Key Concepts in Science HEAT TEACHER GUIDE Sally Ride Science

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1 Key Concepts in Science HEAT TEACHER GUIDE 2015 Sally Ride Science

2 HEAT: CONTENTS Student handouts are at the back of the Teacher Guide. Correlation to Standards Sally Ride Science Teacher Guides... 5 Heat: About the Book... 6 Getting Started: In Your World...7 Preview Heat, read the introduction, and discuss the introduction s key concepts. Chapter 1: Heat Model asking questions while reading, read Chapter 1, and discuss the key concepts in the chapter. Students: Chapter 1 handout Class Activity: Heat Charades...10 Answer questions about heat-related scenarios. Act out the scenarios for classmates to guess. Students: Heat Charades handout Chapter 2: Heat and Temperature...11 Model making a concept map, read Chapter 2, and discuss the key concepts in the chapter. Students: Chapter 2 handout Read Chapter 3: Heat Transfer Model making a three-column chart, read Chapter 3, and discuss the key concepts in the chapter. Students: Chapter 3 handout Heat: Science Writing...14 Write three paragraphs giving examples of heat transfer in everyday life. Students: Heat: Science Writing handout Thinking Like a Scientist Read Thinking Like a Scientist and answer the questions about specific heat. Students: Thinking Like a Scientist handout How Do We Know? > Read How Do We Know? Read How Do We Know? about mechanical engineer Jay Ochterbeck, and answer the questions. Students: How Do We Know? handout > Investigation Connection...18 Do a demonstration and answer questions about heating water and air. Students: Investigation Connection handout Study Guide: Hey, I Know That!...19 Complete study guide questions. Students: Hey, I Know That! handout 2015 Sally Ride Science 2

3 CORRELATION TO STANDARDS Correlation to Science Standards For information on alignment to state science standards and NGSS, visit Correlation to Common Core Sally Ride Science s Key Concepts and Cool Careers book series provide students with authentic literacy experiences aligned to Common Core in the areas of Reading (informational text), Writing, Speaking and Listening, and Language as outlined in Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. Heat: Energy That Flows and the accompanying activities align to the following standards: Reading Standards for Informational Text K-5 (RI), Grades 3-5 Key Ideas and Details 1. Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. Grade 3 Refer to details and examples in a text when explain what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. Grade 4 Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. Grade 5 2. Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea. Grade 3 Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text. Grade 4 Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text. Grade 5 Craft and Structure 4. Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade appropriate topic or subject area. Grades 3-5 Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 7. Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur). Grade 3 Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears. Grade 4 Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts. Grades 3-5 Writing Standards K-5 (W), Grades 3-5 Text Types and Purposes 2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. Grade 3 a.-d., Grade 4 a.-e., Grade 5 a.-e. Production and Distribution of Writing 4. With guidance and support from adults, produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose. Grade 3 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. Grades 4 and Sally Ride Science 3

4 CORRELATION TO STANDARDS Research to Build and Present Knowledge 7. Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic. Grade 3 Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. Grade 4 Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. Grade 5 8. Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories. Grade 3 Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources. Grade 4 Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources. Grade 5 9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis reflection, and research. Grade 4 b., Grade 5 b. Range of Writing 10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. Grades 3-5 Speaking and Listening Standards K-5 (SL), Grades 3-5 Comprehension and Collaboration 1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade appropriate topics and texts, building on others ideas and expressing their own clearly. Grades 3-5 a.-d. 2. Determine the main ideas and supporting details of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. Grade 3 Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. Grade 4 Summarize a written text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. Grade 5 Language Standards K-5 (L), Grades 3-5 Knowledge of Language 3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. Grade 3 a.-b., Grade 4 a.-c., Grade 5 a.-b. Vocabulary Acquisition and Use 4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade appropriate reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. Grade 3 a.-d., Grade 4 a.-c., Grade 5 a.-c. 6. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that: signal spatial and temporal relationships. Grade 3 signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation.) Grade 4 signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships (e.g., however, although, nevertheless, similarly, moreover, in addition). Grade Sally Ride Science 4

