# Temperature. Temperature

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Chapter 8

2 Temperature Temperature a number that corresponds to the warmth or coldness of an object measured by a thermometer is a per-particle property no upper limit definite limit on lower end

3 Temperature Scale Temperature Celsius scale named after Anders Celsius ( ) zero C for freezing point of water to 100 C for boiling point of water Fahrenheit scale named after G. D. Fahrenheit ( ) 32 F for freezing point of water to 212 F for boiling point of water Kelvin scale named after Lord Kelvin ( ) 0 K for freezing point of water to 373 K for boiling point of water zero at absolute zero, same size degrees as Celsius scale Kelvins, rather than degrees are used

4 Temperature Temperature is proportional to the average translational kinetic energy per particle in a substance. gas how fast the gas particles are bouncing to and fro liquid how fast particles slide and jiggle past one another solid how fast particles move as they vibrate and jiggle in place

5 Gas Particles are in constant RANDOM motion Particles have different speeds Pressure is given by the momentum transferred by particles colliding Average KE of each particle is ~ T

6 The Internal Energy of a system is a measure of the total Energy due to ALL random molecular motions: (Translations KE, Rotational KE, Vibrational KE) and internal POTENTIAL energies due to interactive forces (electromagnetic, strong, weak, gravitational) Mechanical Energy is due to the kinetic and potential energies of the system itself in an external reference frame. Temperature is a measure of the AVERAGE Translational KE ONLY! Heat is a flow of thermal energy from hotter to colder because of a difference in temperature. (think water fall!)

7 Temperature CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR There is twice as much molecular kinetic energy in 2 liters of boiling water as in 1 liter of boiling water. Which will be the same for both? A. temperature B. thermal energy C. both A and B D. neither A nor B

8 Temperature CHECK YOUR ANSWER There is twice as much molecular kinetic energy in 2 liters of boiling water as in 1 liter of boiling water. Which will be the same for both? A. temperature B. thermal energy C. both A and B D. neither A nor B Explanation: Average kinetic energy of molecules is the same, which means temperature is the same for both.

9 Temperature CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR To say that body A has a higher temperature than body B is to say that body A has more A. thermal energy. B. mass. C. kinetic energy per particle. D. potential energy.

10 Temperature CHECK YOUR ANSWER To say that body A has a higher temperature than body B is to say that body A has more A. thermal energy. B. mass. C. kinetic energy per particle. D. potential energy.

11 Heat Heat internal energy transferred from one thing to another due to a temperature difference internal energy in transit Flow of Internal Energy from a high-temperature substance to a low-temperature substance until thermal equilibrium is reached internal energy never flows unassisted from a lowtemperature to a high-temperature substance

12 Heat CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR If a red hot thumbtack is immersed in warm water, the direction of heat flow will be from the A. warm water to the red hot thumbtack. B. red hot thumbtack to the warm water. C. no heat flow D. not enough information

13 Heat CHECK YOUR ANSWER If a red hot thumbtack is immersed in warm water, the direction of heat flow will be from the A. warm water to the red hot thumbtack. B. red hot thumbtack to the warm water. C. no heat flow D. not enough information

14 Quantity of Heat Energy ratings of foods and fuels are determined from energy released when they are burned. Unit of energy, the Calorie, is common for foods joules = 1 calorie 4.18 joules of heat are required to change the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 Celsius degree kilocalorie or 1000 calories called a Calorie heat needed to change the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1 C

15 Quantity of Heat CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR The same quantity of heat is added to different amounts of water in two equal-size containers. The temperature of the smaller amount of water A. decreases more. B. increases more. C. does not change. D. not enough information

16 Quantity of Heat CHECK YOUR ANSWER The same quantity of heat is added to different amounts of water in two equal-size containers. The temperature of the smaller amount of water A. decreases more. B. increases more. C. does not change. D. not enough information

17 Quantity of Heat CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR You heat a half-cup of tea and its temperature rises by 4 C. How much will the temperature rise if you add the same amount of heat to a full cup of tea? A. 0 C B. 2 C C. 4 C D. 8 C

18 Quantity of Heat CHECK YOUR ANSWER You heat a half-cup of tea and its temperature rises by 4 C. How much will the temperature rise if you add the same amount of heat to a full cup of tea? A. 0 C B. 2 C C. 4 C D. 8 C

