# Thermal Energy. Chapter Resources. Includes: Glencoe Science. Reproducible Student Pages. Teacher Support and Planning TRANSPARENCY ACTIVITIES

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1 Glencoe Science Chapter Resources Thermal Energy Includes: Reproducible Student Pages ASSESSMENT Chapter Tests Chapter Review HANDS-ON ACTIVITIES Lab Worksheets for each Student Edition Activity Laboratory Activities Foldables Reading and Study Skills activity sheet MEETING INDIVIDUAL NEEDS Directed Reading for Content Mastery Directed Reading for Content Mastery in Spanish Reinforcement Enrichment Note-taking Worksheets TRANSPARENCY ACTIVITIES Section Focus Transparency Activities Teaching Transparency Activity Assessment Transparency Activity Teacher Support and Planning Content Outline for Teaching Spanish Resources Teacher Guide and Answers

2 Directed Reading for Content Mastery Overview Thermal Energy Directions: Complete the concept map using the terms listed below. insulators forced-air radiation electrical conductors convection Thermal energy conduction whose transfer is helped by is transferred by which is used in all the conventional heating systems in the form of 3. radiation electromagnetic waves and hindered by 4. and 5. and 6. Thermal Energy 19

3 Name Date Class Section 1 Temperature and Heat Section 2 Transferring Thermal Energy Directions: In each of the following statements, a term has been scrambled. Unscramble the term and write it on the line provided. 1. If particles move more llsowy the object s temperature falls. 2. Conduction can take place in solids, liquids, and sages. 3. Thermal energy includes both kinetic and ttnepoail energy. 4. Any material that can flow is lufdi. 5. Any material that allows heat to pass through it easily is a roconcutd. 6. Materials with a high specific heat can absorb heat without a large hngcae in temperature. 7. Radiation is the transfer of energy in the form of vaews. 8. When an object increases in temperature it naigs thermal energy. 9. Many conductors,such as silver and copper, are lemtas. 10. Energy that travels by radiation is often called darinta greeny. 11. Insulators, such as wood and air, are poor conductors of thea. 12. The transfer of thermal energy by convection and conduction both require atterm. Directions: On the lines provided, explain the differences between conduction, convection, and radiation. Use the information in the exercise above to help you. Write your answers in complete sentences. 13. Directed Reading for Content Mastery 20 Thermal Energy

4 Directed Reading for Content Mastery Section 3 Using Heat Directions: Fill in the blanks using the correct terms from the list below. active combustion heating systems heat pump stroke conduction free passive thermal energy 1. Using solar energy is especially appealing because it is. 2. Most use fuel or electricity as a source of energy. 3. A house with large windows on its south side and few windows on its other sides probably uses a(n) solar heating system. 4. Solar collectors are used in buildings that have solar heating systems. 5. Fuel burned in a stove or fireplace transfers thermal energy to the surrounding air by, convection, and radiation. 6. Before solar energy can be used as a source of heat, it must be changed to. 7. means rapid burning. 8. A two-way heat mover is a. 9. A is the movement of a piston up or down. Directions: The terms in each group below are related. Write a sentence that uses all of the terms in each group in a way that shows how they are related. Underline each word of the group in your sentences. 10. radiant energy, solar collector, active solar heating system 11. heating system, radiator, conduction Thermal Energy 21

5 Directed Reading for Content Mastery Key Terms Thermal Energy Directions: In each of the following statements, a term has been scrambled. Unscramble the term and write it on the line provided. 1. The transfer of energy through matter by direct contact of particles is called docniotucn. 2. The transfer of energy by the movement of matter is called vecconniot. 3. The type of heat transfer that does not require matter is iadraniot. 4. Any material that does not allow heat to pass through it easily is an roinsulta. 5. An ntieanrl busmcotoin engine burns fuels inside chambers called cylinders. 6. Energy from the sun is lraos neeygr. 7. A device on a building that absorbs radiant energy from the sun is lraos lleocctro. 8. The thermal energy that flows from something with a higher temperature to something with a lower temperature is called eath. 9. Thermal energy is converted into mechanical energy by a thea gennie. 10. A thea revmo moves thermal energy from one location and transfers it to another location at a different temperature. 11. The pertreuamet measures the average kinetic energy of all the particles in an object. 12. The total energy of the particles in a material is ethrlam gyeren. 13. The pcciifes thea of a material is the amount of energy it takes to raise the temperature of 1 kg of the material 1 kelvin. 22 Thermal Energy