5 SALLY RIDE SCIENCE TEACHER GUIDES The Sally Ride Science Key Concepts in Science and Cool Careers book series are available as print books and ebooks.* A Teacher Guide accompanies each of the 36 Key Concepts books and 12 Cool Careers books. More information: sallyridescience.com/learning-products *Book pages pictured in the Teacher Guides are from ebook editions. Some pages in the print books have different images or layouts. Cool Careers Cool Careers in Biotechnology Cool Careers in Earth Sciences Cool Careers in Engineering (Upper Elementary) Cool Careers in Engineering (Middle School) Cool Careers in Environmental Sciences (Upper Elementary) Cool Careers in Environmental Sciences (Middle School) Cool Careers in Green Chemistry Cool Careers in Information Sciences Cool Careers in Math Cool Careers in Medical Sciences Cool Careers in Physics Cool Careers in Space Sciences Key Concepts in Science Adaptations Biodiversity The Biosphere Cells Earth s Air Earth s Climate Earth s Energy Earth s Natural Resources Earth s Water Elements and Compounds Energy Basics Energy Transformations Flowering Plants Food Webs Forces Genetics Geologic Time Gravity Heat Life Cycles Light Motion Organic Molecules Photosynthesis and Respiration Physical Properties of Matter Plant and Animal Systems Plate Tectonics The Rock Cycle Solids, Liquids, and Gases Sound Space Exploration Sun, Earth, and Moon Units of Measurement Vertebrates The Water Cycle Weathering and Erosion Sally Ride Science provides professional development and classroom tools to build students passion for STEM fields and careers. Founded by Dr. Sally Ride, America s first woman in space, the company brings science to life for upper-elementary and middle school students. Visit us at SALLYRIDESCIENCE.COM for more information Sally Ride Science 5

6 HEAT: Energy That Flows About the Book Heat: Energy That Flows introduces students to the concept of heat and guides them to an understanding of the characteristics of heat energy. Students learn that the motion of molecules determines whether something is warmer or cooler. Students also learn how substances heat up and cool down as a result of the flow of heat energy, and how temperature is measured. Through everyday examples, students discover how heat is transferred by conduction, convection, and radiation. At the end of each two-page spread, a brief statement called The Bottom Line reinforces students understanding by summing up the key ideas covered in those pages. In Your World sparks students interest in heat by presenting a scenario in which heat plays several important roles. The scenario uses melting snow sculptures, a crackling fire, and a mug of soup to set the stage for the chapters that follow by getting students to think about what makes ice melt, how a fire and hot soup can warm them, and what the real difference is between hot and cold. Chapter 1 introduces students to the concept of heat by relating heat to motion. Students learn that all matter is in motion, though the molecules that make up solids, liquids, and gases move less or more vigorously. Through an example of popping popcorn, students learn that the faster the molecules in a solid, liquid, or gas move, the warmer a substance becomes. Students also learn that heat is a form of energy and that the calorie and joule are units for measuring energy, including heat. Chapter 2 uses iced tea and hot tea to explain that the temperature of an object is the measure of the average energy of motion of its molecules. Through examples of melting ice and cooling soup, students learn that heat flows from warmer objects to cooler ones, never the other way. They also learn that thermometers work because energy moves as heat from a warmer object to a cooler object until both are the same temperature. Chapter 3 engages students by describing a hiccuping coin trick that works because of conduction one of the three ways that heat can be transferred. Students also learn the difference between conductors and insulators. The chapter then explains how the process of convection transfers heat within our homes and around the globe. The chapter ends by showing how radiation carries energy through space in waves. Thinking Like a Scientist uses sand and water at the beach to illustrate specific heat a material s ability to take in or give off heat. Students compare data about the specific heat of materials. They use the data to make a bar graph and analyze it to answer questions. How Do We Know? In Heat: Energy That Flows, the focus is on Jay Ochterbeck, a mechanical engineer who designs heat pipes. Students learn how these pipes transfer heat away from satellites and electronic devices to keep them from overheating. In Investigation Connection, students investigate whether heat pipes would work better if they were filled with air instead of a liquid. Hey, I Know That! allows students to assess their own learning through a variety of assessment tasks related to the key concepts covered in Heat Sally Ride Science 6

7 HEAT: GETTING STARTED In Your World Preview the book Ask students to browse through Heat: Energy That Flows. Encourage them to look at the cover, table of contents, chapter titles, special features, photographs, and diagrams. Explain that paying attention to these features will give them clues about the text. Read In Your World (pages 4 and 5) Tell students to read In Your World. Tell them to look at the pictures on the pages. Then guide students in a discussion of the key concepts in In Your World. Ask, What will happen to the snow sculptures if the weather warms up? [The snow sculptures will turn from frozen ice to liquid water they will melt.] Why will the snow sculptures melt? [The warm air will warm the colder snow enough to melt it. This happens because heat energy flows from warmer matter, which has higher kinetic energy, to cooler matter, which has lower kinetic energy.] What will happen to the hot soup as you hold it? [My hands will get warmer and the soup gradually will get cooler. Heat from the soup will be transferred to my hands.] Call on two or three students to share their ideas with the class Sally Ride Science 7

