(Walter Glogowski, Chaz Shapiro & Reid Sherman) INTRODUCTION

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "(Walter Glogowski, Chaz Shapiro & Reid Sherman) INTRODUCTION"

Transcription

1 Convection (Walter Glogowski, Chaz Shapiro & Reid Sherman) INTRODUCTION You know from common experience that when there's a difference in temperature between two places close to each other, the temperatures tend to even out over time: the hot part cools and the cool part warms. A fire can warm a whole room, not just the air right around it. You close your doors and windows in the winter because the heat wouldn't stay in your building if you left them open. So heat can obviously get transferred from one place to another. But how does this process happen? First we must picture what heat is: heat is the energy in the "random motion" of something's atoms (types of motion are described in Buoyancy Background). The atoms in a glass of hot water are moving around more quickly than the atoms in a glass of cold water. When water is hot enough, the atoms move so fast that they "escape" to become a gas (steam, a.k.a. water vapor), and when water loses enough heat, it becomes a solid (ice) whose atoms barely move at all - they simply jiggle in place. So when we talk about heat "moving" we're really talking about energetic atoms in one place transferring some of their random motion to atoms in another place. Source:http://www.physics. brocku.ca/courses/1p93 Source: Then how does heat move? A simple way is for a fast particle to bump a nearby particle, transferring a little energy. That bumped particle will then bump into another one, and so on, until the heat energy (the motion of the particles) has been spread out. This process of energy being transferred by nearby particles bumping is called CONDUCTION, and it can happen in solids, liquids or gasses. However, FLUIDS (meaning liquids and gasses - things that can flow) have another important way of moving heat energy around. If one part of a fluid is hotter than another part, and if all the hot (fast moving) atoms get moved to a different place in the fluid, then their heat has moved with them. This process is called CONVECTION: energy being transferred by "bulk motion" of particles through a fluid (types of motion are described in Buoyancy Background). Convection cannot happen in a solid because, like the bricks in a wall, the atoms in a solid cannot move far from where they are. In liquids and gasses, however, the particles are free to move about (which is why a fluid can change its shape to match its container). If one part of a fluid is heated, where will the hot part go? For reasons that you will learn about in the Lighter Than Air day lab, heated gas or liquid tends to rise, while cooler stuff will sink. The heated 2006 Yerkes Summer Institute Convection 13

2 substance rises, moving farther away from the heat source and spreading out. In doing so, the heated fluid gives its heat to the surrounding fluid, thereby cooling off. When the heated fluid rises, something has to take its place. It can't happen that everything rises, because that would leave empty space at the bottom. As the warm material rises, some cool fluid from the top sinks and moves into the vacated space at the bottom. The cool fluid then gets heated by the heat source and repeats the cycle. So the whole picture is that warm material will move away from the heat source and warm up the cooler areas while cool fluid will move toward the heat source and get warm. In this way the heat from the heat source gets transferred throughout the fluid by convection. h PART I: WATER & FOOD COLORING In this demonstration, we will begin our exploration of the close relationship between temperature and fluid motion. We will first make predictions about what will happen, and then your job will be to watch the demonstration closely and record your detailed observations. We will fill a fish tank with tap water. We will then fill two beakers with water, one with warm water and one with cold. We will add colored dye to each beaker. If we place the beakers in the fish tank, what do you think will happen? In your lab notebook, write your predictions for:? What do you think will happen right away to the water in each beaker?? What do you think will happen over a long time?? What would be different if the warm beaker water is just a little Record your predictions! warmer than the water in the rest of the tank, than if the beaker water was a lot warmer than the tank water? Why? Now, watch as the experiment is carried out, and record your observations in your lab notebook. Make a sketch of the experiment. Did what you think would happen actually happen? Record your observations! Yerkes Summer Institute Convection 14

3 PART II: OIL & THYME The idea in this section is to make your own convection cell and study it see how it moves and what makes it move the way it does. Materials: Pyrex bread pan Vegetable oil Thyme Hot Plate Metal block 2 clamps 2 thermometers Stopwatch Ruler Ring stand Source: preparedpantry.com!!! WARNING!!! For this experiment we will be working with hot objects. The hot plate, breadpan and oil will all get very hot - take care not to touch any heated surfaces or you may be burned!! DO NOT TOUCH THE HOT PLATE, BREAD PAN, OR OIL WHEN IT IS HEATED! BE CAREFUL: ITEMS WILL REMAIN HOT EVEN WHEN THE HOT PLATE IS TURNED OFF!! Directions: Fill the breadpan about halfway with vegetable oil and mix in some thyme. Be sure to stir in thyme so that it is suspended throughout the oil rather than all being at the top or bottom. Place the metal block on the hot plate and the breadpan on top of the block so that only the center of the bottom of the pan gets heated. 1) The pieces of thyme will follow the oil as it moves. Watch the motion of the fluid as the bottom gets heated. Record your observations! In your lab notebook, record What do you observe? Sketch it! How does the motion change as time goes on? Draw a picture in your lab book tracing out the motion. 2) Now attach the thermometers with the clamps to the ring stand in such a way that one will measure the temperature of the oil closest to where it is being heated and the other will measure the oil at the edge, as far away from the heat source as can be. 3) Using a ruler and a stopwatch, measure the speed that a piece of thyme moves across the pan. While you are measuring the speed, take a measurement of both thermometers. Record the speed, the two temperatures, and the temperature difference between the thermometers in your lab book. Record your data! 4) Do not continually heat the oil, but occasionally turn the hot plate off and on, so that you are sometimes taking measurements while the oil is being heated and sometimes while it is not. (Note: it will still be hotter than room temperature because it takes a while to cool off.) Also, once or twice, stir up the oil, wait for it to settle for a couple of seconds, and take a measurement Yerkes Summer Institute Convection 15