19 Specific Heat: Thermal Inertia The Specific Heat of a substance is the amount of Energy it requires to raise the temperature of 1 gram, 1 degree Celsius. Q Q J = mcδt c = = 0 mδt kg C The higher the specific heat, the more energy it takes and the longer it takes to heat up and to cool off. The lower the specific heat, the less energy it takes and the quicker it takes to heat up and cool off. Substances with HIGH specific heat STORE heat energy and make good thermal moderators. (Ex: Water, Oceans)

20 Specific Heat c c c water glycerin iron J = 4186 kg Why does water have such a high specific heat? Heat goes into other modes of energy so that temperature changes slowly. 0 0 J = 2410 kg J = 452 kg C C 0 C

21 Specific Heat Capacity CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR Which has the higher specific heat capacity, water or land? A. Water. B. Land. C. both of the above are the same D. neither of the above

22 Specific Heat Capacity CHECK YOUR ANSWER Which has the higher specific heat capacity, water or land? A. Water. B. Land. C. both of the above are the same D. neither of the above Explanation: A substance with small temperature changes for large heat changes has a high specific heat capacity. Water takes much longer to heat up in the sunshine than does land. This difference is a major influence on climate.

23 The Laws of Thermodynamics Thermodynamics movement of heat First law of thermodynamics states that the heat added to a system transforms to an equal amount of some other form of energy more specifically, heat added = increase internal energy + external work done by the system Energy can neither be created nor destroyed.

24 Zeroeth Law Two systems individually in thermal equilibrium with a third system (such as a thermometer) are in thermal equilibrium with each other. That is, there is no flow of heat within a system in thermal equilibrium

25 1st Law of Thermo The change of internal energy of a system due to a temperature or phase change is given by (next chapter): Temperature Change: Q = mcδt Phase Change: Q = ml Q is positive when the system GAINS heat and negative when it LOSES heat.

26 2nd Law of Thermo Heat flows spontaneously from a substance at a higher temperature to a substance at a lower temperature and does not flow spontaneously in the reverse direction. Heat flows from hot to cold. Alternative: Irreversible processes must have an increase in Entropy; Reversible processes have no change in Entropy. Entropy is a measure of disorder in a system

27 3rd Law of Thermo It is not possible to lower the temperature of any system to absolute zero.

28 Absolute Zero As temperature of a gas changes, volume of a gas changes. at zero degrees with pressure constant, volume changes by 1/273 for each degree Celsius Absolute Zero lowest limit of temperature molecules have lost all available kinetic energy

29 Thermal Expansion: Linear

30 Thermal Expansion Thermal expansion due to rise in temperature of a substance, molecules jiggle faster and move farther apart most substances expand when heated and contract when cooled railroad tracks laid on winter days expand and buckle in hot summer warming metal lids on glass jars under hot water loosens the lid by more expansion of the lid than the jar

31 Thermal Expansion Thermal expansion (continued) plays a role in construction and devices example: use of reinforcing steel with the same rate of expansion as concrete expansion joints on bridges gaps on concrete roadways and sidewalks allow for concrete expansion in the summer and contraction in the winter

32 Thermal Expansion Thermal expansion (continued) different substances expand at different rates example: when the temperature of a bimetallic strip of brass and iron is increased, greater expansion occurs for the brass strip that bends to turn a pointer, to regulate a valve, or to close a switch Bimetallic strips are used in heaters, oven thermometers, refrigerators, and electric toasters.

33 Thermal Expansion CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR When stringing telephone lines between poles in the summer, it is advisable to allow the lines to A. sag. B. be taut. C. be close to the ground. D. allow ample space for birds.

34 Thermal Expansion CHECK YOUR ANSWER When stringing telephone lines between poles in the summer, it is advisable to allow the lines to A. sag. B. be taut. C. be close to the ground. D. allow ample space for birds. Explanation: Telephone lines are longer in a warmer summer and shorter in a cold winter. Hence, they sag more on hot summer days than in winter. If the lines are not strung with enough sag in summer, they might contract too much and snap during the winter especially when carrying ice.