8 HEAT: CHAPTER 1 Heat 101 Read Chapter 1: Heat 101 Before reading: Model asking questions while reading Have students turn to page 6 in Heat. Read aloud the title and subtitle of Chapter 1: Heat 101, All About Motion. Say, Let s see, the book is titled Heat, the chapter is titled Heat 101, and yet the subtitle says All About Motion. Heat and motion must be related. I wonder how. I ll write down this question. Write on the board, How are motion and heat related? Have students look at the picture and text on page 6. Read aloud the caption and the text as students read silently along with you. Then say, I m beginning to see the answer to my question. The molecules that make up objects are always moving. I m going to predict that the faster the molecules move, the warmer the object becomes. I ll read on to see if I m right. Call on two or three students to read aloud the paragraphs on page 7. Then say, I was right. The faster the water molecules in the popcorn move, the warmer the kernels get. And look, The Bottom Line statement confirms it: The faster the molecules in a solid, liquid, or gas move, the warmer the substance becomes. Now I see that heat really is all about motion. Explain to students that asking themselves questions as they read will help focus their attention on important points in the reading. The questions and the answers may come from images or text. Read Chapter 1: Heat 101 (pages 6-9) Give students a copy of the Chapter 1: Energy 101 handout. Have them read the chapter. As they read, they should take notes on the handout and write down any questions that occur to them. They should also write down any answers they find. After reading: Discuss key concepts Clarify the concepts in Chapter 1 by modeling the motion of molecules in solids, liquids, and gases. Use three or four ping-pong balls or similar small, round objects to represent water molecules. Place the ping-pong balls on your desk close together but not touching each other. Cover them with your hand and jiggle your hand back and forth, making the balls appear to vibrate in place. Ask, What state of matter am I modeling when I make the ping-pong ball molecules move like this? [When the balls are held in place but are vibrating back and forth, they represent the movement of molecules in solid water ice.] Then say that heat is being added to the ice. Move the ping-pong balls closer together so they are touching and slide them past each other. Ask, What state of matter am I representing now? [When the balls are sliding past each other, this represents solid ice melting into liquid water. The water molecules that make up ice have more energy, so they move more. They slip and slide past each other.] 2015 Sally Ride Science 8

9 HEAT: CHAPTER 1 Heat 101 Then say that more heat is being added to the water. The molecules have even more energy, and they move faster and farther apart. Model this by pushing the balls away from each other and letting them roll. Say, What state of matter am I showing now? [The molecules are now a gas zipping through the air in all directions. But they are still water molecules.] Call on several students to share their ideas Sally Ride Science 9

10 HEAT: Heat Charades Class Activity Play Heat Charades Assign students to groups of four or five. Write a heat-related scenario at the top of each Heat Charades handout. Then pass out the handouts so each student within a group has a different scenario. Tell students not to share their scenarios with their group. Use these scenarios or come up with your own. > a snowman melting > holding an ice cream cone that is melting > drinking a cup of hot cocoa > being outside on a hot day > being outside on a cold day > warming up soup on a stove > warming up popcorn in a microwave > burning your mouth on hot pizza > warming up by a campfire Have each student answer the questions on the handout about how heat causes changes in her or his scenario. Then have the students in each group take turns acting out their scenarios while other students try to guess what is being acted out. After students guess each scenario, have them discuss the source of heat, the changes the heat caused, and the connection between the movement of molecules and heat in the scenario. SAMPLE ANSWERS 1. What is the source of heat in this scenario? [Sample answer: For my scenario, a snowman melting, the source of heat was the Sun. The Sun s energy heated the snowman directly and also heated the ground around the snowman. This heated the air, which warmed the snowman.] 2. What changes did the heat cause? [Sample answer: In the snowman scenario, the heat from the Sun caused the solid ice making up the snowman to slowly melt and change into liquid water.] 3. What was the connection between the movement of molecules and heat in this scenario? [Sample answer: Before the snowman started melting, the water molecules in the snow where frozen they were in a solid state. They were held in place but they vibrated back and forth. When the heat from the Sun gave the molecules more energy, they moved faster and faster until they could slip and slide past each other. The ice had turned to liquid water.] 2015 Sally Ride Science 10