4 Graphing: Now make three graphs in your lab notebook. In the first one, put the temperature measured at the center of the pan on the horizontal axis and the speed of the oil's motion on the vertical axis. Then for each of your measurements, plot a data point. When you have plotted all the points, look at the graph. Do you notice a clear trend to the points? Plot your data! For the second graph, do the same thing, but instead of putting the temperature at the center of the breadpan on the horizontal axis, put the temperature at the edge. In the third graph do the same again, but the horizontal axis will be the temperature difference between the center and the edge.? Which of the three graphs shows the strongest connection between the value on one axis and the value on the other? PART III: CONVECTION IN THE SUN We will use a solar telescope to take pictures of the surface of the sun. We will put a filter on the telescope so that we only see light from a specific temperature-sensitive process happening in the sun. NEVER LOOK AT THE SUN THROUGH A TELESCOPE WITHOUT A SOLAR FILTER!! The filtered image of the sun will show us a general map of the temperature of the surface of the sun. In your lab notebook, write down: A description & sketch of what you see. How does this relate to convection? Does it look like a convective cell? In the convective cells we looked at earlier, there was a heat source at the bottom of some fluid, and hot stuff rose while cool stuff sank. How is that related to what in going on in the sun?!!! WARNING!!! For this experiment we will be working with sunlight. The sun is a very bright source of light and can be very dangerous to your eyes. DO NOT STARE DIRECLY AT THE SUN! DO NOT LOOK THROUGH THE TELESCOPE AT THE SUN WITHOUT A SOLAR FILTER! 2006 Yerkes Summer Institute Convection 16

5 In your lab notebook, answer the following:? In the sun, where is the heat source?? In what direction would rising or sinking movements be?? Can you think of an analogy of where we could see convection from a similar perspective as we see the convection in the sun? PART IV: CONVECTION ALL AROUND US Here are a few more places where convection plays an important role: Weather As you probably know, the reason the earth is warm and comfortable for life rather than being an isolated ball of ice is that we are close to the sun. However, the actual heating of the air takes place almost entirely from sunlight absorbed by the earth and then released into the air as heat (infrared radiation). So the heat source of the atmosphere is the ground, at the bottom of the atmosphere, and not above us in the sky. That's why the air tends to get colder higher in the atmosphere. Mountains have snow at their peaks, not at their bases. Source: But, we know that hot air rises. So with a heat source at the bottom of a large amount of air, convection often forms in the atmosphere, just as it did in the breadpan of oil and thyme. As warm air rises from the ground, if often carries with it a large amount of water vapor. This situation happens because the water is evaporating at the ground as well, and humid air (air with a lot of water in it) is lighter than dry air. When the air rises to where it is cool, the water vapor condenses into little droplets. Water condensing high in the atmosphere in this way is how clouds form. Clouds are the peaks of gigantic convective cells! You will have a chance to further explore clouds in the night lab Weighing Clouds. Cooking What happens when you put a pot of water on the stove? The bottom of the pot gets heated very quickly, and that heats the water at the bottom of the pot. The hot water will rise to the top, letting cooler water take its place at the bottom of the pot, where it will get heated. Convection cells form in the water as the water at the bottom gets heated from the flame and water at the top loses some heat to the air above it. This convection is why when you boil a pot of liquid, the liquid seems to be bubbling. You are seeing the tops of convection cells Yerkes Summer Institute Convection 17

6 You also may have heard of convection ovens. The name is actually a little misleading, since regular ovens use convection as well. In a regular oven, the heat source is at the bottom, causing the hot air to rise; new air then is next to the bottom, gets heated, and rises. Convection will work to heat all the air in the oven, but it does not do it very efficiently, and most of the hot air stays at the top of the oven. Thus, you have to pay attention to where in the oven you put your food, because the temperature is different in different parts of the oven. A convection oven has fans in it that basically force even more convective air currents than would happen naturally. These currents even out the air temperature faster and get the hot air all over the oven rather than just at the top. Clothing You know that in winter time you don't want to go outside without much clothing on. However, the reason you feel cold is much more complex than just the air around you being cold. After all, air is a terrific insulator, and does not carry much heat away from your body. In newer, more expensive windows, there will be two panes of glass with a little pocket of air between them because that air prevents heat from leaving your house. So why doesn't the air around you prevent you from getting cold outside? Because as soon as your body warms up the air around you, that air rises and lets new, cold air move in. Your body acts as a heat source for convection in the air, and loses heat much more quickly that way! In fact, the reason clothes make you warm is that they trap air next to your body. When your body heats the air around you, instead of rising and leaving you with new, cold air to heat, the warm air gets stuck where it is, forming a warm pocket around you. Down feathers are very warm because they trap lots of air. Source:kicp.uchicago.edu/edu cation/explorers/2002winter- YERKES/ The Rest of Summer Institute Why are we talking about convection at this Summer Institute? What does the transfer of heat throughout a fluid have to do with measuring density by floating objects in liquid or building hot air or helium balloons? Well, one of the main things we will discuss in this lab is that hot gas or liquid will rise. Hot fluid rises because it has a lower density than the cooler material around it. Things of low density float on things of high density, as you will study in the Does It Float? day lab. The hot air balloon lab, Lighter Than Air, also is closely connected to convection. Convection explains how the air in the balloon gets hot, since hot air balloons put the heat source at the bottom of the balloon and let convection do the work in moving the hot air around and warming the whole balloon. You can also think of the entire balloon as a small package of air in a convective cell. As it heats, it rises up into the atmosphere, and as it cools by releasing its heat into the air around it, it falls back to the ground. IN CONCLUSION In this lab, you became an expert in convection and its effects, and discovered how convection is useful in your everyday life and in other labs at this Summer Institute. In your lab notebook, write a short paragraph summarizing what you learned about and did with convection in this lab Yerkes Summer Institute Convection 18

