Test 3 Earth Formation, Structure, Plate Boundaries, Volcanism

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1 Test 3 Earth Formation, Structure, Plate Boundaries, Volcanism Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The shape of Earth most closely resembles a(n) a. perfect sphere. c. oblate spheroid. b. approximate oval. d. perfect circle. 2. Because Earth s interior is warmer than its surface layers, hot materials move toward the surface in a process called a. energy balancing. c. energy transfer. b. convection. d. rotation. 3. What layers of Earth make up the lithosphere? a. the crust and lower mantle b. the crust and upper mantle c. the continental crust and oceanic crust d. the upper and lower mantle 4. What layer of Earth is labeled C in Figure 8-2? a. the crust c. the mantle b. the asthenosphere d. the lithosphere 5. What layer of Earth is labeled B in Figure 8-2? a. the continental crust c. the oceanic crust b. the lithosphere d. the mantle

2 6. Most of the information about Earth s interior was obtained by studying. a. earthquake waves c. meteorites b. rocks of the ocean crust d. rocks in deep wells 7. Through which Earth layer are S waves NOT transmitted? a. continental crust c. inner core b. ocean crust d. outer core 8. Earth s core is made of an alloy of. a. iron and nickel c. zinc and magnesium b. copper and iron d. iron and zinc 9. The continental crust has the average composition of. a. gneiss c. basalt b. granite d. limestone 10. A divergent boundary at two oceanic plates can result in a. a. rift valley c. continental volcanic arc b. volcanic island arc d. subduction zone 11. What type of boundary occurs where two plates move together, causing one plate to descend into the mantle beneath the other plate? a. transform fault boundary c. convergent boundary b. divergent boundary d. transitional boundary 12. New ocean crust is formed at. a. divergent boundaries c. continental volcanic arcs b. convergent boundaries d. transform fault boundaries 13. What forms when one oceanic plate is forced beneath another plate? a. an ocean basin c. a subduction zone b. an ocean ridge d. a rift valley 14. What type of plate boundary is illustrated in Figure 9-1? a. transform fault boundary c. convergent oceanic-oceanic boundary b. divergent boundary d. convergent oceanic-continental boundary 15. What feature is labeled B in Figure 9-1? a. trench c. volcanic island arc b. ocean ridge d. continental volcanic arc 16. What process is illustrated by the area labeled G in Figure 9-1? a. seafloor spreading c. rifting

3 b. continental volcanism d. subduction 17. Oceanic lithosphere is destroyed at. a. transform fault boundaries c. ocean ridges b. divergent boundaries d. convergent boundaries 18. The Himalayas in South Asia are an example of what type of plate boundary? a. convergent oceanic-continental boundary c. divergent boundary b. convergent continental-continental d. transform fault boundary boundary 19. Volcanic island arcs are associated with what type of plate boundary? a. divergent boundary c. convergent oceanic-continental boundary b. convergent continental-continental d. convergent oceanic-oceanic boundary boundary 20. Continental volcanic arcs are associated with what type of plate boundary? a. convergent continental-continental c. transform fault boundary boundary b. convergent oceanic-continental boundary d. convergent oceanic-oceanic boundary 21. At a transform fault boundary,. a. new oceanic crust is formed c. lithosphere is neither destroyed nor produced b. oceanic lithosphere is destroyed d. new continental crust is formed 22. What effect does Earth s interior have on P waves and S waves? a. It can send them into seismic gaps. c. It has virtually no effect, especially on P waves. b. It can absorb P waves, but not S waves. d. It can affect the speed and direction of the waves. 23. Young Earth formed a core, mantle, and crust in a process called a. layering. c. dispersion. b. settling. d. differentiation. 24. Evidence suggests that Earth is about 4.6 billion years old, even though no Earth rocks have been formed that can be dated at more than 4 billion years old. This discrepancy is most likely caused by Earth s original crust being: a. difficult to date so precisely. c. blasted away during Earth s formation. b. subject to extensive erosion. d. destroyed by solar radiation. 25. Which of the following factors helps determine whether a volcanic eruption will be violent or relatively quiet? a. amount of dissolved gases in the magma c. composition of the magma b. temperature of the magma d. all of the above 26. As the temperature of lava increases,. a. its viscosity decreases c. its viscosity increases b. it begins to harden d. it can flow a much shorter distance 27. What type of volcano is built almost entirely from ejected lava fragments? a. cinder cone c. shield volcano b. composite cone d. pahoehoe volcano 28. The broad, slightly dome-shaped volcanoes of Hawaii are. a. composite cone volcanoes c. pyroclastic volcanoes b. shield volcanoes d. cinder cone volcanoes 29. A volcano that is fairly symmetrical and has both layers of lava and pyroclastic deposits is a. a. cinder cone volcano c. pyroclastic volcano

