Chapter 10: Temperature and Heat

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1 Chapter 10: Temperature and Heat 1. The temperature of a substance is A. proportional to the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance. B. equal to the kinetic energy of the fastest moving molecule in the substance. C. proportional to the lowest kinetic energy available to a molecule. D. proportional to the average momentum of the fastest 50% of the molecules in the substance. 2. After I dip a cup of water from the ocean, I can conclude that A. the temperature of the water in the cup is the same as the temperature of the water in the ocean. B. the temperatures are the same but the water in the cup has more energy C. the ocean temperature is higher because it has more molecules in it. D. the ocean temperature is higher because it never loses its heat. 3. Heat is a form of energy, and it has long been known that heat energy will naturally flow A. from cold to hot objects. B. from hot to cold objects. C. only from solids to liquids. D. only from liquids to solids. E. only from gases to solids and liquids. 4. The amount of heat is often measured in calories. If I add 1 calorie of heat energy to 1 gram of water, the temperature of the water will A. decrease by 1 C. B. decrease by 1 F. C. stay the same since water has a very high specific heat. D. increase by 1 C. E. increase by 1 F. 5. On a cold winter s morning you awake and step out of bed. One foot is on the tile floor and the other is on a rug on the floor. Which statement is true? A. The tile feels colder than the rug because it really is colder than the rug B. Heat flows from the rug, thru your body and out to the tile - thus the tile feels cold compared to the rug C. The tile feels colder than the rug, because compared to the rug, the tile conducts heat more rapidly away from your foot. D. Actually there is no difference between the rug and the tile so any sensation you experience is imaginary. 6. Two identical objects, one light colored and the other dark colored, are at the same elevated

2 temperature, 50 C. You now plop (yes, plop) them down in a dark, much cooler room. Which object will reach the room s temperature first? A. dark colored B. light colored C. Both reach room temperature at same time. D. As strange as it seems, neither object will ever reach room temperature because energy conservation prevents the loss of energy. 7. Two identical objects, one light colored and the other dark colored are at the same cool temperature. Then, you place them outside, on a warm day, in direct sunlight. Which object will warm up faster? A. The dark one. B. The light one. C. Both warm up at the same rate. D. As strange as it seems, neither object will ever warm up because energy conservation prevents the addition of energy. 8. The lowest possible temperature a body can approach is called A. mighty cold. B. absolute zero. C. triple absolute zero. D. triple point. E. critical temperature. 9. Water freezes at 273 on the scale. A. Fahrenheit B. Celsius C. Rankin D. Kelvin E. Vernier 10. When the temperature of the air in a balloon is lowered, the volume of the balloon A. increases. B. stays the same. C. decreases. D. expands. 11. Objects A and B are at the same temperature. Object A now has its temperature increased by one Celsius degree, while B has its temperature increased by one Fahrenheit degree. Which object now has higher temperature? A. Object A.

3 B. Object B. C. Both have the same temperature. D. Impossible to tell from this data. 12. The three processes by which heat energy is transferred between objects are A. heat, calorie and radiation. B. radiation, temperature, and convection. C. absorption, radiation, and convection. D. radiation, convection, and conduction. E. radiation, absorption, and conduction. 13. A mixture consists of 60 g of ice and 40 g of liquid water, both at 0 C. The amount of heat that must be added to melt all of the ice is about A cal. B cal. C cal. D cal. 14. While studying for this quiz you realize that you still have 100 g of lukewarm coffee at 40 C left in a paper cup. When you pour 50 g of boiling water into the cup, the temperature of the resulting coffee-like mixture will be now A. 50 C. B. 60 C. C. 67 C. D. 70 C. E. 80 C. 15. A box of graham crackers is labeled 120 Calories per serving. Assuming this means 120 kcal, the energy of a serving of the graham crackers is about A. 120 J. B J. C J. D J. 16. The temperature of 500 g of water is to be raised from 10 C to 40 C. The energy needed to do this is about A cal. B cal. C cal.