Thermal Energy Transfer

Thermal Energy Transfer Water flows in rivers; air flows as winds blow across the planet. What about heat? Water and air are fluids, which means they are substances. It is easy to imagine how they flow. Heat is not a substance;

More information

S3P1:The students will investigate how heat is produced and the effects of heating and cooling and will understand a change in temperature indicates

S3P1:The students will investigate how heat is produced and the effects of heating and cooling and will understand a change in temperature indicates S3P1:The students will investigate how heat is produced and the effects of heating and cooling and will understand a change in temperature indicates a change in heat Heat is the flow of thermal energy

More information

Practice Test- Energy Transfer

Practice Test- Energy Transfer Practice Test- Energy Transfer Heat Transfer 1. When hot and cold air meet, the hot air rises to the top. Which process causes the hot air to rise? A. convection B. induction C. conduction D. radiation

More information

Buoyancy Background Yerkes Summer Institute Buoyancy Background 1. Source: utahresort.com. Source: bowen2.com

Buoyancy Background Yerkes Summer Institute Buoyancy Background 1. Source: utahresort.com. Source: bowen2.com Buoyancy Background Understanding buoyancy may sound pretty simple. You throw a stone in a pond, it sinks. You throw a feather in a pond, it floats. But as we look closer and ask more questions, buoyancy

More information

Section 2 Heat and Energy

Section 2 Heat and Energy Section 2 Heat and Energy Key Concept Heat flows in a predictable way from warmer objects to cooler objects until all of the objects are at the same temperature. What You Will Learn Temperature is a measure

More information

Describe the conduction of thermal energy. Explain how convection transfers thermal energy. Give an example of the radiation of thermal energy.

Describe the conduction of thermal energy. Explain how convection transfers thermal energy. Give an example of the radiation of thermal energy. Thermal Energy Lesson Objectives Describe the conduction of thermal energy. Explain how convection transfers thermal energy. Give an example of the radiation of thermal energy. Lesson Vocabulary conduction

More information

Heat. 250 CHAPTER 9 Thermal Energy Doug Martin

Heat. 250 CHAPTER 9 Thermal Energy Doug Martin Standard 8.3.14: Describe how heat can be transferred through materials by the collision of atoms, or across space by radiation, or if the material is fluid, by convection currents that are set up in it

More information

Conduction, Convention & Radiation

Conduction, Convention & Radiation Name: Class: Date: Grade 11A Science Related Reading/Physics Conduction, Convention & Radiation Physics Gr11A Pre Reading Activity Using prior knowledge, write the definition for each vocabulary term.

More information

2 Atmospheric Heating

2 Atmospheric Heating CHAPTER 1 2 Atmospheric Heating SECTION The Atmosphere BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: How does energy travel from the sun to Earth? What are

More information

11. When a system does work and no heat is added to the system, its temperature A) increases. B) decreases. C) remains unchanged.

11. When a system does work and no heat is added to the system, its temperature A) increases. B) decreases. C) remains unchanged. 1. To wholly convert a given amount of heat energy into mechanical energy is A) possible using a steam engine. B) possible using an atomic reactor. C) possible using a simple machine. D) impossible regardless

More information

Thermal Energy. Write down two things you do to make yourself feel warmer.

Thermal Energy. Write down two things you do to make yourself feel warmer. chapter 36 section 2 Heat Thermal Energy Before You Read Write down two things you do to make yourself feel warmer. What You ll Learn compare thermal energy and heat three ways heat moves what insulators

More information

Heat Energy. Heat Energy. A Science A Z Physical Series. Word Count: 1,324. Written by Felicia Brown. Visit

Heat Energy. Heat Energy. A Science A Z Physical Series. Word Count: 1,324. Written by Felicia Brown. Visit Heat Energy A Science A Z Physical Series Word Count: 1,324 Heat Energy Written by Felicia Brown Visit www.sciencea-z.com www.sciencea-z.com Heat Energy Key elements Used in This Book The Big Idea: One

More information

What happens when water evaporates?

