# Partnerships Implementing Engineering Education Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester Public Schools Supported by: National Science Foundation

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1 Temperature: 6.D.3 Temperature and Heat Transfer Grade Level 6 Sessions Seasonality Instructional Mode(s) Team Size WPS Benchmarks MA Frameworks Key Words 1 Approximately 1.5 hours (10 minutes for cleanup) N/A Whole class demonstration and small group activity N/A 06.SC.ES SC.ES ES.3 Conduction, Convection, Diffusion, Energy, Heat, Radiation, Temperature Summary The students will be reminded of what temperature and heat are through lecture and a demonstration of how the air changes when the temperature changes. The demonstrations will show air expanding when it is heated up and air compressing when it is cooled down (balloon on a soda bottle). The students will be asked if this could be used to measure temperature. If not, what are other ways we measure temperature? The students will also learn about the three forms of heat transfer through demonstration. Learning Objectives 2002 Worcester Public Schools (WPS) Benchmarks for Grade 6 06.SC.ES.05 Differentiate among radiation, conduction, and convection, the three mechanisms by which heat is transferred through the earth s system. 06.SC.ES.06 Investigate the movement of a drop of food coloring placed in water, with and without a heat source, and in different positions relative to a heat source. Additional Learning Objectives ES.3 Differentiate among radiation, conduction, and convection, the three mechanisms by which heat is transferred through the earth s system. 2. The students will be able to understand how to brainstorm. 3. The students will understand how to develop possible solutions. 4. The students will understand how to construct a prototype. 1

2 5. The students will understand how to communicate the solution. Required Background Knowledge 1. The Students have a basic understanding of the concept of heat. 2. Students should review the behavior of molecules when there is a change in temperature. Essential Questions At the end of this lesson students should be able to address each of the following. 1. What is temperature? 2. Name the three forms of heat transfer. 3. Give one example of each of the following: conduction, convection and radiation. Introduction / Motivation Students will be asked to define temperature. Once an adequate definition (see vocabulary section of lesson plan) has been agreed upon, methods of measuring temperature will be discussed and demonstrated. Procedure 1. Distribute Heat Transfer Introduction handout. Instruct students to fill in number 1 on their handout after the Introduction. 2. Balloon demonstration Take a clean, empty, dry soda bottle. Place a deflated balloon over the mouth of the soda bottle. Hold the soda bottle over the heat source (careful not to melt the plastic). The balloon should inflate. Direct the students to fill in questions 2 and 3 on their handout. Addison-Wesley Destinations in Science, Grade 6, p. C-6 2

3 3. Lecture on measurement of heat (see example in the Additional Information for Educators attachment to this lesson plan). There are different methods of measuring temperature based on heating materials and measuring pressure. The types of thermometers we are most familiar with are digital thermometers and bulb thermometers. The liquid in the bulb thermometer expands as the temperature of the liquid goes up. The digital thermometer reads the temperature based on the difference in resistance from temperature changes. Show examples of the temperature measuring devices. 4. Move into types of heat transfer by asking the students to think about how a thermometer works. 5. Lecture on the three different forms of heat transfer and demonstrate each: Conduction: Heat is transferred by direct contact. The metal rod with wax on it will be put in contact with the heat source. As the metal rod heats up the wax will begin to melt. NASA Genesis, Search for Origins, Three Methods of Heat Transfer, p TG.pdf Convection: Heat is transferred by the motion of fluid or within a fluid (Note: air is a fluid). Compare the rate of the food coloring spreading in different temperature water. This demonstration can be done by each student or by small groups. a.) Each student or group should be given a container of cool or room temperature water square Tupperware or Gladware works fine. b.) The students should then be given food coloring or rubbing alcohol with food coloring in either a cup or an eye dropper. c.) Hot water should be poured into the heat resistant cup. d.) Immediately after the students receive the hot water the container of cold water should be placed on top of the hot water. e.) The food coloring should then be added to the cold water. Pour a small amount very slowly or add one drop at a time from the eyedropper. 3