35 Thermal Expansion Δ L = αl ΔT 0 0 Δ V = βv ΔT Coefficients determined experimentally! Liquids expand more than solids! β ~ 3α

36 Thermal Expansion: Linear The coefficient of linear expansion of steel is 12 x 10-6 / C. A railroad track is made of individual rails of steel 1.0 km in length. By what length would these rails change between a cold day when the temperature is -10 C and a hot day at 30 C? Δ L= αl ΔT 6 o 3 o o Δ L= (12 x10 / C)(10 m)(30 C ( 10 C)) 0 Δ L =.48m

37 Thermal Expansion When the temperature of a metal ring increases, does the hole become larger? Smaller? Or stay same?

38

39 Circle Expansion The coefficient of linear expansion of aluminum is 23 x 10-6 /C. A circular hole in an aluminum plate is cm in diameter at 0 C. What is the diameter of the hole if the temperature of the plate is raised to 100 C? Δ L= αl ΔT = 0 6 o (23x10 / C)(2.725 cm)100 C o = 6.3x10 3 cm d = 2.731cm

40 Thermal Expansion: Water Water Expands when it cools below 4 C! Thus, the solid state is less dense than the liquid state:

41 Thermal Expansion CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR When a sample of 0 C water is heated, it first A. expands. B. contracts. C. remains unchanged. D. not enough information

42 Thermal Expansion CHECK YOUR ANSWER When a sample of 0 C water is heated, it first A. expands. B. contracts. C. remains unchanged. D. not enough information Explanation: Water continues to contract until it reaches a temperature of 4 C. With further increase in temperature beyond 4 C, water then expands.

43 Thermal Expansion CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR When a sample of 4 C water is cooled, it A. expands. B. contracts. C. remains unchanged. D. not enough information

44 Thermal Expansion CHECK YOUR ANSWER When a sample of 4 C water is cooled, it A. expands. B. contracts. C. remains unchanged. D. not enough information Explanation: Parts of the water will crystallize and occupy more space.

### 2. Room temperature: C. Kelvin. 2. Room temperature:

Temperature I. Temperature is the quantity that tells how hot or cold something is compared with a standard A. Temperature is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of molecular translational

### Chapter 10: Temperature and Heat

Chapter 10: Temperature and Heat 1. The temperature of a substance is A. proportional to the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance. B. equal to the kinetic energy of the fastest moving

### Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics. Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57

Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57 Thermodynamics study and application of thermal energy temperature quantity

### Chapter 4: Transfer of Thermal Energy

Chapter 4: Transfer of Thermal Energy Goals of Period 4 Section 4.1: To define temperature and thermal energy Section 4.2: To discuss three methods of thermal energy transfer. Section 4.3: To describe

### Name: Class: Date: 10. Some substances, when exposed to visible light, absorb more energy as heat than other substances absorb.

Name: Class: Date: ID: A PS Chapter 13 Review Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the statement true. 1. In all cooling

### Energy Matters Heat. Changes of State

Energy Matters Heat Changes of State Fusion If we supply heat to a lid, such as a piece of copper, the energy supplied is given to the molecules. These start to vibrate more rapidly and with larger vibrations

### 1. The Kinetic Theory of Matter states that all matter is composed of atoms and molecules that are in a constant state of constant random motion

Physical Science Period: Name: ANSWER KEY Date: Practice Test for Unit 3: Ch. 3, and some of 15 and 16: Kinetic Theory of Matter, States of matter, and and thermodynamics, and gas laws. 1. The Kinetic

### TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY

TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY In general, when an object performs work on another object, it does not transfer all of its energy to that object. Some of the energy is lost as heat due to

### The First Law of Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics The First Law of Thermodynamics Thermodynamic Processes (isobaric, isochoric, isothermal, adiabatic) Reversible and Irreversible Processes Heat Engines Refrigerators and Heat Pumps The Carnot

### Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat

Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat What are temperature and heat? Are they the same? What causes heat? What Is Temperature? How do we measure temperature? What are we actually measuring? Temperature and Its

### There is no such thing as heat energy

There is no such thing as heat energy We have used heat only for the energy transferred between the objects at different temperatures, and thermal energy to describe the energy content of the objects.