What happens when water evaporates? What happens when water evaporates? Introduction Water is an important part of the Earth s climate system. Recall water vapor is the doant greenhouse gas. It is relatively transparent to solar or shortwave

More information

Lab Activity on Clouds

Lab Activity on Clouds Lab Activity on Clouds 2002 Ann Bykerk-Kauffman, Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences, California State University, Chico * Purpose: To understand why rising air often produces clouds. Objectives

More information

Convection Currents and the Mantle Key Concepts

Convection Currents and the Mantle Key Concepts Name Date _ Period Convection Currents and the Mantle Key Concepts How is heat transferred? What causes convection currents? What causes convection currents in Earth s mantle? The movement of energy from

More information

Sue Cascio (Coyote Valley School), Valerie Duncan (Upper lake Middle School), Paul McGuire (Mountain Vista Middle School)

Sue Cascio (Coyote Valley School), Valerie Duncan (Upper lake Middle School), Paul McGuire (Mountain Vista Middle School) TEACHING LEARNING COLLABORATIVE (TLC) PHYSICAL SCIENCE Convection Grade 6 Created by: Sandra Cornell (Terrace Heights School), Stacy Holland (Terrace Heights School), Sue Cascio (Coyote Valley School),

More information

Weather- Part 1. Mr. Sammartano S300. Name: Period:

Weather- Part 1. Mr. Sammartano S300. Name: Period: Weather- Part 1 Mr. Sammartano S300 Name: Period: 1 The Origin of the Atmosphere The gases that made up our early atmosphere likely came from volcanoes through the process of outgassing. Large amounts

More information

The Sun and Water Cycle

The Sun and Water Cycle reflect Have you ever jumped in a puddle or played in the rain? If so, you know you can get very wet. What you may not know is that a dinosaur could have walked through that same water millions of years

More information

Transfer of Heat. This will continue until all have reached the same equilibrium temperature.

Transfer of Heat. This will continue until all have reached the same equilibrium temperature. Transfer of Heat When objects at different temperatures come in close proximity, heat will spontaneously transfer from the warmer object to the cooler objects. This will continue until all have reached

More information

Unit 2: Energy Key Ideas:

Unit 2: Energy Key Ideas: Unit 2: Energy Key Ideas: 2.1 Observe, identify, and describe a variety of forms of energy: sound, mechanical, heat, electrical, and chemical 2.2 Identify the evidence for energy transformations and how

More information

Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, and Radiation

Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, and Radiation Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, and Radiation Introduction We have learned that heat is the energy that makes molecules move. Molecules with more heat energy move faster, and molecules with less

More information

Heat Energy FORMS OF ENERGY LESSON PLAN 2.7. Public School System Teaching Standards Covered

Heat Energy FORMS OF ENERGY LESSON PLAN 2.7. Public School System Teaching Standards Covered FORMS OF ENERGY LESSON PLAN 2.7 Heat Energy This lesson is designed for 3rd 5th grade students in a variety of school settings (public, private, STEM schools, and home schools) in the seven states served

More information

Energy Heats Maine. Heat Transfer Scenes

Energy Heats Maine. Heat Transfer Scenes Energy Heats Maine 1G G2 Energy Heats Maine Energy Heats Maine 3G G4 Energy Heats Maine Energy Heats Maine 5G G6 Energy Heats Maine Energy Heats Maine 7G G8 Energy Heats Maine Energy Heats Maine 9G G10

More information

MUNICIPAL WATER DISTRICT OF ORANGE COUNTY DISCOVERY SCIENCE CENTER

MUNICIPAL WATER DISTRICT OF ORANGE COUNTY DISCOVERY SCIENCE CENTER MUNICIPAL WATER DISTRICT OF ORANGE COUNTY DISCOVERY SCIENCE CENTER First Grade ~ Teacher Packet Themes: The Water Cycle; Affect of Temperature on Water California State Science Standards addressed: Physical

More information

Convection, Conduction & Radiation

Convection, Conduction & Radiation Convection, Conduction & Radiation There are three basic ways in which heat is transferred: convection, conduction and radiation. In gases and liquids, heat is usually transferred by convection, in which

More information

By the end of this chapter you will be able to:

By the end of this chapter you will be able to: Heat 1st year By the end of this chapter you will be able to: Describe heat energy, its units and explain how it converts to other forms Explain how heat affects expansion and contraction of materials

More information

But, could we force these clouds to create rain in the desert?

But, could we force these clouds to create rain in the desert? Clouds Exploration Phase How do clouds form? Above are fair weather cumulus (heaped/cotton ball) clouds. They do not form a single layer, as stratus clouds. They do not resemble wisps of hair, as cirrus.

More information

The particles in an object are in constant random motion. Particles move faster in hotter objects than in cooler objects. Motion of Particles

The particles in an object are in constant random motion. Particles move faster in hotter objects than in cooler objects. Motion of Particles Thermal Energy Temperature All particles in an object are constantly in motion therefore, each object has kinetic energy. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object.

More information

HEAT. Heat is measured in Joules, (J). Heat is a form of Energy and can do work. Expansion happens when objects get hot.

HEAT. Heat is measured in Joules, (J). Heat is a form of Energy and can do work. Expansion happens when objects get hot. HEAT Heat is measured in Joules, (J). Heat is a form of Energy and can do work. Expansion happens when objects get hot. Contraction happens when objects get cold. Advantages: Thermometers use expanding

More information

Atmospheric Processes; Radiation

Atmospheric Processes; Radiation Atmospheric Processes; Radiation Name: Directions: We will write back ground facts, and highlight important ideas on this handout. Learning Goals 1. Students will understand that the physical characteristics

More information

CONVECTION QUESTIONS. Answer the following on separate sheet(s) of paper. 1. Define: a) convection. b) convection current

CONVECTION QUESTIONS. Answer the following on separate sheet(s) of paper. 1. Define: a) convection. b) convection current CONVECTION QUESTIONS Answer the following on separate sheet(s) of paper. 1. Define: a) convection b) convection current 2. How does convection help heat your favourite room? Sketch the room. Show where

More information

Changes in States of Matter

Changes in States of Matter TEKS predict, observe, and record changes in the state of matter caused by heating or cooling Changes in States of Matter What Is Matter? Anything that has mass and takes up space is matter. All physical

More information

Kinetic Molecular Theory. A theory is a collection of ideas that attempts to explain certain phenomena.

