Geol 101: Physical Geology Summer 2007 EXAM 1

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Geol 101: Physical Geology Summer 2007 EXAM 1"

Transcription

1 Geol 101: Physical Geology Summer 2007 EXAM 1 Write your name out in full on the scantron form and fill in the corresponding ovals to spell out your name. Also fill in your student ID number in the space provided. Do not include the dash and do not leave any spaces. Make sure you have all 7 pages of the exam. There are 55 questions. For each question, select the correct answer and fill in your choice on the scantron form. You MUST use pencil on the scantron form! 1. Who is considered to be the father of modern geology? A. Plato B. Pliny the Elder C. James Ussher D. James Hutton E. Alfred Wegener 2. Most modern geologic study is based on the precept of the Principle of Uniformitarianism, which states: A. the present is the key to the past B. the past is the key to the future C. the past repeats itself D. the past s future is the same as the future s past E. nothing ever changes in geology 3. In glass, atoms are arranged in a: (A) regular framework (B) random orientation 4. A silicate mineral contains: (A) oxygen (B) sulfur 5. Mica sheets are held together by: (A) Van der Waal's bonds (B) ionic bonds 6. Manufactured diamonds are: (A) not minerals (B) minerals 7. Diamonds are 2-3 billion years old. This is known because what part of a diamond stone can be dated radiometrically? (A) the polish (B) the carbon atoms (C) the inclusions (D) all of the above (E) none of the above 8. Strictly speaking, amber is a/an: (A) mineral (B) organic material (C) both of these 1

2 9. A mineral that breaks into sheets has cleavage in how many directions? (A) none (B) one (C) two (D) three (E) four 10. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding evidence to suggest that Africa and South America were once joined? A. the two continents fit together well along their true edges at an ocean depth of 900 m B. both continents contain fossils of the plant Glossopteris and the aquatic reptile Mesosaurus C. rocks that are about 550 million years old match up perfectly across the continents D. both continents show compatible evidence of a glacial period during the Carboniferous E. the Caledonides mountain range matches up across the two continents 11. Which of the following was NOT part of Gondwana? A. Eurasia B. Africa C. India D. Australia E. Antarctica 12. Paleomagnetism studies often consider the latitude at which a certain rock formed. Which of the following magnetic properties only changes as a function of latitude? A. magnetic polarity B. magnetic reversals C. magnetic inclination 13. In the modern age, compass needles point towards magnetic north. However, about 700,000 years ago, compass needles would have pointed south because it was during a period of: A. normal polarity B. positive polarity C. inverse polarity D. reverse polarity E. shoddy compass construction 14. Which of these statements about paleomagnetism as determined from a study of spreading ridges is FALSE? A. there is a clear paleomagnetic signal in rocks to either side of a spreading ridge B. rocks along spreading ridges all show normal polarity, no matter what their age C. the paleomagnetic pattern on one side of a ridge is a mirror image of that on the other side of the ridge D. there is evidence that Earth s magnetic poles reverse approximately every half-million years E. all the world s spreading ridges show evidence of paleomagnetic reversals in the adjacent ocean rocks 15. If you were to collect samples of basalt at the following locations on the sea floor of the North Atlantic ocean, which sample would be the oldest? A. along the spreading ridge B. where the spreading ridge is exposed above water in Iceland C. just east of the spreading ridge D. just west of the spreading ridge E. along the coast of Africa 2

3 16. The oldest ocean crust anywhere in the Earth s oceans is about years old. A B. 12 million C. 180 million D. 250 million E. 4.6 billion 17. A rift valley can be found in the following type of plate tectonic setting: 18. The Cascades mountain range in the western U.S.A. is found in the following type of plate tectonic setting: 19. The San Andreas fault is found in the following type of plate tectonic setting: 20. An island arc can be found in the following type of plate tectonic setting: 21. The Himalayas mountains are found in the following type of plate tectonic setting: 22. When a mantle plume rises from the outer core boundary to the Earth s surface, it results in a/an: A. hot spot B. island arc C. volcanic arc D. subduction zone E. suture zone 3