### Specific Heat (slope and steepness)

1 Specific Heat (slope and steepness) 10 pages. According to the Physical Science text book, the Specific Heat of a material is DEFINED as the following: Specific heat is the amount of heat energy required

### Heat Energy FORMS OF ENERGY LESSON PLAN 2.7. Public School System Teaching Standards Covered

FORMS OF ENERGY LESSON PLAN 2.7 Heat Energy This lesson is designed for 3rd 5th grade students in a variety of school settings (public, private, STEM schools, and home schools) in the seven states served

### Thermodynamics AP Physics B. Multiple Choice Questions

Thermodynamics AP Physics B Name Multiple Choice Questions 1. What is the name of the following statement: When two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, then they are in thermal equilibrium

### Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, and Radiation

Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, and Radiation Introduction We have learned that heat is the energy that makes molecules move. Molecules with more heat energy move faster, and molecules with less

### Multiple Choice For questions 1-10, circle only one answer.

Test Bank - Chapter 1 The questions in the test bank cover the concepts from the lessons in Chapter 1. Select questions from any of the categories that match the content you covered with students. The

### Thermodynamics. Thermodynamics 1

Thermodynamics 1 Thermodynamics Some Important Topics First Law of Thermodynamics Internal Energy U ( or E) Enthalpy H Second Law of Thermodynamics Entropy S Third law of Thermodynamics Absolute Entropy

### 18 Q0 a speed of 45.0 m/s away from a moving car. If the car is 8 Q0 moving towards the ambulance with a speed of 15.0 m/s, what Q0 frequency does a

First Major T-042 1 A transverse sinusoidal wave is traveling on a string with a 17 speed of 300 m/s. If the wave has a frequency of 100 Hz, what 9 is the phase difference between two particles on the

### Practice Test. 4) The planet Earth loses heat mainly by A) conduction. B) convection. C) radiation. D) all of these Answer: C

Practice Test 1) Increase the pressure in a container of oxygen gas while keeping the temperature constant and you increase the A) molecular speed. B) molecular kinetic energy. C) Choice A and choice B

### Forms of Energy. Freshman Seminar

Forms of Energy Freshman Seminar Energy Energy The ability & capacity to do work Energy can take many different forms Energy can be quantified Law of Conservation of energy In any change from one form

### Preview of Period 5: Thermal Energy, the Microscopic Picture

Preview of Period 5: Thermal Energy, the Microscopic Picture 5.1 Temperature and Molecular Motion What is evaporative cooling? 5.2 Temperature and Phase Changes How much energy is required for a phase

### Science Department Mark Erlenwein, Assistant Principal

Staten Island Technical High School Vincent A. Maniscalco, Principal The Physical Setting: CHEMISTRY Science Department Mark Erlenwein, Assistant Principal - Unit 1 - Matter and Energy Lessons 9-14 Heat,

### Chillin Out: Designing an Insulator

SHPE Jr. Chapter May 2015 STEM Activity Instructor Resource Chillin Out: Designing an Insulator Students learn about the three ways heat can be transferred from one object to another. They also learn what

### Energy Conversions I. Unit of measure (most common one) Form Definition Example

Energy Conversions I Energy can take many forms, but any one form can usually be converted into another. And no matter what form we talk about, we can use conversion factors to calculate equivalent amounts

### ES 106 Laboratory # 2 HEAT AND TEMPERATURE

ES 106 Laboratory # 2 HEAT AND TEMPERATURE Introduction Heat transfer is the movement of heat energy from one place to another. Heat energy can be transferred by three different mechanisms: convection,

### Rusty Walker, Corporate Trainer Hill PHOENIX

Refrigeration 101 Rusty Walker, Corporate Trainer Hill PHOENIX Compressor Basic Refrigeration Cycle Evaporator Condenser / Receiver Expansion Device Vapor Compression Cycle Cooling by the removal of heat

### SAM Teachers Guide Heat and Temperature

SAM Teachers Guide Heat and Temperature Overview Students learn that temperature measures average kinetic energy, and heat is the transfer of energy from hot systems to cold systems. They consider what

### Chapter 3. Thermal Energy

Chapter 3 Thermal Energy In order to apply energy conservation to a falling ball or a roller coaster in the previous chapter, we had to assume that friction (with the air or the track) was negligible.

Convection, Conduction & Radiation There are three basic ways in which heat is transferred: convection, conduction and radiation. In gases and liquids, heat is usually transferred by convection, in which

### Study the following diagrams of the States of Matter. Label the names of the Changes of State between the different states.