6 1 Reinforcement Temperature and Heat Directions: Determine whether the italicized term makes each statement true or false. If the statement is true, write true in the blank. If the statement is false, write in the blank the term that makes the statement true. 1. Particles that make up matter are in constant motion. 2. The faster particles move the less kinetic energy they have. 3. Temperature is the measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object. 4. When temperature increases,the kinetic energy of the particles decreases. 5. The thermal energy of an object is the total energy of the particles in a material. 6. A 5-kg chunk of aluminum and a 5-kg block of silver that are at the same temperature have the same thermal energy. 7. Heat flows from a higher temperature to a lower temperature. 8. Heat is measured in newtons. 9. Different materials need the same amounts of heat to have similar changes in temperatures. 10. The amount of energy it takes to raise the temperature of 1 kg of a material 1 kelvin is the specific heat of the material. 11. Water has a relatively low specific heat. 12. Materials with a high specific heat can absorb a lot of energy and show little change in temperature. Directions: Answer the following questions about specific and thermal energy. 13. Change in thermal energy can be calculated using the equation Q = m T C. a. In this equation, what does Q represent? b. What does m represent? c. What does T represent? d. What does C represent? e. What does the symbol mean? f. Why is the symbol used with T but not Q? 14. What formula is used to calculate T? Thermal Energy 27

7 2 Reinforcement Transferring Thermal Energy Directions: Determine whether the italicized term makes each statement true or false. If the statement is true, write true in the blank. If the statement is false, write in the blank the term that makes the statement true. 1. Materials that are poor conductors are poor insulators. 2. The transfer of energy through matter by direct contact of its particles is convection. 3. The transfer of energy in the form of invisible waves is conduction. 4. Solids usually conduct heat better than liquids and gases. 5. The R-value of insulation indicates its resistance to heat flow. 6. Air is a poor heat conductor. 7. Wind and ocean currents are examples of conduction currents. 8. Energy is usually transferred in fluids by radiation. 9. As water is heated, it expands, becomes less dense, and rises. 10. Dark-colored materials absorb less radiant energy than light-colored materials. 11. Only radiant energy that is reflected is changed to thermal energy. 12. The higher the R-value of insulation the less resistant it is to heat flow. Directions: Circle the object in each pair that will take in more heat. In the blank, explain why that object will take in more heat. 13. a silver spoon a wooden log 14. a white shirt a red shirt 15. foil in the sunlight a sidewalk in the sunlight 16. single-pane window double-pane window 17. R-5 insulation R-35 insulation 28 Thermal Energy

8 3 Reinforcement Using Heat Directions: Answer the following questions about the heating system represented in the flowchart. A. Furnace heats water to a boil. B. Steam provided by boiling water travels through pipes to a radiator. C. Steam cools inside radiator and condenses to water. D. Thermal energy of heated radiator heats air in room. 1. Is the system in the flowchart a hot-water system or a steam-heating system? 2. How does the furnace get the energy needed to heat the water? 3. Is the furnace an internal or external combustion engine? 4. How is the thermal energy produced by the furnace transferred to the water? 5. Why do the pipes carrying the steam to the radiator need to be insulated? 6. How is the thermal energy from the steam transferred to the radiator? 7. How is the thermal energy of the radiator transferred to the surrounding air? 8. What happens to the steam as it gives up thermal energy inside the radiator? 9. How is heat from the air surrounding the radiator transferred to the air in the rest of the room? Thermal Energy 29

9 1 Enrichment Hot and Cold Directions: Answer the following questions on the lines provided. 1. If you put a heated rock in a bucket of water, the temperature of the water will increase and the temperature of the rock will decrease until the temperature is equal for both substances. If you drop a heated rock in the ocean, will the same thing happen? Explain. 2. Before the days of central heating, it was common to take a hot item to bed with you to keep you warm. Would you rather have a 10 kg heated brick or a 10 kg jug of hot water that are at the same temperature? Explain. 3. Glass bottles have more mass than aluminum cans. When beverages in glass bottles are cooled, ten times as much heat must be removed as when the same beverages in aluminum cans are cooled. If you were a shop owner and had to pay the electric bills, would you rather sell beverages in glass containers or aluminum? 4. During the winter, after a hot bath, is it more efficient to drain the tub immediately or let it sit? Why? 30 Thermal Energy