4 23. On average, the geothermal gradient inside the Earth is about: A C per kilometer B. 100 C per kilometer C. 50 C per kilometer D. 25 C per kilometer E. 10 C per kilometer 24. The inside of the earth is not completely molten (i.e. liquid) because: A. it never gets hot enough to melt rocks deep in the earth B. the melting temperature of rocks increases as pressure increases C. the earth would collapse in on itself if it had a liquid interior D. none of the above because the inside of the earth is completely molten 25. As a rock starts to melt, the minerals with the lowest melting temperature will start to melt first, forming magma. This melted portion can get squeezed away from the remaining solid rock through a process called: A. partial melting B. fractionation C. differentiation D. buoyancy E. crystallization 26. Newly formed magma starts to rise towards the Earth s surface because: A. it is sucked upwards by erupting volcanoes B. it is squeezed upwards by the force of tectonic plate collisions C. it is less dense than the rocks around it D. there is no gravity inside the earth 27. The type of magma that has the lowest silica content is: A. intermediate B. ultramafic C. mafic D. felsic E. all magma has the same silica content 28. The type of lava that flows the fastest has: A. a high temperature and a high silica content B. a high temperature and a low silica content C. a relatively low temperature and a high silica content D. a relatively low temperature and a low silica content E. all lava flows at the same speed, regardless of temperature or silica content 29. Which of the following terms has the same meaning as coarse-grained texture in igneous rocks? A. aphanitic B. phaneritic C. porphyritic D. pyroclastic E. pegmatitic 30. What type of rock typically shows a vesicular texture? A. basalt B. tuff C. pumice 4

5 31. Which of the following minerals is NOT found in Bowen s Reaction Series? A. plagioclase B. amphibole C. olivine D. calcite E. quartz 32. How many active volcanoes are there in the world? A. about a million B. around 10,000 C. around 1,500 D. around 800 E The type of volcanic hazard that involves a huge cloud of tephra rushing down the slopes of a volcano is a: A. lahar B. lava bomb C. pyroclastic flow D. gas cloud E. ash fall 34. The type of volcanic hazard that involves a mudflow made of volcanic ash is a: A. lahar B. lava bomb C. pyroclastic flow D. gas cloud E. ash fall 35. Which of the following is characteristic of nonexplosive eruptions? A. shield volcanoes B. high-viscosity lava C. felsic lava D. Plinian columns E. island arc volcanoes like Krakatau 36. What type of volcano is Mount St. Helens? A. stratovolcano B. shield volcano C. cinder cone D. lava dome E. tuff ring 37. The most active volcano in the Cascades is (1) but the largest known eruption that occurred about 6800 years ago was the eruption of (2). A. (1) Crater Lake (2) Mt. St. Helens B. (1) Mt. St. Helens (2) Lassen Peak C. (1) Mt. St. Helens (2) Mt. Mazama D. (1) Mt. Mazama (2) Mt. Tehama E. (1) Mt. Shasta (2) Mt. St. Helens 5

6 38. Which of the following sequence of events accurately describes the build-up to the eruption of Mount St. Helens exactly 27 years ago today, on May 18 th, 1980? A. steam and ash release bulge on mountain earthquake landslide lateral blast B. bulge on mountain steam and ash release earthquake landslide lateral blast C. bulge on mountain earthquake steam and ash release landslide lateral blast D. steam and ash release bulge on mountain landslide lateral blast earthquake E. bulge on mountain earthquake steam and ash release lateral blast landslide 39. Diagenesis can occur by: (A) recrystallization (B) frost wedging 40. Clastic sedimentary rock is formed out of: (A) chemical reactions (B) detritus 41. Sediment can be converted to sedimentary rock by: (A) diagenesis (B) metamorphism 42. The spires at Bryce Canyon National Monument are the result of: (A) differential weathering (B) volcanic extrusion 43. Lake sediments such as varves suggest a: (A) low energy depositional environment (B) high energy depositional environment 44. The removal of material from its source area is: (A) weathering (B) erosion 45. Technically, lunar soil is not "soil"; it is: (A) regolith (B) mineral (C) humus 46. Because they occur in a reducing environment, organic sediments such as coal are often associated with the iron sulfide mineral: (A) pyrite (B) hematite (C) limonite (D) magnetite (E) all of the above 47. Rock salt and gypsum are good examples of: (A) evaporites (B) clastics 48. The process by which slabs of rocks bounded by sheet joints slip off host rock is: (A) foliation (B) exfoliation 6