11 HEAT: CHAPTER 2 Temperature and Heat Read Chapter 2: Temperature and Heat Before reading: Model summarizing with a concept map Tell students that making a concept map is one way to summarize the main ideas of what they are reading. Give them the Chapter 2: Temperature and Heat handout, and tell them that as they read the chapter, they should create a concept map in the space provided on the handout. To get students started, draw a circle in the middle of the board and write Temperature and Heat in the circle. Draw a second level of circles ringing the middle circle. Draw connecting lines from the middle circle to the new circles. Tell students that each level provides more detail for the previous level. Ask students to turn to page 10 in Heat. Call on a student to read the page aloud, along with the first two paragraphs on page 11. Then ask, What are the main ideas about heat and temperature in this section? In the second level of circles, write students responses, such as Temperature is a measure of the average energy of motion of molecules and Molecules are always colliding and changing speeds. Tell students they can draw another level of circles to give more details about the ideas in the second level. Tell them to copy the concept map onto their handouts and then add to it as they read the chapter. Read Chapter 2: Temperature and Heat (pages 10 15) Ask students to read Chapter 2: Temperature and Heat. Tell them that as they read, they should take notes on their Chapter 2 handouts and complete the concept map of the chapter. After Reading: Discuss key concepts Have students go to page 15. Draw their attention to the thermometer and its labels. Then read aloud the caption: Just like centimeters and inches are different units for measuring length, degrees Celsius and degrees Fahrenheit are different units for measuring temperature. Prompt students to compare the temperature scales by asking: If the air temperature in the classroom is 70 degrees Fahrenheit, how many degrees Celsius is it? [The temperature is 21 C.] If the high temperature outside is 10 degrees Celsius, what season is it likely to be? [Answers will vary; 10 C is about 50 F, which may be a typical temperature for spring, summer, fall, or winter, depending on where you live.] SCIENCE BACKGROUND When the Fahrenheit scale was invented, it was based on human body temperature, which was mistakenly placed at 100 F. (Body temperature has since been adjusted to 98.6 F.) This scale separated the freezing and boiling points of water by 180 degrees. Thus, water freezes at 32 F and boils at 212 F. The Celsius scale (also called the Centigrade scale) separates the freezing and boiling points of water by 100 degrees. Water freezes at 0 C and boils at 100 C. In 1948, an international conference of weights and measures formally adopted the degrees Celsius scale. It is used by scientists worldwide and is the official temperature scale for every country except the Cayman Islands, Belize, and the United States. You hear a weather report that says it s 70 C outside. You say, That has to be a mistake. Why do you say that? [It must be a mistake because 70 C is about 160 F, which is much hotter than what it would be anywhere outside. Either the report should have been in degrees Fahrenheit or a wrong number was given.] Then have pairs of students make a drawing that compares the two scales side by side. Have two or three pairs present their drawings to the class for discussion Sally Ride Science 11

12 HEAT: CHAPTER 3 Heat Transfer Read Chapter 3: Heat Transfer Before reading: Model how to summarize with a three-column chart Before students read Chapter 3: Heat Transfer, give them the Chapter 3 handout. Tell them that the handout has a space for them to make a three-column chart summarizing the key concepts in Chapter 3. To get students started, draw a three-column chart on the board and tell students to copy it on their handouts. Label the columns Conduction, Convection, and Radiation. Have students take turns reading aloud the text on page 16 and the first paragraph of page 17. The text describes and experiment called the hiccuping coin trick. Ask, How does this trick work? [When the bottle is removed from the refrigerator, the air in the bottle heats up. As the air molecules inside the bottle pick up speed and spread farther apart, they bang against the coin. Eventually, they hit it hard enough to pop it up. The transfer of heat that occurs is called conduction.] OK, this trick works because of conduction. What is conduction? [Conduction is the transfer of heat from one thing to another thing where the two things are touching.] Say, I will write that in the Conduction column of my chart. I could also write more details about conduction as well as examples of heat being transferred by conduction. Read Chapter 3: Heat Transfer (pages 16 23) Have students read the rest of Chapter 3: Heat Transfer. Tell them to take notes on their handouts and add concepts and examples to the three-column charts as they read. After reading: Discuss key concepts After students read Chapter 3, tell them to review their three-column charts. Then ask questions to allow students to sum up what they have learned. Ask, How does conduction of heat work? [When warmer matter touches cooler matter, the molecules where they touch collide. That transfers heat from the warmer matter to the cooler matter.] What s an example of conduction that you have observed? [Sample answer: When I hold a cup of cocoa and it makes my hand warm, the heat is being transferred by conduction.] How is heat transferred by convection? [In liquids and gases, matter can move from one place to another and carry its heat with it. This is convection.] What s an example of convection that you have observed? [Sample answer: Warm air from a furnace enters a room. The warm air is less dense than cooler air, so it rises. Then it cools and sinks. This motion sets up a circular flow of air that transfers heat to the air in the room.] What happens when heat is transferred by radiation? [When something gives off energy in the form of radiation, that energy moves through space until it hits something that absorbs it. The heat from the radiating object warms the object it hits through radiation.] 2015 Sally Ride Science 12