10 2 Enrichment Materials large (tall) cardboard box 100-watt bulb in a ceramic socket thermometer scissors clock Constructing the Apparatus Follow the drawing as you proceed. Cut two flaps on one side of the box, one near the top and one below the first one but near the bottom. Make a hole in the top of the box away from the side with the flaps. This hole should be just big enough to hold the thermometer. Use tape to secure the thermometer if the hole is too big. Set the bulb inside the box but be sure it is not under the thermometer. CAUTION: Be sure the bulb is not touching the sides or any part of the box. Run the wire from the bulb out through a hole in the bottom of the box. Close the box. Record the temperature before plugging in the cord. Conclude 1. How close were your predictions to the actual values? 2. By what method(s) is air inside the box heated? Thermal Energy and the Need for Ventilation Procedure Trial A: Predict what you think the temperature inside the box will be after the light is on for 5 minutes. Be sure both flaps are closed. Plug in the cord. Wait 5 minutes. Unplug the cord. Record the temperature. Open the box and allow the temperature to return to what it was before you plugged in the bulb. Trial B: When the temperature has returned to the starting temperature, close the box except for the top flap. Repeat the procedure in Trial A. Trial C: When the temperature has returned to the starting temperature, close the box except for the bottom flap. Repeat procedures in Trial A. Trial D: When the temperature has returned to the starting temperature, open both flaps. Repeat the procedure described in Trial A. Data Starting Temperature Conditions Both flaps closed Top flap open, bottom closed Top flap closed, bottom open Both flaps open Predicted temperature Actual temperature Thermal Energy 31

12 Note-taking Worksheet Thermal Energy Section 1 Temperature and Heat A. related to the average kinetic energy of an object s atoms or molecules B. the sum of the kinetic and potential energy of all the atoms in an object 1. Thermal energy as temperature increases. 2. At constant temperature, thermal energy increases if increases. C. Thermal energy that flows from something at a higher temperature to something at a lower temperature is called. D. amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of a material by 1 degree C or K E. Changes in thermal energy can be calculated as change in thermal energy equals times change in temperature times specific heat. 1. When heat flows into an object and its temperature rises, the change in temperature is. 2. When heat flows out of an object and its temperature decreases, the change in temperature is. 3. A is used to measure specific heat. Section 2 Transferring Thermal Energy A. transfer of thermal energy through matter by direct contact of particles 1. Kinetic energy is transferred as particles. 2., particularly metals, are good heat conductors. B. The transfer of energy by the motion of heated particles in a fluid is called. 1. Convection transfer heat from warmer to cooler parts of a fluid. 2. Convection currents create and over different regions of Earth. Thermal Energy 33

13 Note-taking Worksheet (continued) C. energy transfer by electromagnetic waves 1. Some radiation is and some is when it strikes a material. 2. Heat transfer by radiation is in a gas than in a liquid or solid. D. Most living things control the flow of heat by using special features such as fur,,or scales. E. material that does not let heat flow through it easily 1. Gases such as usually make better insulators than liquids or solids. 2. A layer in a thermos is a good insulator because it contains almost no matter to allow conduction or convection to occur. Section 3 Using Heat A. systems warm homes and buildings 1. system fuel heats air, which is blown through ducts and vents; cool air is returned to the furnace to be reheated 2. system hot water or steam in a radiator transfers thermal energy to the air 3. heating system electrically heated coils in ceilings or floors heat air by conduction B. energy from the Sun 1. solar heating does not use mechanical devices to move heat. 2. Active solar heating systems use to absorb radiant energy, which is circulated through the building. C. an engine that converts thermal energy into mechanical energy 1. An engine burns fuel inside the engine in chambers or cylinders. 2. Internal combustion engines convert only about % of the fuel s chemical energy to mechanical energy. 34 Thermal Energy

14 Note-taking Worksheet (continued) D. device that removes thermal energy from one location and transfers it to another location at a different temperature 1. A contains a coolant that absorbs heat from the inside of the refrigerator and releases it on the outside as heat. 2. cool warm air. 3. can both cool and warm air. 4. The human body stays cool by of sweat. Thermal Energy 35

15 Chapter Review Thermal Energy Part A. Vocabulary Review Directions: In the space at the left, write the term from the word list that best completes each statement. Use each term once. combustion radiator solar collector conduction insulators radiation solar energy fluid heat engine kinetic energy convection 1. Thermal transfer by convection takes place in materials that are. 2. A type of heat transfer that does not require matter is. 3. Energy from the Sun is. 4. Energy is transferred through matter by direct contact of particles by. 5. The rapid burning of fuels that takes place in engines is called. 6. A device with a large surface area designed to heat the air near it by conduction is a(n). 7. Materials such as air, wood, and rubber that do not allow heat to pass through them easily are called. 8. The transfer of heat energy by movement of matter is called. 9. A device that absorbs radiant energy from the Sun is a(n). 10. A device that changes thermal energy into mechanical energy is called a(n). 11. The particles of an object with a high temperature have a high. Directions: Explain the difference between the terms in each pair. Write your answers on the lines provided. 12. heat mover, heat pump Assessment Thermal Energy 37