Describe the strength of attractive forces between particles. Describe the amount of space between particles. Can the particles in this state be compressed? Do the particles in this state have a definite

### Hot Leaks. See how the temperature of liquids changes the way they flow.

P h y s i c s Q u e s t A c t i v i t i e s Activity 2 1 Hot Leaks See how the temperature of liquids changes the way they flow. Safety: This experiment requires using the hot water tap and straight pins.

### TEMPERATURE QUESTIONS TEACHERS NOTES

TEMPERATURE QUESTIONS TEACHERS NOTES If you think of Additional questions, Ways in which these answers could be improved, Anything else you want to tell me, then Please contact me. Michael de Podesta michael.depodesta@npl.co.uk

### Test Bank - Chapter 3 Multiple Choice

Test Bank - Chapter 3 The questions in the test bank cover the concepts from the lessons in Chapter 3. Select questions from any of the categories that match the content you covered with students. The

### Type: Single Date: Homework: READ 12.8, Do CONCEPT Q. # (14) Do PROBLEMS (40, 52, 81) Ch. 12

Type: Single Date: Objective: Latent Heat Homework: READ 12.8, Do CONCEPT Q. # (14) Do PROBLEMS (40, 52, 81) Ch. 12 AP Physics B Date: Mr. Mirro Heat and Phase Change When bodies are heated or cooled their

### Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat

Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat GOALS When you have mastered the contents of this chapter, you will be able to achieve the following goals: Definitions Define each of the following terms, and use it an

### Topic Page Contents Page

Heat energy (11-16) Contents Topic Page Contents Page Heat energy and temperature 3 Latent heat energy 15 Interesting temperatures 4 Conduction of heat energy 16 A cooling curve 5 Convection 17 Expansion

### Energy Transformations

Energy Transformations Concept Sheet Energy Transformations PS.6: The student will investigate and understand states and forms of energy and how energy is transferred and transformed. 1. Energy is the

### Thermochemistry. r2 d:\files\courses\1110-20\99heat&thermorans.doc. Ron Robertson

Thermochemistry r2 d:\files\courses\1110-20\99heat&thermorans.doc Ron Robertson I. What is Energy? A. Energy is a property of matter that allows work to be done B. Potential and Kinetic Potential energy

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Sample Mid-Term 3 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) If you double the frequency of a vibrating object, its period A) is quartered.

### What is Energy? What is the relationship between energy and work?

What is Energy? What is the relationship between energy and work? Compare kinetic and potential energy What are the different types of energy? What is energy? Energy is the ability to do work. Great, but

### Test 5 Review questions. 1. As ice cools from 273 K to 263 K, the average kinetic energy of its molecules will

Name: Thursday, December 13, 2007 Test 5 Review questions 1. As ice cools from 273 K to 263 K, the average kinetic energy of its molecules will 1. decrease 2. increase 3. remain the same 2. The graph below

### KINETIC THEORY AND THERMODYNAMICS

KINETIC THEORY AND THERMODYNAMICS 1. Basic ideas Kinetic theory based on experiments, which proved that a) matter contains particles and quite a lot of space between them b) these particles always move

### SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES (Thermal Energy) From Invitations to Science Inquiry 2 nd Edition by Tik L. Liem: Activity Page Number Concept Warm a Bottle by Shaking 184 Heat, Friction The Confused Bottles 206

### REASONING AND SOLUTION

39. REASONING AND SOLUTION The heat released by the blood is given by Q cm T, in which the specific heat capacity c of the blood (water) is given in Table 12.2. Then Therefore, T Q cm 2000 J 0.8 C [4186

### Unit 3: States of Matter Practice Exam

Page 1 Unit 3: States of Matter Practice Exam Multiple Choice. Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Two gases with unequal masses are injected into opposite

### The Second Law of Thermodynamics

Objectives MAE 320 - Chapter 6 The Second Law of Thermodynamics The content and the pictures are from the text book: Çengel, Y. A. and Boles, M. A., Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, McGraw-Hill,

### 10 g 5 g? 10 g 5 g. 10 g 5 g. scale

The International System of Units, or the SI Units Vs. Honors Chem 1 LENGTH In the SI, the base unit of length is the Meter. Prefixes identify additional units of length, based on the meter. Smaller than

### Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather

Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather Radiation Convection Currents Winds Jet Streams Energy from the Sun reaches Earth as electromagnetic waves This energy fuels all life on Earth including the