7 49. Yosemite National Park is famous for its domes, which were formed by: (A) exfoliation (B) volcanic action (C) ocean bottom processes 50. The opening of cracks by repeated freezing and thawing of water is: (A) mechanical weathering (B) chemical weathering BONUS QUESTIONS 51. What must always exist inside the crystal structure of a ferromagnesian silicate mineral? A. Ca and Na B. Si and Ca C. Fe and Mg D. Fe and K E. Mg and Na 52. The top of Mt. Everest exhibits (1) which indicates that (2). A. (1) a suture zone (2) it must be an ocean-continent plate boundary B. (1) a crater (2) it must be a volcano C. (1) constant elevation (2) the collision between India and Asia is now complete D. (1) glacial features (2) it used to be near the south pole as part of Gondwana E. (1) sea shell fossils (2) it is made of old ocean floor that got uplifted during collision 53. The largest type of pluton is called a: A. dike B. volcanic pipe C. laccolith D. sill E. batholith 54. The world s largest lava dome is: A. Mount St. Helens B. Mauna Loa C. Mount Hood D. Lassen Peak E. Crater Lake 55. The last Cascades volcano to erupt before Mount St. Helens in 1980 was: A. also Mount St. Helens B. Mount Rainier C. Mount Hood D. Lassen Peak E. Mount Shasta 7

Geol 101: Physical Geology PAST EXAM QUESTIONS LECTURE 4: PLATE TECTONICS II

Geol 101: Physical Geology PAST EXAM QUESTIONS LECTURE 4: PLATE TECTONICS II Geol 101: Physical Geology PAST EXAM QUESTIONS LECTURE 4: PLATE TECTONICS II 4. Which of the following statements about paleomagnetism at spreading ridges is FALSE? A. there is a clear pattern of paleomagnetic

More information

Earth Materials: Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks. The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth

Earth Materials: Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks. The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth Earth Materials: 1 The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth 2 Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks Three main categories of rocks: Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic The most common minerals

More information

Rocks and Plate Tectonics

Rocks and Plate Tectonics Name: Class: _ Date: _ Rocks and Plate Tectonics Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is a naturally occurring, solid mass of mineral or

More information

Geol 101: Physical Geology Fall 2006 EXAM 1

Geol 101: Physical Geology Fall 2006 EXAM 1 Geol 101: Physical Geology Fall 2006 EXAM 1 Write your name out in full on the scantron form and fill in the corresponding ovals to spell out your name. Also fill in your student ID number in the space

More information

Igneous Rocks. Geology 200 Geology for Environmental Scientists

Igneous Rocks. Geology 200 Geology for Environmental Scientists Igneous Rocks Geology 200 Geology for Environmental Scientists Magma Compositions Ultramafic - composition of mantle Mafic - composition of basalt, e.g. oceanic crust. 900-1200 o C, 50% SiO 2 Intermediate

More information

Introduction to Plate Tectonics Plate tectonics

Introduction to Plate Tectonics Plate tectonics Quizlet Magnetic stripes along the seafloor are evidence for a) Earth s magnetic reversals b) Seafloor spreading c) Convection currents in the mantle d) Magnetite's ability to orient with a magnetic field

More information

Igneous rocks: : Rock that forms when hot molten rock (magma or lava) cools and

Igneous rocks: : Rock that forms when hot molten rock (magma or lava) cools and Igneous rocks: : Rock that forms when hot molten rock (magma or lava) cools and freezes solid. Can be intrusive (formed deep in the earth) or extrusive (formed at the surface of the earth). Magma: : Molten

More information

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint. Chapter 9 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint. Chapter 9 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens Lecture Outlines PowerPoint Chapter 9 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors

More information

Test 3 Earth Formation, Structure, Plate Boundaries, Volcanism

Test 3 Earth Formation, Structure, Plate Boundaries, Volcanism Test 3 Earth Formation, Structure, Plate Boundaries, Volcanism Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The shape of Earth most closely resembles

More information

SCIENCE 10 Unit 4: Earth Science Review

SCIENCE 10 Unit 4: Earth Science Review SCIENCE 10 Unit 4: Earth Science Review Use the following diagram to answer questions 1 and 2. 1. Which location has the youngest crust? A. A B. B C. C D. D 2. Which location is associated with subduction?