4 6. Radiation: Heat is transferred through rays, waves or particles like sunlight. This can be demonstrated with an experiment similar to the Herschel experiment (setup seen below). This set-up shows three different thermometers sitting in direct sunlight with either black paint or black tape over the bulbs. The black tape or paint is added to help the thermometers better absorb the light. The experiment shown below demonstrates splitting the light rays into the spectrum of colors with a prism. This step is not necessary for this demonstration, but could be an extension to this lesson. The temperature of a single thermometer will rise due to the heat from the sun. NASA Cool Cosmos 4

5 7. Have students complete the Heat Transfer Introduction handout either in class or at home. If there is extra time after the lesson, the Heat Transfer Word Puzzle can be distributed. 8. Have the students complete the Methods of Heat Transfer handout as an assessment of the students. Materials List Materials per class Amount Location Poster board or chalkboard One Supermarket or Office Supply Store Markers or Chalk One Supermarket or Office Supply Store Dry Soda Bottle One School Recyclables if possible or Supermarket Balloon One Department Store or Supermarket Heat Source One Could simply use hot water in a cup, if available a warming plate underneath the cup works well. Thermometer (Digital or Bulb) One (ea. If possible) Borrow from school nurse, bring from home, or purchase at Supermarket/Department Store to simply pass around classroom. Food coloring 1 Supermarket Materials per student Amount Location Eye Dropper (IF 5-6 (depending on Department Store or Pharmacy AVAILABLE INSTEAD OF SM. PLASTIC CUPS) how many groups) Small plastic cups 1 package Supermarket Square Tupperware-like container 10 Supermarket Vocabulary with Definitions 1. Convection the transfer of heat by the motion of or within a fluid. 2. Conduction the transfer of heat or electric current from one substance to another by direct contact. 3. Diffusion - the act of spreading out; the intermingling of molecules in gases and liquids as a result of random thermal agitation. (source: 5

6 4. Energy - The capacity for work or vigorous activity; vigor; power. A source of usable heat or power. ( 5. Heat - a form of energy associated with the motion of atoms or molecules and capable of being transmitted through solid and fluid media by conduction, through fluid media by convection, and through empty space by radiation. (source: 6. Radiation - energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays or waves or particles. (source: 7. Temperature - a physical quantity characterizing the mean random motion of molecules in a physical body. In other words, it is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a substance. (source National Snow and Ice Data Center ) Assessment / Evaluation of Students The instructor may assess the students in any/all of the following manners: 1. Handout for this lesson 2. Class discussion of lesson Lesson Extensions 1. Have the students design and build their own thermometer. 2. Have the students redesign their paper spiral to make it move faster. Attachments 1. Heat Transfer Introduction Handout 2. Heat Transfer Word Puzzle 3. Methods of Heat Transfer Handout Troubleshooting Tips None Safety Issues Heat sources are a potential fire hazard. 6

7 Additional Resources None Key Words Partnerships Implementing Engineering Education Conduction, Convection, Diffusion, Energy, Heat, Radiation, Temperature 7

8 Name: Date: Heat Transfer Introduction Handout 1.) Temperature is Heat Activities 2.) What the air in the soda bottle was heated, did the balloon inflate? 3.) Why did this happen? Forms of Heat Transfer 4.) List the forms of heat transfer: 5.) List your observations for the food coloring experiment: Why did this happen?

9 Name: Date: Methods of Heat Transfer Identify the method of heat transfer associated with the following (there can be more than one for each): 1.) Oven 2.) Wood Stove 3.) Radiator 4.) Sun 5.) Electric Blanket 6.) Candle 7.) Electric Stove 8.) Hot Water Heater 9.) Person 10.) Light Bulb 11.) Welding Torch 12.) Heating Pad 13.) Engine 14.) Sidewalk (on a sunny day) 15.) Please explain your answer for number 5 (electric blanket). 16.) Please explain your answer for number 14 (sidewalk on a sunny day).

10 Name: Date: Heat Transfer Across 3. The transfer of heat between objects that are touching, or from one part of an object to another part 4. Diffusion occurs most quickly in this kind of water 6. The transfer of energy that can travel through empty space, fluids or air 7. The transfer of heat that happens when the particles of a gas or liquid flow within the material itself 8. A measure of how hot or cold something is Down 1. Air does this when it is heated 2. The ability to do work 4. Energy that moves from one substance to another because of a temperature difference 5. Particles of matter that moves when energy is added (when it is heated up) Created by Puzzlemaker at DiscoverySchool.com

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