4 D cal. 17. Which of the following temperatures is the lowest? A. 0 o C B. 0 o F C. 263 K D. All are the same. 18. Absolute zero is the temperature A. on the coldest day recorded at Nome, Alaska. B. of the freezing point of water. C. at which an ideal gas would exert zero pressure. D. of the boiling point of liquid helium. E. of the freezing point of mercury. 19. Four samples of steel, lead, alcohol and glass all have the same mass and are all initially at 20 o C. After 100 calories of heat is added to each sample, the final temperatures are 38.2 o C for the steel, 85.6 o C for the lead, 23.4 o C for the alcohol, and 30 o C for the glass. Which of these four materials has the largest specific heat capacity? A. The steel. B. The lead. C. The alcohol. D. The glass. E. All have same heat capacity, since all absorbed 100 cal of heat. 20. On a cold day, a metal fence post feels colder to the touch than a tree. This sensation of different temperatures is explained by the fact that A. the temperature of the tree is higher. B. the specific heat capacity of wood in the tree is higher. C. the specific heat capacity of the metal is higher. D. the thermal conductivity of the wood in the tree is higher. E. the thermal conductivity of the metal is higher. Answer: E

5 21. The term heat in physics is A. equivalent to temperature. B. equivalent to internal energy. C. any energy transferred to a body that raises the temperature of the body. D. energy transferred to a body because of a difference in temperature. E. the same as work. 22. During the course of a demonstration the professor is called away. When he returns he finds a beaker of water that was at room temperature is now at a slightly higher temperature. There is a stirring rod on the desk and a cigarette lighter. The professor can assume that the temperature increase is due to A. heat added to the system. B. mechanical work done on the system. C. either heat added or mechanical work done. 23. A certain amount of heat is transferred to a system, and the system performs some work on its surroundings. The amount of work done is less than the heat added. Thus A. the internal energy of the system increased. B. the internal energy of the system decreased. C. there has been a violation of the principle of conservation of energy. D. an error has been made somewhere. E. there must have been a phase change. 24. Compare the internal energy of one gram of steam to that of one gram of water if both are at 100 C. A. The internal energy of the water and steam are the same. B. The internal energy of the water will be higher. C. The internal energy of the steam will be higher. 25. An ice cube of mass 100 g and at 0 o C is dropped into a Styrofoam cup containing 200 g of water at 25 o C. The heat of fusion of ice is 80 cal/g and the specific heat capacity of water is 1.0 cal/g C. Assuming the cup doesn't exchange any heat, the final temperature of the system will be which of the following? A. -10 o C. B. 0 o C. C o C. D o C. E. +10 o C.

6 26. Heat is added to an ideal gas and the gas expands. In such a process the temperature A. must always increase. B. will remain the same if the work done equals the heat added. C. must always decrease. D. will remain the same if work done is less than the heat added. E. will remain the same if the work done exceeds the heat added. 27. Hot cider is poured into a metal cup. Shortly thereafter the handle of the cup becomes hot. This is due to the process of A. conduction. B. convection. C. radiation. D. osmosis. 28. A physics student has to make a choice in the color of shingles to put on her house. Considering only energy cost in heating and cooling the house, the decision of a light versus dark color roof will be based upon which of the following? A. A dark roof would be better in the winter but worse in summer. B. A light roof would be better in the winter but worse in summer. C. A light roof would be better in both the winter and summer. D. A dark roof would be better in both the winter and summer. 29. Which of the following units is not an energy unit? A. Calorie. B. Joule. C. Kilowatt-hour. D. Horsepower. E. Kilocalorie. 30. The temperature of a 50 g sample of aluminum is raised from 20 o C to 90 o C when 770 cal of heat is added. The specific heat capacity of the aluminum is A. not calculable from this data B cal/g C o. C cal/g C. D cal/g C. E cal/g C. 31. During a phase change the of a system will remain constant as heat is added. Answer: temperature

7 32. The first law of thermodynamics is an extension of the principle of conservation of that we first met in mechanics. Answer: energy 33. Heat will not be transferred between two bodies that are at the same. Answer: temperature 34. The transfer of heat from a furnace to the house through ducts is by the process of. Answer: convection 35. A student uses a thermometer calibrated in Kelvin units. A temperature change of 10K is equivalent to a change of how many degrees on the Celsius scale? Answer: The internal energy of a system such as helium gas can be identified as the total mechanical energy of the. Answer: atoms

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4 When sweat evaporates, it cools the skin by absorbing heat from the body. Energy and Matter CAPTER OUTLINE 4.1 Energy 4.2 The Three States of Matter 4.3 Intermolecular Forces 4.4 Boiling Point and Melting

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7. 1.00 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 101.325 kpa = 14.70 psi. = 0.446 atm. = 0.993 atm. = 107 kpa 760 torr 1 atm 760 mm Hg = 790.

CHATER 3. The atmosphere is a homogeneous mixture (a solution) of gases.. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. have volumes that depend on their conditions,

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