13 HEAT: CHAPTER 3 Heat Transfer What s an example of heat transfer by radiation from everyday life? [Sample answer: When energy from the Sun warms my face, heat is transferred by radiation.] Call on several students for examples of each type of heat transfer. Encourage students to discuss each other s answers. Guide the discussion to correct any misconceptions. SCIENCE BACKGROUND Heat moves, or is transferred, from place to place by conduction, convection, and radiation. In most familiar scenarios, heat rarely moves by one method only. It is much more likely that heat is transferred by some combination of conduction, convection, and radiation. A pot of soup warming on the stove is a good example. Conduction moves heat from the stovetop to the bottom of the pot and then up the sides of the pot as well as to the liquid inside. This happens because the molecules of the burning gas or hot electric stovetop touch cooler matter the pot. The speedy molecules of the hot matter collide with the molecules of cooler matter, transferring their energy to the cooler matter. Inside the pot, heat also moves by convection. The liquid near the bottom of the pot heats up first because of conduction. The warmer liquid is less dense than the cooler liquid above it. The cooler, denser liquid then sinks, pushing the warmer liquid up. This cycle sets up convection currents that move heat throughout the liquid. If you hold your hand an inch or so from the side of the pot, you are likely to feel warmth radiating from it. This is heat transfer by radiation the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves. To summarize: Three Ways Heat Is Transferred Conduction: Heat moves through matter from one particle to another. The heated matter stays in the same place. Convection: Heat moves by currents in a liquid or gas. The heated matter moves from place to place. Radiation: Heat moves as waves of energy through matter or through empty space Sally Ride Science 13

14 HEAT: Science Writing Heat in My World Write About Heat Give students the Science Writing handout. They will write three paragraphs titled Heat in My World. Tell students they should describe examples from their lives that show how they use or interact with heat. They should give an example that involves heat transfer by conduction, an example that involves heat transfer by convection, and an example that involves heat transfer by radiation. While describing their examples, they should explain: > how molecules move in warm matter versus cold matter. > how heat flows from warmer matter to cooler matter. > how heat is transferred by conduction, convection, and radiation. Let students work in pairs to discuss and compare ideas. Then they can write their paragraphs individually. Invite two or three students to read their completed paragraphs to the class. Then discuss some everyday examples of heat, encouraging students to relate some of the ideas from their essays. Encourage students to discuss any points they disagree about. Correct any misconceptions. ADDRESS MISCONCEPTIONS Students may have difficulty distinguishing between convection and radiation because they may think that in both cases heat simply floats through the air. Emphasize that air is matter. It contains molecules of oxygen (O 2 ), nitrogen (N 2 ), water (as water vapor, H 2 O), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and other gases. Heat flows through air in convection currents just as it does in liquid water. Outer space, on the other hand, is a vacuum. It does not contain matter, so convection and conduction cannot occur through space. Radiation, however, travels on waves of energy, which can move through matter or through empty space. That is why radiation from the Sun can travel through space to Earth Sally Ride Science 14

15 HEAT: THINKING LIKE A SCIENTIST Specific Heat Read Thinking Like a Scientist and answer the questions (pages 24-25) Give students the Thinking Like a Scientist handout. Tell students to read Thinking Like a Scientist and have them use the handout to answer the questions on page 25. To start, they should make a bar graph using the data in the table on page 25. Work together as a class to start the graphs. Draw a vertical and a horizontal axis on the board, forming a large L. Point to both axes and ask, Which of these is the X-axis? [The horizontal line is the X-axis.] Label the X-axis Material and the Y-axis Specific Heat (joules/gram C). Say, A bar graph is a helpful way to compare different things in this case, the specific heat of different materials. The materials can be labeled on the X-axis. Each material will have its own bar. How many materials should I label along this axis? [You should label the seven materials listed in the data table.] Now I need the scale for specific heat along the vertical line, or Y-axis. The scale has to include all the numbers in the data table. What are the lowest and highest numbers in the table? [The lowest number is 0.4. The highest is 4.2.] Write these numbers off to the side. Then say, The scale also has to be divided so that it clearly shows all the data. Let s see most of the specific heats are less than 1.0 joule/gram C. I need a scale that can show the small numbers and include the bigger number. Any suggestions? Students may suggest using whole numbers: 1, 2, 3, etc. Point out that most of the data would be squeezed between the numbers 1 and 2 on the scale, making the graph hard to accurately mark and read. Then say, Let s mark the scale in units of 0.1 joules/gram C. We can start with the numbers 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3. I ll end with 4.2. This will make it easy to compare the numbers that are close together as well as include the larger number Sally Ride Science 15