Kinetic Molecular Theory. A theory is a collection of ideas that attempts to explain certain phenomena. Kinetic Molecular Theory A theory is a collection of ideas that attempts to explain certain phenomena. A law is a statement of specific relationships or conditions in nature. After centuries of questioning

More information

Airplanes 2. Airplanes 1. Airplanes 4. Airplanes 3. Airplanes 5. Airplanes 6

Airplanes 2. Airplanes 1. Airplanes 4. Airplanes 3. Airplanes 5. Airplanes 6 Airplanes 1 Airplanes 2 Which way does the air move on average after an airplane flies through it horizontally at a constant westward velocity? A. Horizontally eastward. B. Eastward and downward. C. Downward.

More information

Chapter: Thermal Energy

Chapter: Thermal Energy Table of Contents Chapter: Thermal Energy Section 1: Temperature and Thermal Energy Section 2: Heat Section 3: Engines and Refrigerators 1 Temperature and Thermal Energy What is temperature? When you swim

More information

Heat and Phase Change

Heat and Phase Change Heat and Phase Change In the last lesson we looked at heat and how heat can be moved from one object to another. In this lesson, we are going to explore how, even though heat can move from one object to

More information

ì<(sk$m)=bdijca< +^-Ä-U-Ä-U

ì<(sk$m)=bdijca< +^-Ä-U-Ä-U Physical Science by Kim Fields Genre Comprehension Skill Text Features Science Content Nonfiction Cause and Effect Captions Labels Call Outs Glossary Heat Scott Foresman Science 4.12 ì

More information

Unit 1: Energy and Motion

Unit 1: Energy and Motion 6 6 Table of Contents Unit 1: Energy and Motion Chapter 6: Thermal Energy 6.1: Temperature and Heat 6.2: Transferring Thermal Energy 6.3: Using Heat 6.1 Temperature Temperature and Heat You use the words

More information

Which statement best summarizes what will happen to the water in each of the beakers after a few hours?

Which statement best summarizes what will happen to the water in each of the beakers after a few hours? Name: lass: ate: Question #1 Which best explains how the Earth's atmosphere is warmed? ) Radiation from the sun warms the surface and through conduction and convection the atmosphere is heated. ) Radiation

More information

HEAT TRANSFER. Study Guide Quiz November 19, /19/2015 Essential Questions

HEAT TRANSFER. Study Guide Quiz November 19, /19/2015 Essential Questions Study Guide Quiz November 19, 2015 HEAT TRANSFER Vocabulary Conduction Convection Electromagnetic waves Greenhouse effect Heat Radiation Temperature Thermal energy 11/19/2015 Essential Questions Where

More information

Draft Unit 7: Properties of Water Key Ideas: 7.1 Observe, describe, and explore the physical properties of water.

Draft Unit 7: Properties of Water Key Ideas: 7.1 Observe, describe, and explore the physical properties of water. Unit 7: Properties of Water Key Ideas: 7.1 Observe, describe, and explore the physical properties of water. 7.2 Explore how different factors affect evaporation. 7.3 Describe the Water Cycle. 7.4 Test

More information

Chapter 2 Student Reading

Chapter 2 Student Reading Chapter 2 Student Reading Atoms and molecules are in motion We warm things up and cool things down all the time, but we usually don t think much about what s really happening. If you put a room-temperature

More information

6 th Grade Science Assessment: Weather & Water Select the best answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this test.

6 th Grade Science Assessment: Weather & Water Select the best answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this test. Select the be answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this te. 1. Weather is be defined as the A. changes that occur in cloud formations from day to day. B. amount of rain or snow that

More information

Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Heat Transfer. Boardworks Ltd 2006

Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Heat Transfer. Boardworks Ltd 2006 1 of 32 2 of 32 1 How is heat transferred? Where and how is heat transfer taking place at this seaside? 3 of 32 Why does heat transfer happen? Heat is a type of energy called thermal energy. Heat can be

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Sci111 Exam 3 Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The fact that a thermometer "takes its own temperature" illustrates A) the difference

More information

4) Brandon has learned that many stars are actually larger than the Sun. If this is true, why do these stars appear like points of light in the sky?

4) Brandon has learned that many stars are actually larger than the Sun. If this is true, why do these stars appear like points of light in the sky? EARTH SCIENCE FCAT PRACTICE 1) Earth in Space and Time: SC.5.E.5.1: Marc notices that when he looks at the stars at night, some appear to be brighter than others. Which three factors affect how bright

More information

Notice the two cups. Make some observations on a whiteboard.

