrum. The human eye can detect only a small portion of these waves called visible light (see visible light in Glossary) NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 3

4 Glossary 5.7 Insulators - materials through which heat does not flow easily; wood, some plastics, and some ceramics are poor conductors of heat Reflection, Refraction, and Absorption: Reflection - a change in the direction of a light ray when it strikes an object (A light ray reflecting off a mirror is a common example); the angle of reflection is equal the angle of incidence (the angle at which the light ray strikes the object) Refraction - a change in the direction of a light ray as it passes from one medium (i.e., air, glass, water) into another; the change in direction is due to a change in the velocity of the light ray in different mediums Absorption - a substance takes in some of the energy from a light ray and generally increases in temperature (e.g., absorption of sunlight by a black t-shirt) (Source for diagrams: (Source for definitions: National Science Digital Library/Teach Engineering.org) NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 4

5 Glossary 5.7 Solar energy - radiant heat and light from the sun Thermal energy - the internal energy of a substance determined by the motion, number, and arrangement of the particles (atoms or molecules) in the substance White or visible light is composed of electromagnetic radiation of varying wavelengths. When the wavelengths combine, the light appears white. Objects that reflect all wavelengths of visible light appear white. Objects that absorb all wavelengths of light appear black. If an object absorbs red and blue wavelengths, and reflects the green wavelength, the object will appear green. The colors that make up white light are (in order of decreasing wavelength/increasing frequency): Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 5

6 Further Clarifications 5.7 Further Clarifications 5.7 CPI Link Clarification 5.7.8B3 All links Notice that the CPI, Essence, and Links for 5.7.8B3 are specific to conduction and insulation of heat not electricity. Near Bullet 1 Classify objects as insulators or conductors of heat both insulators and conductors must be represented* When choosing or developing assessment activities for these links, include only conductors and insulators of heat. Do NOT use electricity. Both insulators and conductors must be represented. The movement of heat through a solid substance is conduction; the energy in an atom moves into the adjacent atom. Note: The human body is acceptable as a conductor of heat B4 Far Bullet 2 Recognize the colors that make up white light* Assessment activities must be aimed at assessing the student s understanding of which colors are part of white light as opposed to which colors are not (e.g., blue is but brown is not). See the Glossary for the seven colors that make up white light NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 6

7 Five Items Examples The Five Items examples are samples of activities that may be used as models when choosing or developing activities for the APA. They include specific considerations and guidelines that if not followed will likely result in unscorable codes. However, they do not show the required markings for performance (+/-) or independence (I, V, G, M, P), nor do they include student names and collection dates. They are sample activities, not sample evidence. Evidence must include all of the requirements of the Universal Scoring Rules NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 7

8 CPI: 5.7.8B3 Describe how heat can be conducted through materials or transferred across space by radiation and know that if the material is fluid, convection currents may aid the transfer of heat. Essence of the CPI: Understand that heat can be transferred by conduction (through materials), radiation (across space), and convection (through fluids) Matched Link, Bullet 2: Distinguish the difference between temperature variations in several locations* Directions to student: Circle the location that is hotter. Assume that both locations are at the same latitude. This example constitutes five items. The student distinguished which location was hotter five times. It is also acceptable to distinguish which location is cooler. The point is to distinguish difference in temperature NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 8

9 CPI: 5.7.8B3 Describe how heat can be conducted through materials or transferred across space by radiation and know that if the material is fluid, convection currents may aid the transfer of heat. Essence of the CPI: Understand that heat can be transferred by conduction (through materials), radiation (across space), and convection (through fluids) Matched Link, Bullet 3: Describe an insulator and conductor and explain how they work* Important Considerations for this Link: This link has two skills: 1) describe; 2) explain. Both skills must be assessed for each conductor and insulator. Both insulators and conductors of heat must be assessed. Directions to the student: Answer the following questions to describe an insulators and conductors and how they work. (Responses scribed by teacher) This example constitutes five items. The student described three insulators and explained how it worked and described two conductors and explained how it works for a total of five items NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 9

10 CPI: 5.7.8B3 Describe how heat can be conducted through materials or transferred across space by radiation and know that if the material is fluid, convection currents may aid the transfer of heat. Essence of the CPI: Understand that heat can be transferred by conduction (through materials), radiation (across space), and convection (through fluids) Near Link, Bullet 1: Classify objects as insulators or conductors of heat both insulators and conductors must be represented* Important Considerations for this Link: If pictures are used (such as in this example), they must be labeled so that it is clear what each picture is representing. Directions to student: Place the picture into the correct category Insulator or Conductor. This example constitutes five items. The student classified three insulators and two conductors. Identifying three conductors and two insulators is also acceptable NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 10