### Heat and Temperature: Front End Evaluation Report. Joshua Gutwill. October 1999

Heat and Temperature: Front End Evaluation Report Joshua Gutwill October 1999 Keywords: 1 Heat and Temperature Front End Evaluation Report October 28, 1999 Goal:

### AS COMPETITION PAPER 2008

AS COMPETITION PAPER 28 Name School Town & County Total Mark/5 Time Allowed: One hour Attempt as many questions as you can. Write your answers on this question paper. Marks allocated for each question

### 13.1 The Nature of Gases. What is Kinetic Theory? Kinetic Theory and a Model for Gases. Chapter 13: States of Matter. Principles of Kinetic Theory

Chapter 13: States of Matter The Nature of Gases The Nature of Gases kinetic molecular theory (KMT), gas pressure (pascal, atmosphere, mm Hg), kinetic energy The Nature of Liquids vaporization, evaporation,

### 1.4.6-1.4.8 Gas Laws. Heat and Temperature

1.4.6-1.4.8 Gas Laws Heat and Temperature Often the concepts of heat and temperature are thought to be the same, but they are not. Perhaps the reason the two are incorrectly thought to be the same is because

### UNIT 6a TEST REVIEW. 1. A weather instrument is shown below.

UNIT 6a TEST REVIEW 1. A weather instrument is shown below. Which weather variable is measured by this instrument? 1) wind speed 3) cloud cover 2) precipitation 4) air pressure 2. Which weather station

### Energy - Heat, Light, and Sound

Science Benchmark: 06:06 Heat, light, and sound are all forms of energy. Heat can be transferred by radiation, conduction and convection. Visible light can be produced, reflected, refracted, and separated

TEMPERATURE 2008, 2004, 10 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. A BRIEF HISTORY OF TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT Ancient people were physically aware of hot and cold and probably related temperature by the

### Review Chapter 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16. Conceptual Physics, 10e (Hewitt) Chapter 10

Review Chapter 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 Conceptual Physics, 10e (Hewitt) Chapter 10 23) What prevents satellites such as a space shuttle from falling? A) gravity B) the absence of air drag C) Nothing; they're

### Chemical Bonds. Chemical Bonds. The Nature of Molecules. Energy and Metabolism < < Covalent bonds form when atoms share 2 or more valence electrons.

The Nature of Molecules Chapter 2 Energy and Metabolism Chapter 6 Chemical Bonds Molecules are groups of atoms held together in a stable association. Compounds are molecules containing more than one type

### Practical Applications of Freezing by Boiling Process

Practical Applications of Freezing by Boiling Process Kenny Gotlieb, Sasha Mitchell and Daniel Walsh Physics Department, Harvard-Westlake School 37 Coldwater Canyon, N. Hollywood, CA 9164 Introduction

### Statistical Mechanics, Kinetic Theory Ideal Gas. 8.01t Nov 22, 2004

Statistical Mechanics, Kinetic Theory Ideal Gas 8.01t Nov 22, 2004 Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics Thermodynamics Old & Fundamental Understanding of Heat (I.e. Steam) Engines Part of Physics Einstein

### Solids, Liquids, and Gases

Glencoe Science Chapter Resources Solids, Liquids, and Gases Includes: Reproducible Student Pages ASSESSMENT Chapter Tests Chapter Review HANDS-ON ACTIVITIES Lab Worksheets for each Student Edition Activity

### Phys222 W11 Quiz 1: Chapters 19-21 Keys. Name:

Name:. In order for two objects to have the same temperature, they must a. be in thermal equilibrium.

### Energy and Energy Transformations Test Review

Energy and Energy Transformations Test Review Completion: 1. Mass 13. Kinetic 2. Four 14. thermal 3. Kinetic 15. Thermal energy (heat) 4. Electromagnetic/Radiant 16. Thermal energy (heat) 5. Thermal 17.

### Chapter 17: Change of Phase

Chapter 17: Change of Phase Conceptual Physics, 10e (Hewitt) 3) Evaporation is a cooling process and condensation is A) a warming process. B) a cooling process also. C) neither a warming nor cooling process.

### THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES

Chapter 19: THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 1. Evidence that a gas consists mostly of empty space is the fact that: A. the density of a gas becomes much greater when it is liquefied B. gases exert pressure

### A. Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) = the idea that particles of matter are always in motion and that this motion has consequences.