Notice the two cups. Make some observations on a whiteboard. Notice the two cups. Make some observations on a whiteboard. Which cup has the most moisture on the outside of it Why do you think the cup that is exposed to more air has more water on the outside of it

More information

Heat and Temperature: Front End Evaluation Report. Joshua Gutwill. October 1999

Heat and Temperature: Front End Evaluation Report. Joshua Gutwill. October 1999 Heat and Temperature: Front End Evaluation Report Joshua Gutwill October 1999 Keywords: 1 Heat and Temperature Front End Evaluation Report October 28, 1999 Goal:

More information

Water to Vapor; Water to Ice The Process Is Amazing

Water to Vapor; Water to Ice The Process Is Amazing Science Project Idea 8 th -Grade Energy Water to Vapor; Water to Ice The Process Is Amazing Setting the Scene: Holding On To Heat If you leave a cup of cold water on a counter, it will warm up very quickly.

More information

ACTIVITY 6.1 CANDY IN HOT AND COLD WATER TEACHING SUGGESTIONS:

ACTIVITY 6.1 CANDY IN HOT AND COLD WATER TEACHING SUGGESTIONS: ACTIVITY 6.1 CANDY IN HOT AND COLD WATER TEACHING SUGGESTIONS: Introduce this activity by having the students read the first paragraph and stressing that in a fair test or controlled experiment everything

More information

GT16-01 Copyright Carrier Corporation Section 1: Body Comfort

GT16-01 Copyright Carrier Corporation Section 1: Body Comfort GT16-01 Copyright Carrier Corporation 1992 020-419 Section 1: Body Comfort 2 What is air conditioning? Improve industrial process Determined by nature of process Maintain human comfort Determined by requirements

More information

Name: LAB: Phase Changes of Water

Name: LAB: Phase Changes of Water Name: LAB: Phase Changes of Water Introduction: Water is a substance commonly found on Earth and in the atmosphere in all three phases of matter (solid, liquid, and gas). This unique property of water

More information

The specific heat capacity of a material is defined as the energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of the material by 1 o C.

The specific heat capacity of a material is defined as the energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of the material by 1 o C. High Demand Questions QUESTIONSHEET 1 The specific heat capacity of a material is defined as the energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of the material by 1 o C. material iron aluminium copper

More information

15.2 Convection. It is the material itself that moves

15.2 Convection. It is the material itself that moves 15.2 Convection It is the material itself that moves Learning Objectives What is convection? How can we change the rate of convection? Where do we make use of convection in the home? Particles In fixed

More information

LESSON CLUSTER 1 States of Water

LESSON CLUSTER 1 States of Water LESSON CLUSTER 1 States of Water Lesson 1.1: Solid Water and Liquid Water You certainly know about liquid water. That s what you drink and take showers in. But have you seen any solid water around recently?

More information

Page 1. Name:

Page 1. Name: Name: 1) Which process requires the addition of energy to water? A) vaporization of water B) condensation of water C) freezing of water D) cooling of water 2) According to the Earth Science Reference Tables,

More information

Exploring Convection Currents Lab Activity

Exploring Convection Currents Lab Activity NAME: Introduction DATE: Exploring Convection Currents Lab Activity Nearly all of the earth s energy comes from the sun. Some of this radiant energy is reflected by water droplets and dust particles in

More information

[8] SA1.2 The student demonstrates an understanding of the processes of science by collaborating

[8] SA1.2 The student demonstrates an understanding of the processes of science by collaborating Convection and Wind Levels Overview: During this project, students observe convection current by performing a lab experiment. As a result of this activity, students develop an understanding of the process

More information

thermo practice test

thermo practice test Name: ate: 1. If only the respective tempreatures of two objects are known, what additional information can be determined?. how much heat the objects contain 3. ase your answer(s) to the following question(s)

More information

Expanding Ball and Ring Teacher Demonstration

Expanding Ball and Ring Teacher Demonstration Expanding Ball and Ring Teacher Demonstration Background Information: In the following experiment, you will use a brass ball and ring to explore expansion and contraction of a solid. When an object is

More information

L-8-2 (L-8-2) energy is produced when a force causes a substance to vibrate, and the energy is transferred through the substance in a wave.

L-8-2 (L-8-2) energy is produced when a force causes a substance to vibrate, and the energy is transferred through the substance in a wave. Name: Date: 1. energy is produced when a force causes a substance to vibrate, and the energy is transferred through the substance in a wave. A. Heat B. Light C. Mechanical D. Sound 2. The energy used to

More information

SOLID, LIQUID OR GAS

SOLID, LIQUID OR GAS The Description: SOLID, LIQUID OR GAS Study Guide The objectives are: 1. To test the ability of the student to classify materials into one of these categories. 2. To determine whether the student understands

More information

Heat affects Matter in different ways

Heat affects Matter in different ways Heat affects Matter in different ways Student Name Class States of Matter and The Particle Model 1. Water has a distinct characteristic that sets it apart from other liquids on Earth. Water expands when

More information

The Whys of Weather. low pressures and at very high temperatures.

The Whys of Weather. low pressures and at very high temperatures. The Whys of Weather Clouds The Whys of Weather Clouds Have you ever looked up at clouds and wondered where they come from or what they are made of? Clouds may look soft and fluffy, but they are wet and

More information

4.6 describe how energy transfer may take place by conduction, convection and radiation

4.6 describe how energy transfer may take place by conduction, convection and radiation Energy Transfer Syllabus points: 4.2 describe energy transfers involving the following forms of energy: thermal (heat), light, electrical, sound, kinetic, chemical, nuclear and potential (elastic and gravitational)

More information

Experiment 4-Heat of Fusion and Melting Ice Experiment

Experiment 4-Heat of Fusion and Melting Ice Experiment Experiment 4-Heat of Fusion and Melting Ice Experiment In this lab, the heat of fusion for water will be determined by monitoring the temperature changes while a known mass of ice melts in a cup of water.