11 CPI: 5.7.8B3 Describe how heat can be conducted through materials or transferred across space by radiation and know that if the material is fluid, convection currents may aid the transfer of heat. Essence of the CPI: Understand that heat can be transferred by conduction (through materials), radiation (across space), and convection (through fluids) Near Link, Bullet 2: Describe practical uses of insulators and conductors in relation to the transfer of heat* Important Considerations for this Link: For this link, practical simply refers to how insulators and conductors are used in real life. Directions to the student: Given each topic below, use your word strips to explain how insulators and conductors are used in the transfer of heat. This example constitutes five items. The student described the practical uses of insulators and conductors. Both insulators and conductors were represented across five items NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 11

12 CPI: 5.7.8B3 Describe how heat can be conducted through materials or transferred across space by radiation and know that if the material is fluid, convection currents may aid the transfer of heat. Essence of the CPI: Understand that heat can be transferred by conduction (through materials), radiation (across space), and convection (through fluids) Far Link, Bullet 1: Classify examples of thermal energy as conduction, convection, or radiation all types must be represented* Important Considerations for this Link: Picture representations may be used. If pictures are used, clearly label the pictures so that the student and reviewer understand what the pictures represent. Directions to the student: I am going to read to you some examples of thermal energy. Use your word strips to label each example as conduction, convection, or radiation. 1. In a pot of boiling water, the hot water moves to the top, and cooler water moves to the bottom of the pan where it heats up and moves to the top, creating a circular motion. CONVECTION 2. Heat from a stovetop burner is transferred to a skillet, causing the skillet to become hot. CONDUCTION 3. The coils inside an electric blanket heat up the blanket and warm you when you wrap the blanket around you. CONDUCTION 4. Campers warm their hands over a campfire. RADIATION This example constitutes five items. Conduction, convection, and radiation were each used at least once across the five items. 5. The electricity goes out during a storm and Mom lights a candle. RADIATION NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 12

13 CPI: 5.7.8B3 Describe how heat can be conducted through materials or transferred across space by radiation and know that if the material is fluid, convection currents may aid the transfer of heat. Essence of the CPI: Understand that heat can be transferred by conduction (through materials), radiation (across space), and convection (through fluids) Far Link, Bullet 2: Explain characteristics of conduction, convection, and radiation* Important Considerations for this Link: Conduction, convection, and radiation must each be addressed. If picture are used, clearly label the pictures so that the student and reviewer understand what the pictures represent. Directions: Use the word strips to complete the chart, showing the characteristics of conduction, convection, and radiation. This example constitutes five items. The student provided one explanation for conduction, a two part explanation for convection, and a two part explanation for radiation for a total of five items NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 13

14 CPI: 5.7.8B4 Show light is reflected, refracted, or absorbed when it interacts with matter and that colors may appear as a result of this interaction. Essence of the CPI: Light is made up of different colors that may appear separately as a rainbow or when light passes through a prism. Matched Link, Bullet 1: Explain the impact glass and water have on light* Important Considerations for this link: Be advised that the information below is an explanation of an example rather than an actual example. Actual student work is always required. While the answers provided in the information below are lengthy, students should use their individual modes of communication to articulate their own explanations. 1. A student uses a net to try to catch a fish in an aquarium. When the student places the net where she sees the fish, she doesn t catch it. Explain why. Ans. Light reflected from the fish bends as it passes from the water through the glass so the fish appears in a location that is different from where the fish is actually located. (This would be one item) 2. A student observes a straw in a glass of water. The straw looks broken. Explain why. Ans. Light reflected from the part of the straw that is underwater bends so the straw appears in a location that is different from where the straw is actually located. (This would be one item) 3. A student uses a hand lens to look at an insect. The insect appears much larger when looking through the hand lens. Explain why. Ans. The shape of the lens (two convex lenses) bends the light and makes the insect look bigger (This would be one item) 4. A student places a penny in the center of the bottom of a glass of water. When the student looks straight down at the penny, the penny appears in the center of the bottom of the glass. When the student looks at the penny from the side, the penny appears off-center. Explain why. Ans. Refraction (bending of light) occurs only when the light passes through the medium at an angle. When light passes perpendicular through the medium, refraction does NOT occur. (This would be one item) 5. A student looks into the sky and sees a rainbow. Explain how a rainbow forms. Ans. When the air is filled with droplets of water (precipitation) and sunlight shines on the water droplets, a rainbow forms. Light from the sun refracts (bends) as it enters the water droplet, then reflects back through the droplet from the opposite side, then refracts (bends) again as it leaves the water droplet. Every droplet is refracting and dispersing the entire visible light spectrum (ROYGBIV). Red light is refracted out of a droplet at steeper angles towards the ground than the blue light. Droplets of water within this line of sight are refracting the red light to the observer's eye. The blue light from these same droplets is directed at a less steep angle and is directed along a trajectory that passes over the observer's head. Thus, it is the red light that is seen when looking at the steeper angles relative to the ground. As so on, for all of the colors of the visible spectrum. (This would be one item) NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 14