16 HEAT: THINKING LIKE A SCIENTIST Specific Heat Mark the scale along the Y-axis. Now say, I ll start marking the bar for aluminum, and you tell me when I should stop. Start at the bottom of the graph for aluminum and draw a line straight upward. Students should indicate stopping at 0.9 joules/gram C. Then thicken the line to make it a bar. Ask, What does this bar show? [It shows that the specific heat of aluminum is 0.9 joules/gram C.] Have students copy the graphs on their handouts. Then have students work in pairs to complete their own graphs. Have pairs discuss the questions on page 25 and come to agreement on the answers. Then discuss the questions and answers together as a class. ANSWER KEY 1. Which material needs the most heat to change its temperature? What is one effect of this? [Water has the highest specific heat, 4.2 joules/gram C, meaning it takes 4.2 joules to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius. One effect of this is that water is slow to heat up and slow to cool down. Water can absorb a lot of heat and takes a long time to heat up, so water at the beach stays much cooler than the sand.] 2. Which three materials need about the same amount of heat to change their temperatures? [Aluminum, glass, and sand need about the same amount of heat to change their temperatures. Aluminum has a specific heat of 0.9 joules/gram C, and glass and sand both have specific heats of 0.8 joules/gram C.] 3. Which material needs the least heat to change its temperature? What is one effect of this? [The material that needs the least heat to change its temperature is copper. One effect of this is that copper heats up very quickly, so it is sometimes used for cookware.] 4. A glass vase and a copper pot are on a fireplace hearth. They are the same distance from the fire. Predict which object will be warmer and explain why. [The copper pot would be warmer because it gets hot faster than the glass vase. Heat from the fire radiates toward both objects, but copper, with its specific heat of 0.4 joules/gram C, gets hot faster than glass, with its specific heat of 0.8 joules/gram C.] 2015 Sally Ride Science 16

17 HEAT: HOW DO WE KNOW? Meet mechanical engineer Jay Ochterbeck Read How Do We Know? (pages 26-29) and answer the questions Give students the How Do We Know? handout for Heat. Ask students to look over the questions on the first part of the handout and then read The Issue section of How Do We Know? Then students should answer the questions about that section. Have them complete the rest of the sections (The Expert, page 27; In the Field, page 28; Technology, page 29) in the same way. Tell students to share their answers in pairs. Then go over each question as a class. Call on two or three students to share their answers to each question. ANSWER KEY 1. Why are heat pipes an important part of many electronic devices? [By transferring heat away from the parts of electronic devices, heat pipes help prevent electronic devices from overheating and becoming damaged.] 2. How do heat pipes in satellites use all three methods of heat transfer? [The part of the satellite that needs to be cooled touches one end of the heat pipe and transfers the satellite s heat to the pipe through conduction. The liquid in the pipe boils, and vapors carry heat to the other end of the pipe through convection. The heat moves out of the other end of the pipe and into space by radiation.] 3. What things in Jay Ochterbeck s childhood were clues that he might grow up to be a mechanical engineer? [Jay loved science and math, he enjoyed building models, and he could visualize how things fit together.] 4. In his class, Jay Ochterbeck has each laboratory team stir a mug of hot water with a solid copper pipe and with a heat pipe. The heat pipe warms up much faster than the copper pipe. Suppose each team was given two mugs of hot water and the two pipes and told to stir one mug with the copper pipe and the other with the heat pipe for several minutes. How would the temperatures of the water in the two mugs be different? Why would the temperatures be different? [The water that was stirred with the heat pipe would be much cooler than the water that was stirred with the copper pipe. The heat pipe transfers heat away from the water much faster than the copper pipe does because the heat pipe uses all three heat transfer methods. So after a few minutes, the heat pipe s water would have much less heat and be cooler than the copper pipe s water.] 5. Why might heat pipes be considered the perfect tools on satellites? [Sample response: Heat pipes work very well to get rid of unwanted heat. They have no pumps, fans, or other moving parts, so there s nothing to burn out and nothing to fix. Fixing broken equipment on a satellite in space would be a problem.] 2015 Sally Ride Science 17

18 HEAT: INVESTIGATION CONNECTION Wet or Dry? Give students the Investigation Connection handout and have them read Investigation Connection on page 29 of Heat. Do the first part of the demonstration, holding a heat source under a balloon filled with air. Then have students make a prediction about what will happen when you hold the heat source under a balloon filled with water. Go outside and complete the demonstration. Then have students answer the questions on their handouts. Investigation Connection: Wet or Dry? Would a heat pipe get rid of more heat if it was filled with air instead of liquid? Try this experiment in class. First everyone puts on safety goggles. Next a volunteer inflates a balloon and ties it to a chair. Then watch as your teacher holds a candle or Bunsen burner under the balloon. What happens? Predict what would happen if the balloon was filled with water. Then go outside and do the experiment with a water balloon. Make a prediction: What will happen when your teacher holds a heat source under a balloon filled with water? [Predictions will vary.] ANSWER KEY 1. Which absorbed more heat, the air in the balloon or the water in the balloon? How do you know? [The water absorbed more heat. When the balloon filled with air was heated, it quickly expanded and popped. When the balloon filled with water was heated, it did not appear to expand, and it did not pop. That s because water has a high specific heat water can absorb a lot of heat before its temperature rises.] 2. How did the result compare to your prediction? Suggest reasons for any differences. [Answers will vary based on students predictions.] 3. Would a heat pipe get rid of more heat if it was filled with air instead of liquid? Explain your answer. [A heat pipe filled with water could absorb a lot more heat than a heat pipe filled with air. It would be more effective at cooling whatever device it was part of. That s why heat pipes are filled with liquid rather than gas.] 2015 Sally Ride Science 18