More information

Review and apply Investigation 6. Let s review Pages

Review and apply Investigation 6. Let s review Pages Review and apply Investigation 6 Let s review Pages 376-377 1. Think back to the movement of the color in hot and cold water. Does adding heat energy make water molecules move faster, slower, or have no

More information

Chapter 15 Heat Capacity Thermal Expansion Chapter 16 Heat Transfer

Chapter 15 Heat Capacity Thermal Expansion Chapter 16 Heat Transfer Lecture 17 Chapter 15 Heat Capacity Thermal Expansion Chapter 16 Heat Transfer Internal Energy Internal energy of an object depends on: Temperature Mass Material Iron 1 kg 1000 grams Temperature Internal

More information

Gradual Movement Of Heat Through Solids

Gradual Movement Of Heat Through Solids Gradual Movement Of Heat Through Solids Topic Heat transfer by conduction Introduction When you put a metal teaspoon in a cup of hot liquid, have you ever wondered why, after a few minutes, its handle

More information

How Heat Moves. The ability to do work or cause change. Joules. What is Energy? What is the basic unit of measure for energy?

How Heat Moves. The ability to do work or cause change. Joules. What is Energy? What is the basic unit of measure for energy? 1 How Heat Moves What is Energy? What is the basic unit of measure for energy? The ability to do work or cause change. Joules 2 What is Heat? How Heat Moves Heat is the movement of thermal energy from

More information

What is Temperature?

What is Temperature? What is Temperature? Take 5 minutes to talk to your lab partner. Answer the following questions What is temperature? How do you decide what temperature something is? How hot is hot? How cold is cold? When

More information

TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY

TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY In general, when an object performs work on another object, it does not transfer all of its energy to that object. Some of the energy is lost as heat due to

More information

wavelength crest amplitude trough direction of wave movement

wavelength crest amplitude trough direction of wave movement Regents Earth Science Unit 4: Energy and Heat Energy The sun is the major source of energy for the Earth's processes the sun radiates energy as Electromagnetic Energy - energy given off in the form of

More information

Unit 2: Weather. ways to keep track of common trends in weather patterns. some have scientific facts, while others are more about coincidence

Unit 2: Weather. ways to keep track of common trends in weather patterns. some have scientific facts, while others are more about coincidence Unit 2: Weather Weather Lore: ways to keep track of common trends in weather patterns some have scientific facts, while others are more about coincidence weather lore may vary from place to place as different

More information

Infrared Thermometer Guidance

Infrared Thermometer Guidance Infrared Thermometer Guidance Infrared thermometers can be used to answer a range of questions, including: - What is the temperature of the clouds? - What is the greenhouse effect? - If it is sunny, how

More information

Heat Energy. Heat Energy. A Science A Z Physical Series. Word Count: 1,585. Written by Felicia Brown. Visit

Heat Energy. Heat Energy. A Science A Z Physical Series. Word Count: 1,585. Written by Felicia Brown. Visit Heat Energy A Science A Z Physical Series Word Count: 1,585 Heat Energy Written by Felicia Brown Visit www.sciencea-z.com www.sciencea-z.com Heat Energy Key elements Used in This Book The Big Idea: One

More information

Lesson 2 Thermal Energy Transfers

Lesson 2 Thermal Energy Transfers Lesson 2 Student Labs and Activities Page Launch Lab 28 Content Vocabulary 29 Lesson Outline 30 MiniLab 32 Content Practice A 33 Content Practice B 34 School to Home 35 Key Concept Builders 36 Enrichment

More information

Thermal Energy and Heat Transfer

Thermal Energy and Heat Transfer Thermal Energy and Heat Transfer You will explore thermal energy, thermal equilibrium, and three different modes of heat transfer through five hands-on activities aided by the thermal vision provided by

More information

Properties of Water 5.5B

Properties of Water 5.5B Water is found in many places on Earth. In fact, about 70% of Earth is covered in water. Think about places where you have seen water. Oceans, lakes, and rivers hold much of Earth s water. Some water is

More information

These are the experiments for the Energy House.

These are the experiments for the Energy House. Complete plans to make the Energy House can be found at Design Coalition s website at www.designcoalition.org These are the experiments for the Energy House. Discover the right design for a solar-heated

More information

Heat Transfer. Convection. Introduction. Natural convection

Heat Transfer. Convection. Introduction. Natural convection Heat Transfer Convection Introduction Convection is defined as the circulation of fluids (liquids or gases), either natural or forced. Hot or cold fluids can add or remove heat. Natural convection is caused

More information

ENERGY AND INSOLATION REVIEW

ENERGY AND INSOLATION REVIEW ENERGY AND INSOLATION REVIEW 1. By which method is energy transferred by density differences? (1) absorption (3) convection (2) conduction (4) radiation 2. By which process does most of the Sun s energy

More information

Emission of Radiant Energy

Emission of Radiant Energy Lecture 18 Chapter 16 Heat Transfer by Radiation Greenhouse Effect & Global Warming Chapter 17 Phase Change Emission of Radiant Energy All objects radiate; higher the temperature, the higher the frequency.

More information

Earth s Atmosphere. Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere. 3. All the energy from the Sun reaches Earth s surface.