16 Chapter Review (continued) 13. internal combustion engine, external combustion engine Part B. Concept Review Directions: Determine whether the italicized term makes each statement true or false. If the statement is true, write true in the blank. If the statement is false, write in the blank the term that makes the statement true. 1. The transfer of thermal energy by conduction and convection does not require matter. 2. The transfer of thermal energy by radiation does not require matter. 3. A material that allows heat to pass through it easily is an insulator. 4. Insulation rated R-35 allows more heat to pass through it than insulation rated R Solar collectors are used in passive solar heating systems. Assessment 6. A solar heating system that does not use fans or electrical devices is an active solar heating system. 7. A steam engine is an example of an internal combustion engine. 8. The fuel of an external combustion engine is burned outside the engine. 9. A steam-heating system uses radiators to transfer thermal energy. 10. Refrigerators and air conditioners are heat pumps. 11. Steam-heating systems require more water than hot-water systems. 12. Because dark colors reflect more radiant energy than light colors, solar collectors are usually painted black. 13. Many external combustion engines use turbines to produce mechanical energy. 14. Temperature is a measure of the kinetic energy of an object. 38 Thermal Energy

17 1 Section Focus Transparency Activity Crumbling Bloom Flowers are soft and flexible they don t crumble, right? But this flower did crumble. That s because it was dipped in liquid nitrogen, which exists at temperatures of C and colder. Dipping the soft flower in a liquid that cold had a shattering effect on the flower. Transparency Activities 1. What s happening to the nitrogen in the open container of liquid nitrogen? 2. Which feels hotter after a day in the Sun an asphalt parking lot or a strip of grass? 3. Why does your hand become cold when you hold a glass of ice water? 44 Thermal Energy

18 2 Section Focus Transparency Activity A Spectacular Reentry In 1968, Apollo 8 became the first piloted vehicle to orbit the Moon. Below you see Apollo 8 as it reenters Earth s atmosphere. Friction between the atmosphere and the hurdling spacecraft created temperatures of up to 3,000 C! The craft and the astronauts inside needed special protection in order to survive these inferno-like temperatures. 1. Why is it a concern that the exterior of a spacecraft experiences very high temperatures upon reentry? 2. If a metal pan with a metal handle sits on a lit burner for a long time, what happens to the handle? 3. When it s cold out, why does a jacket help you stay nice and warm? Transparency Activities Thermal Energy 45

19 3 Section Focus Transparency Activity Steam Power Steam engines convert heat energy into mechanical energy. The engines use heat energy to produce steam that powers the locomotive. During the 1800s, steam engines were used in factories and mills and to propel boats and trains. Transparency Activities 1. What are some fuels that the engines might burn to create steam? 2. Describe how liquid water is different from steam (gaseous water). 3. What changes steam energy to mechanical energy in the locomotive? 46 Thermal Energy

20 3 Teaching Transparency Forced Air System Activity Filter Warm air Fan Smoke outlet Vent Duct NEED B&W! Cooled air Transparency Activities Thermal Energy 47

21 Teaching Transparency Activity (continued) 1. Describe the flow of thermal energy through the forced air heating system that is shown on the transparency. 2. What do all heating systems require? 3. How does heat transfer by conduction differ from heat transfer by convection? Transparency Activities 4. What is the most common type of heating system in use today? 5. How does your body rid itself of excess heat? 48 Thermal Energy

22 Brass Name Date Class Assessment Transparency Activity Thermal Energy Directions: Carefully review the diagram and answer the following questions. Aluminum Nickel Iron Wax Copper 1. Which hypothesis is probably being tested by this experiment? A Different metals conduct heat at different rates. B Brass conducts heat better than any other metal. C Metals are good insulators. D Different kinds of wax melt at different rates. 2. According to the diagram, which metal conducts heat BEST? F Aluminum G Nickel H Iron J Copper 3. Most metals will have all of the following properties EXCEPT. A shiny luster B good conductor of heat C solid at room temperature D good insulators Transparency Activities Thermal Energy 49

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