4 b. shield volcano d. composite cone volcano 30. What type of volcano is illustrated in Figure 10-1? a. volcanic neck c. cinder cone b. shield volcano d. composite cone 31. Which of the following is true about cinder cones? a. They have very steep sides. c. They often occur in groups. b. They are usually less than 300 meters d. all of the above high. 32. The most violent volcanic eruptions are associated with what type of volcano? a. cinder cones c. composite cones b. shield volcanoes d. fissure eruptions 33. This area is both a major earthquake zone and volcano zone. a. Pacific Ring of Volcanoes c. Oceanic Ring of Fire b. Pacific Ring of Fire d. Pacific Island Arc 34. Magma that is rich in feldspar and silica is called a. pyroclastic. c. composite. b. mafic. d. felsic. 35. Composite volcanoes are also known as a. stratovolcanoes. c. craters. b. cinder cones. d. shield volcanoes. 36. Volcanic eruptions may be signaled by a. a change in earthquake activity. c. a change in wildlife behavior. b. a sudden weather change. d. volcanic dust in the air. 37. The eruption of Mount St. Helens was a. an oceanic volcano. c. an explosive eruption. b. a quiet eruption. d. a stratovolcano. 38. What island is cut by a fissure breaking it into two parts? a. Japan c. Iceland b. Hawaii d. Grand Cayman 39. Any activity that includes the movement of magna to Earth s surface is called a. a vent. c. volcanism. b. a volcano. d. lava.

5 40. Magma or igneous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron and that is generally dark in color is called a. felsic. c. mafic. b. ash. d. pyroclastic. 41. An area of volcanic activity far from a tectonic plate boundary is called a(n) a. hot spot. c. island arc. b. cone. d. mantle plume. Matching Match each type of volcano with the correct illustration or description below. a. shield volcano c. composite volcano b. cinder-cone volcano Broad, gently sloping sides 46. Steep-sided 47. Made of layers of tephra and lava 48. Forms from layers of basaltic lava 49. Forms as tephra ejected high into the air fall back to Earth and pile around the vent 50. Largest of the volcanoes

6 Test 3 Earth Formation, Structure, Plate Boundaries, Volcanism Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 1 OBJ: 1 2. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 2 3. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L1 OBJ: 9.8 STA: 3.a 3.b 3.f 14. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L1 OBJ: 9.6 STA: 3.a 3.b 15. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L1 OBJ: 9.8 STA: 3.a 3.b 16. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L1 OBJ: 9.8 STA: 3.a 3.f 17. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 9.8 STA: 3.a 18. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: B PTS: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L1 OBJ: 10.1

7 26. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L1 OBJ: 10.1 STA: 3.f 27. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L1 OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 10.3 STA: 3.f 32. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 2 OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 2 OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 2 OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 1 OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 2 OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 1 MATCHING 42. ANS: A PTS: ANS: B PTS: ANS: C PTS: ANS: A PTS: ANS: B PTS: ANS: C PTS: ANS: A PTS: ANS: B PTS: ANS: C PTS: 1

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