19 HEAT: HEY, I KNOW THAT! Study Guide Complete the Hey, I Know That! study guide (page 30) and answer the questions Have students use the Hey, I Know That! handout to answer the questions on page 30 of Heat. Have pairs of students discuss their answers. Then call on student pairs to share their answers and explain how they arrived at those answers. ANSWER KEY 1. Look at the three pictures of molecules. Which picture shows a gas? How do you know? (page 7) [Picture A shows a gas. The molecules are farther apart than in the other two pictures, and the molecules are not bonded to each other.] 2. Which picture shows water after most of its heat has flowed away from it? Explain your answer. (page 7) [Picture B shows water after most of its heat has flowed away and the water has become solid ice. The water s molecules are bonded to each other in orderly crystal structures. The molecules still vibrate in place, but they don t move very much.] 3. How does food help keep you warm? (page 8) [After you eat, your body uses the chemical energy stored in food to keep all your cells working and to keep your body warm inside. Digestion breaks down molecules that make up food (proteins, fats, sugars) into smaller molecules that can be carried by blood to all of a person s cells. Cells break apart sugar molecules and release heat during the chemical reactions of cell respiration. Some of this heat is used to maintain a stable body temperature of about 98.6 F.] 4. Suppose you are told it s 25 degrees outside. What else do you need to know in order to decide if you need to wear a coat? Why? (page 15) [To figure out if you need a coat, you would need to know if the temperature reading is in Celsius or Fahrenheit. If the temperature is in Fahrenheit, it is below the freezing temperature of water 32 degrees Fahrenheit so you definitely would need a coat. If it s 25 degrees Celsius, that would be the same as about 77 degrees Fahrenheit, so you would be comfortable without a coat.] 5. Draw one or more pictures that show the three ways that heat is transferred. You may combine more than one kind of heat transfer on one picture. Include arrows and labels in your drawings. (pages 16 23) [Drawings will vary. A picture might show heat from the Sun reaching Earth through radiation the transfer of heat through waves of energy. The heat causes currents in the atmosphere, which warm Earth through convection. Convection is the motion of a liquid or gas due to changes in density caused by changes in temperature. Once the ground is warmed by radiation and convection, the drawing might show heat being transferred to a person s feet through conduction. Conduction is the transfer of heat from a warmer thing to a cooler thing when the two things are touching.] 6. Explain how your hand becomes warm when you stick it in a sink filled with warm water. Use the terms molecules and energy of motion in your answer. (page 17) [When I stick my hand in a sink filled with warm water, the molecules in the water are moving faster and have more energy of motion than the molecules in my skin. The energetic molecules in the water bump the molecules in my hand, making them move faster, so my hand gets warmer. As the water molecules transfer energy to my hand through conduction, the water loses energy and becomes slightly cooler.] 2015 Sally Ride Science 19

20 Key Concepts in Science HEAT STUDENT HANDOUTS 2015 Sally Ride Science 20

21 HEAT Chapter 1 Heat 101: Notes for Chapter 1 As you read Chapter 1, write down any questions that occur to you. Also write down any answers to your questions that you find. ALL ABOUT MOTION THIS WAY AND THAT WAY BRINGING THE HEAT HOW MUCH? 2015 Sally Ride Science 1

22 PICTURE THIS HEAT Chapter 1 Review your notes for Chapter 1. Summarize your notes by making a diagram to illustrate this Bottom Line statement: The faster the molecules in a solid, liquid, or gas move, the warmer the substance becomes. Include a caption and labels with your diagram. PUT IT ALL TOGETHER Use your notes and diagram to help you identify and list the most important ideas the key concepts in Chapter Sally Ride Science 2

23 HEAT Play Heat Charades Play Heat Charades Here is the scenario you will act out for your group members to guess: Before you act out your scenario, answer these questions. 1. What is the source of heat in this scenario? 2. What changes did the heat cause? 3. What was the connection between the movement of molecules and heat in this scenario? 2015 Sally Ride Science

24 HEAT Chapter 2 Heat and Temperature: Notes for Chapter 2 As you read Chapter 2, write down the most important information you come across. Resist the urge to write down everything that you read. Instead, focus on the big ideas, or gist, of what you are reading. GOING WITH THE FLOW TEMPERATURE S RISING ON THE MOVE COOL OFF! TEMPERATURE CHECK CHOOSE YOUR SCALE 2015 Sally Ride Science 1

25 PICTURE THIS HEAT Chapter 2 Review your notes for Chapter 2. Summarize your notes by creating a concept map. Draw a circle and label it Heat and Temperature. Then draw circles connected by lines to the central circle and add information about heat and temperature. You can also make a third level of circles with more details about the concepts in the second level. PUT IT ALL TOGETHER Use your notes and concept map to help you identify and list the most important ideas the key concepts in Chapter Sally Ride Science 2