I. MOLECULES IN MOTION: A. Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) = the idea that particles of matter are always in motion and that this motion has consequences. 1) theory developed in the late 19 th century to

### Chapter 1: Chemistry: Measurements and Methods

Chapter 1: Chemistry: Measurements and Methods 1.1 The Discovery Process o Chemistry - The study of matter o Matter - Anything that has mass and occupies space, the stuff that things are made of. This

### Grade 7 - Heat and Temperature Unit Test

Grade 7 - Heat and Temperature Unit Test Student Class 1. This type of Thermal Energy source can be used to cook food, but they are hard to control, dangerous and messy. A. open fires B. fireplaces C.

### Calculating Heat Loss by Mark Crombie, Chromalox

Calculating Heat Loss by Mark Crombie, Chromalox Posted: January 30, 2006 This article deals with the basic principles of heat transfer and the calculations used for pipes and vessels. By understanding

### Chemistry 13: States of Matter

Chemistry 13: States of Matter Name: Period: Date: Chemistry Content Standard: Gases and Their Properties The kinetic molecular theory describes the motion of atoms and molecules and explains the properties

### Kinetic Theory & Ideal Gas

1 of 6 Thermodynamics Summer 2006 Kinetic Theory & Ideal Gas The study of thermodynamics usually starts with the concepts of temperature and heat, and most people feel that the temperature of an object

### 14 HEAT AND HEAT TRANSFER METHODS

CHAPTER 14 HEAT AND HEAT TRANSFER METHODS 469 14 HEAT AND HEAT TRANSFER METHODS Figure 14.1 (a) The chilling effect of a clear breezy night is produced by the wind and by radiative heat transfer to cold

### Lecture 30 - Chapter 6 Thermal & Energy Systems (Examples) 1

Potential Energy ME 101: Thermal and Energy Systems Chapter 7 - Examples Gravitational Potential Energy U = mgδh Relative to a reference height Increase in elevation increases U Decrease in elevation decreases

### Potential and Kinetic Energy

Potential and Kinetic Energy What is Energy? The ability to cause change Energy notes entry # 4 11/5 Potential Energy Kinetic Energy Definitions Dependent on Examples Forms of Potential Energy Definition

### Forms of Energy Explain

Forms of Energy Explain DIRECTIONS 1. For the Explain portion of the section, work through each slide 2. For each form there are three slides: 1. Introduce the form of energy 2. Give examples of the form

### Chapter 2: Forms of Energy

Chapter 2: Forms of Energy Goals of Period 2 Section 2.1: To describe the forms of energy Section 2.2: To illustrate conversions from one form of energy to another Section 2.3: To define the efficiency

### HEAT UNIT 1.1 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. 1.1.1 Introduction. 1.1.2 Postulates of Kinetic Theory of Gases

UNIT HEAT. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES.. Introduction Molecules have a diameter of the order of Å and the distance between them in a gas is 0 Å while the interaction distance in solids is very small. R. Clausius

### In science, energy is the ability to do work. Work is done when a force causes an

What is energy? In science, energy is the ability to do work. Work is done when a force causes an object to move in the direction of the force. Energy is expressed in units of joules (J). A joule is calculated

### EXAMPLE EXERCISE 3.1 Metric Basic Units and Prefixes

EXAMPLE EXERCISE 3.1 Metric Basic Units and Prefixes Give the symbol for each of the following metric units and state the quantity measured by each unit: (a) gigameter (b) kilogram (c) centiliter (d) microsecond

### KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER The kinetic-molecular theory is based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion. The theory can be used to explain the properties of solids, liquids,

### Specific Heat Capacity and Latent Heat Questions A2 Physics

1. An electrical heater is used to heat a 1.0 kg block of metal, which is well lagged. The table shows how the temperature of the block increased with time. temp/ C 20.1 23.0 26.9 30.0 33.1 36.9 time/s

### Introduction to the Ideal Gas Law

Course PHYSICS260 Assignment 5 Consider ten grams of nitrogen gas at an initial pressure of 6.0 atm and at room temperature. It undergoes an isobaric expansion resulting in a quadrupling of its volume.