15 CPI: 5.7.8B4 Show light is reflected, refracted, or absorbed when it interacts with matter and that colors may appear as a result of this interaction. Essence of the CPI: Light is made up of different colors that may appear separately as a rainbow or when light passes through a prism. Matched Link, Bullet 2: Compare and contrast light absorption on two different objects* Important Considerations for this Link: Since this link states compare and contrast, across the five items, both similarities and differences must be addressed. Directions to student: Put the labels in the correct places in the Venn diagram to compare and contrast light absorption on the two objects. This example constitutes five items. The student identified two things specific to the green apple, two things specific to the red apple, and one thing they have in common for a total of five items NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 15

16 CPI: 5.7.8B4 Show light is reflected, refracted, or absorbed when it interacts with matter and that colors may appear as a result of this interaction. Essence of the CPI: Light is made up of different colors that may appear separately as a rainbow or when light passes through a prism. Near Link, Bullet 2: Illustrate examples of refracted light versus reflected light* Important Considerations for this Link: To illustrate, the student may draw, use manipulatives/objects, or drag images on a computer program, etc. Directions to the student: Draw examples of refraction and reflection. Be sure to label your drawings in order to show the difference between the two. This example constitutes two items. One example of refraction and one example of reflection was illustrated. Three more illustrations are needed to fulfill the five items requirement NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 16

17 CPI: 5.7.8B4 Show light is reflected, refracted, or absorbed when it interacts with matter and that colors may appear as a result of this interaction. Essence of the CPI: Light is made up of different colors that may appear separately as a rainbow or when light passes through a prism. Far Link, Bullet 1: Identify examples of reflected, refracted, and/or absorbed light* Important Considerations for this Link: Since this link states and/or, there are a variety of ways to assess this skill: 1) Across the five items, examples of reflected, refracted, and absorbed light all three may be addressed, as shown in this example. This is the recommended way to assess this link. 2) Across the five items, examples for two of the types of light (reflected and refracted, reflected and absorbed, or refracted and absorbed) may be addressed. All three do not have to be addressed. 3) Assessment activities may be exclusive to just one type of light just reflection, just refraction, or just absorption. However, if distractors are provided, there must be the same number of distractors as there are correct answer choices so that there is a balance of correct and incorrect answer choices. This prevents artificially inflating or deflating the student s score. If pictures are used (such as in this example), they must be labeled so that it is clear what each picture is representing. Directions to the student: Use the labels to identify each example as either reflected, refracted, or absorbed. This example constitutes five items. The student was presented with five examples of light and identified each as reflection, refraction, and absorption NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 17

18 CPI: 5.7.8B4 Show light is reflected, refracted, or absorbed when it interacts with matter and that colors may appear as a result of this interaction. Essence of the CPI: Light is made up of different colors that may appear separately as a rainbow or when light passes through a prism. Far Link, Bullet 2: Recognize the colors that make up white light* Important Considerations for this Link: Be advised that the information below is an explanation of an example rather than an actual example. Actual student work is always required. Assessment activities must be aimed at assessing the student s understanding of which colors are part of white light as opposed to which colors are not (e.g., blue is but brown is not). The teacher will provide the student with 10 colored cards: Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet, Brown, Black, and White. The teacher will shine a light through a prism and project the dispersed light onto a white wall or white sheet of paper. See diagram below. The student will select five colored cards that make up white/visible light based on observation of the light dispersed by the prism. Sample Response student selects: Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet This would be seven items one item per color identified NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 18

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