Earth s Atmosphere. Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere. 3. All the energy from the Sun reaches Earth s surface. CHAPTER 12 LESSON 2 Earth s Atmosphere Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Key Concepts How does energy transfer from the Sun to Earth and to the atmosphere? How are air circulation patterns within the atmosphere

More information

1. Which substance has the highest specific heat? (1) iron (3) lead (2) water (4) granite

1. Which substance has the highest specific heat? (1) iron (3) lead (2) water (4) granite 1. Which substance has the highest specific heat? iron lead water granite 2. Which graph best illustrates the temperature changes on adjacent land and water surfaces as they are heated by the Sun from

More information

Properties of Water. reflect. look out! what do you think?

Properties of Water. reflect. look out! what do you think? reflect Water is found in many places on Earth. In fact, about 70% of Earth is covered in water. Think about places where you have seen water. Oceans, lakes, and rivers hold much of Earth s water. Some

More information

Assessment Schedule 2012: Physics: Demonstrate understanding of aspects of heat (90939)

Assessment Schedule 2012: Physics: Demonstrate understanding of aspects of heat (90939) NCEA Level 1 Physics (90939) 2012 page 1 of 6 Assessment Schedule 2012: Physics: Demonstrate understanding of aspects of heat (90939) Assessment Criteria ONE (a)(i) States the term condensation. States

More information

2.01 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

2.01 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 2.01 The Electromagnetic Spectrum Introduction Tab: Electromagnatic energy travels in. Electromagnetic waves are waves. Hint: What kind of waves are electomagnetic waves? Energy from electromagnetic waves

More information

LIQUID HOT LAVA PROCEDURES:

LIQUID HOT LAVA PROCEDURES: STATION 1 LIQUID HOT LAVA PROCEDURES: Observe the lava lamp for 45-60 seconds. Answer the following questions based on your observations. Please do not move the lamp or touch the lamp. They can break and

More information

changes from heat reflect

changes from heat reflect reflect One winter day, you sit by a window inside your warm home You watch the snow pile up on the ground You see small animals slide across a frozen pond in your backyard You can see their hot breath

More information

Thermal Energy and Heat Transfer

Thermal Energy and Heat Transfer Thermal Energy and Heat Transfer Thermal Energy - Kinetic Molecular Theory Heat is the thermal energy of a substance. Thermal energy is really the kinetic energy of the individual molecules as they vibrate,

More information

Heating the Atmosphere. Dr. Michael J Passow

Heating the Atmosphere. Dr. Michael J Passow Heating the Atmosphere Dr. Michael J Passow Heat vs. Temperature Heat refers to energy transferred from one object to another Temperature measures the average kinetic energy in a substance. When heat energy

More information

Test Bank - Chapter 2 Multiple Choice

Test Bank - Chapter 2 Multiple Choice Test Bank - Chapter 2 The questions in the test bank cover the concepts from the lessons in Chapter 2. Select questions from any of the categories that match the content you covered with students. The

More information

Thermal Energy Transfer Conduction, Convection and Radiation

Thermal Energy Transfer Conduction, Convection and Radiation Thermal Energy Transfer Conduction, Convection and Radiation New Unit Tab Get a black color tab from the front table Use the next clean page in your journal and title it: Thermal Energy Transfer Questions

More information

Grade 6. Unit 2 The Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, and Lithosphere. NEW YORK CITY SCIENCE PLANNING GUIDE (Glencoe/McGraw-Hill) Field Test 1

Grade 6. Unit 2 The Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, and Lithosphere. NEW YORK CITY SCIENCE PLANNING GUIDE (Glencoe/McGraw-Hill) Field Test 1 NEW YORK CITY SCIENCE PLANNING GUIDE (Glencoe/McGraw-Hill) Field Test 1 Unit 2 The Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, and Lithosphere Essential Question: How do matter and energy interact to produce weather patterns?

More information

Directed Reading A. Section: Changes of State ENERGY AND CHANGES OF STATE. Skills Worksheet

Directed Reading A. Section: Changes of State ENERGY AND CHANGES OF STATE. Skills Worksheet Skills Worksheet Directed Reading A Section: Changes of State ENERGY AND CHANGES OF STATE Write the letter of the correct answer in the space provided. 1. What kind of change is a change of state? a. a

More information

Heat Transfer. Anna Colanduoni

Heat Transfer. Anna Colanduoni Heat Transfer Anna Colanduoni Conduction & Insulators Conduction of heat can take place within metals between different materials in direct contact Heat conductors = materials that conduct heat well metals

More information

Heat Transfer in Fluids

Heat Transfer in Fluids Heat ransfer in Fluids Mixing emperatures eacher Information Objectives Students investigate what happens to the temperature of a solution when two substances of different temperatures are mixed. Students

More information

Teaching Sciences by Ocean Inquiry SMS 491/ EDW 472 Spring 2008

Teaching Sciences by Ocean Inquiry SMS 491/ EDW 472 Spring 2008 Teaching Sciences by Ocean Inquiry SMS 491/ EDW 472 Spring 2008 HEAT AND TEMPERATURE LAB: Part II 1. Thermal expansion/water thermometer A flask One-hole stopper A long glass tube A container filled with

More information

4 TH GRADE AIR AND AIR PRESSURE

4 TH GRADE AIR AND AIR PRESSURE 4 TH GRADE AIR AND AIR PRESSURE Summary: Students experiment with air by finding that it has mass and pressure. Warm air is less dense than cool air and this is tested using a balance. Students experiment

More information