### Science Standard Articulated by Grade Level Strand 5: Physical Science

Concept 1: Properties of Objects and Materials Classify objects and materials by their observable properties. Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 PO 1. Identify the following observable properties

### EXPERIMENT 15: Ideal Gas Law: Molecular Weight of a Vapor

EXPERIMENT 15: Ideal Gas Law: Molecular Weight of a Vapor Purpose: In this experiment you will use the ideal gas law to calculate the molecular weight of a volatile liquid compound by measuring the mass,

### HOW HVAC WORKS. How HVAC. Works PAGE 1

How HVAC Works PAGE 1 Heat - What is it? Heat is more than a physical concept - it is a feeling. Heat is taught to us at a very young age as a danger to be avoided. Yet, have you ever stopped and thought

1/7 2009/11/14 上 午 11:10 Manage this Assignment: Chapter 16 Due: 12:00am on Saturday, July 3, 2010 Note: You will receive no credit for late submissions. To learn more, read your instructor's Grading Policy

### Freezing Point Depression: Why Don t Oceans Freeze? Teacher Advanced Version

Freezing Point Depression: Why Don t Oceans Freeze? Teacher Advanced Version Freezing point depression describes the process where the temperature at which a liquid freezes is lowered by adding another

### Mechanical Energy. Mechanical Energy is energy due to position or motion.

Mechanical Energy Mechanical Energy is energy due to position or motion. Position: This means that matter can have energy even though it is not moving. If you knock something off of your kitchen counter,

### Scholars Research Library

Available online at www.scholarsresearchlibrary.com Scholars Research Library Archives of Physics Research, 2010, 1 (2):103-111 (http://scholarsresearchlibrary.com/archive.html) ISSN 0976-0970 Lubricating

### FXA 2008. Candidates should be able to : Define and apply the concept of specific heat capacity. Select and apply the equation : E = mcδθ

UNIT G484 Module 3 4.3.3 Thermal Properties of Materials 1 Candidates should be able to : Define and apply the concept of specific heat capacity. Select and apply the equation : E = mcδθ The MASS (m) of

### CHAPTER 14 THE CLAUSIUS-CLAPEYRON EQUATION

CHAPTER 4 THE CAUIU-CAPEYRON EQUATION Before starting this chapter, it would probably be a good idea to re-read ections 9. and 9.3 of Chapter 9. The Clausius-Clapeyron equation relates the latent heat

### The Second Law of Thermodynamics

The Second aw of Thermodynamics The second law of thermodynamics asserts that processes occur in a certain direction and that the energy has quality as well as quantity. The first law places no restriction

### Temperature Notes Kelvin, Celsius, Fahrenheit Write notes, put in por7olio. Study. Read over notes daily.

Temperature Notes Kelvin, Celsius, Fahrenheit Write notes, put in por7olio. Everything Underlined COPY IT! Study. Read over notes daily. Enjoy the learning process. Temperature is how hot or cold something

### Heating and cooling. Insulation. Quick facts on insulation:

Heating and cooling Heating and cooling your home can be one of the biggest users of energy. Efficency in this area can bring great savings. Heating and cooling depend on many contributing factors. The

### State Newton's second law of motion for a particle, defining carefully each term used.

5 Question 1. [Marks 28] An unmarked police car P is, travelling at the legal speed limit, v P, on a straight section of highway. At time t = 0, the police car is overtaken by a car C, which is speeding

### Thermodynamics and Equilibrium

Chapter 19 Thermodynamics and Equilibrium Concept Check 19.1 You have a sample of 1.0 mg of solid iodine at room temperature. Later, you notice that the iodine has sublimed (passed into the vapor state).

### States of Matter CHAPTER 10 REVIEW SECTION 1. Name Date Class. Answer the following questions in the space provided.

CHAPTER 10 REVIEW States of Matter SECTION 1 SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. Identify whether the descriptions below describe an ideal gas or a real gas. ideal gas

### (Walter Glogowski, Chaz Shapiro & Reid Sherman) INTRODUCTION

Convection (Walter Glogowski, Chaz Shapiro & Reid Sherman) INTRODUCTION You know from common experience that when there's a difference in temperature between two places close to each other, the temperatures

### 7. 1.00 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 101.325 kpa = 14.70 psi. = 0.446 atm. = 0.993 atm. = 107 kpa 760 torr 1 atm 760 mm Hg = 790.

CHATER 3. The atmosphere is a homogeneous mixture (a solution) of gases.. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. have volumes that depend on their conditions,