26 HEAT Chapter 3 Heat Transfer: Notes for Chapter 3 As you read Chapter 3, write down the most important information you come across. Resist the urge to write down everything that you read. Instead, focus on the big ideas, or gist, of what you are reading. ENERGY ON THE MOVE REACH OUT AND TOUCH A QUICK TRANSFER NICE AND SLOW WHAT GOES AROUND COMES AROUND MEGA CURRENTS A LONG JOURNEY 2015 Sally Ride Science 1

27 RADIATION NOT SO SCARY HEAT Chapter 3 PICTURE THIS Review your notes for Chapter 3. Summarize your notes by creating a three-column chart with the headings Conduction, Convection, and Radiation. List the important ideas about each of the ways heat is transferred. PUT IT ALL TOGETHER Use your notes and three-column chart to help you identify and list the most important ideas the key concepts in Chapter Sally Ride Science 2

28 HEAT Science Writing Science Writing: Heat in My World Using the title Heat in My World, write three paragraphs describing examples from your life that show how you use or interact with heat. The first paragraph should include an example of heat transfer by conduction. The second paragraph should include an example of heat transfer by convection. The third paragraph should include an example of heat transfer by radiation. Be sure to explain: > how molecules move in warm matter versus cold matter. > how heat flows from warmer matter to cooler matter. > how heat is transferred by conduction, convection, and radiation. Heat in My World 2015 Sally Ride Science

29 HEAT Thinking Like a Scientist Thinking Like a Scientist: How Much Heat? Read Thinking Like a Scientist on pages 24 and 25 of Heat. Then draw a bar graph based on the data in the table. Use your bar graph to answer the questions on page 25. Create a bar graph based on the table. 1. Which material needs the most heat to change its temperature? What is one effect of this? 2. Which three materials need about the same amount of heat to change their temperatures? 3. Which material needs the least heat to change its temperature? What is one effect of this? 4. A glass vase and a copper pot are on a fireplace hearth. They are the same distance from the fire. Predict which object will be warmer and explain why Sally Ride Science

30 How Do We Know? A Hot Problem in Cold Space Review the questions below for each section of How Do We Know? Then read each section in the book and answer the questions. HEAT A Hot Problem in Cold Space THE ISSUE As you read, analyze the writing by thinking about these questions: 1. Why are heat pipes an important part of many electronic devices? 2. How do heat pipes in satellites use all three methods of heat transfer? THE EXPERT 3. What things in Jay Ochterbeck s childhood were clues that he might grow up to be a mechanical engineer? IN THE FIELD 4. In his class, Jay Ochterbeck has each laboratory team stir a mug of hot water with a solid copper pipe and with a heat pipe. The heat pipe warms up much faster than the copper pipe. Suppose each team was given two mugs of hot water and the two pipes and told to stir one mug with the copper pipe and the other with the heat pipe for several minutes. How would the temperatures of the water in the two mugs be different? Why would the temperatures be different? INVESTIGATION CONNECTION 5. Why might heat pipes be considered the perfect tools on satellites? 2015 Sally Ride Science

31 HEAT Investigation Connection Investigation Connection: Wet or Dry? Would a heat pipe get rid of more heat if it was filled with air instead of liquid? Try this experiment in class. First everyone puts on safety goggles. Next a volunteer inflates a balloon and ties it to a chair. Then watch as your teacher holds a candle or Bunsen burner under the balloon. What happens? Predict what would happen if the balloon was filled with water. Then go outside and do the experiment with a water balloon. Make a prediction: What will happen when your teacher bolds a heat source under a balloon filled with water? Interpret the results 1. Which absorbed more heat, the air in the balloon or the water in the balloon? How do you know? 2. How did the result compare to your prediction? Suggest reasons for any differences. 3. Would a heat pipe get rid of more heat if it was filled with air instead of liquid? Explain your answer Sally Ride Science

32 HEAT Hey, I Know That! Hey, I Know That! Study Guide Use this sheet to answer the Hey, I Know That! questions on page 30 of Heat. 1. Look at the three pictures of molecules. Which picture shows a gas? How do you know? (page 7) 2. Which picture shows water after most of its heat has flowed away from it? Explain your answer. (page 7) 3. How does food help keep you warm? (page 8) 4. Suppose you are told it s 25 degrees outside. What else do you need to know in order to decide if you need to wear a coat? Why? (page 15) 5. Draw one or more pictures that show the three ways that heat is transferred. You may combine more than one kind of heat transfer on one picture. Include arrows and labels in your drawings. (pages 16 23) 6. Explain how your hand becomes warm when you stick it in a sink filled with warm water. Use the terms molecules and energy of motion in your answer. Use the back of this sheet if needed. (page 17) 2015 Sally Ride Science

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