More information

Plate Tectonic Theory

Plate Tectonic Theory Plate Tectonic Theory Not continental drift!! Importance: The unifying theory for all other theories in the Earth sciences Has resulted in a more detailed understanding of Earth history Has enabled geologists

More information

Source: Photograph copyright Paul Hickson, 1980 Image by NPS

Source: Photograph copyright Paul Hickson, 1980 Image by NPS Volcanoes Source: Photograph copyright Paul Hickson, 1980 Image by NPS I. Volcanoes release magma A. Molten rock is less dense than solid rock so it rises through fractures Shield Volcano B. Speed of magma

More information

Continental Drift. Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) Proposed that all of the continents were once part of a large supercontinent - Pangaea Based on:

Continental Drift. Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) Proposed that all of the continents were once part of a large supercontinent - Pangaea Based on: Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift Continental Drift Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) Proposed that all of the continents were once part of a large supercontinent - Pangaea Based on: Similarities in shorelines

More information

WHERE DO VOLCANOES FORM AND WHY?

WHERE DO VOLCANOES FORM AND WHY? Name: Class: Date: What is a Volcano? WHERE DO VOLCANOES FORM AND WHY? A volcano is a weak spot in the crust where molten material, called magma, erupts to the surface. Magma is a mixture of rock-forming

More information

Magmas and Igneous Rocks

Magmas and Igneous Rocks Page 1 of 14 EENS 1110 Tulane University Physical Geology Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Magmas and Igneous Rocks This page last updated on 03-Sep-2015 Magma and Igneous Rocks Igneous Rocks are formed by crystallization

More information

Theory of Catastrophism - earth s shapes created in great cataclysms

Theory of Catastrophism - earth s shapes created in great cataclysms Atmosphere Biosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere Lithosphere is the branch of physical geography, shared with the fields of Geomorphology and Tectonics, that specifically examine the landforms, continents

More information

Fresh water Land dwelling Land dwelling (i) Fern

Fresh water Land dwelling Land dwelling (i) Fern I Plate Tectonic Theory (This is a 2 day outline) A Continental Drift 1 Proposed by Alfred Wegner in 1915 2 Continents are a giant jigsaw puzzle 3 Put together get Pangea ( all land ) a supercontinent

More information

Section 2 Types of Volcanoes

Section 2 Types of Volcanoes Section 2 Types of Volcanoes Key Concept Tectonic plate motions can result in volcanic activity at plate boundaries. What You Will Learn Nonexplosive eruptions of basaltic magma occur at divergent boundaries.

More information

4. Plate Tectonics II (p. 46-67)

4. Plate Tectonics II (p. 46-67) 4. Plate Tectonics II (p. 46-67) Seafloor Spreading In the early 1960s, samples of basaltic ocean crust were dredged up from various locations across the ocean basins. The samples were then analyzed to

More information

ESS 101 Midterm Autumn 2005 Student #:

ESS 101 Midterm Autumn 2005 Student #: ESS 101 Midterm Autumn 2005 Student #: Name VERSION A Provide the best answer for the following multiple choice questions. There are 49 regular test questions and five bonus questions. The bonus questions

More information

Igneous Geochemistry. What is magma? What is polymerization? Average compositions (% by weight) and liquidus temperatures of different magmas

Igneous Geochemistry. What is magma? What is polymerization? Average compositions (% by weight) and liquidus temperatures of different magmas 1 Igneous Geochemistry What is magma phases, compositions, properties Major igneous processes Making magma how and where Major-element variations Classification using a whole-rock analysis Fractional crystallization

More information

1 Exploring Earth s Interior

1 Exploring Earth s Interior 1 Exploring Earth s Interior Crust Mantle Outer Core Crust-to-Mantle Inner Core Cross Section From Surface to Center SCIENCE EXPLORER Focus on Earth Science Prentice-Hall, Inc. 2 Evidence for Continental

More information

Rocks & Minerals. 10. Which rock type is most likely to be monomineralic? 1) rock salt 3) basalt 2) rhyolite 4) conglomerate

Rocks & Minerals. 10. Which rock type is most likely to be monomineralic? 1) rock salt 3) basalt 2) rhyolite 4) conglomerate 1. Of the Earth's more than 2,000 identified minerals, only a small number are commonly found in rocks. This fact indicates that most 1) minerals weather before they can be identified 2) minerals have

More information

II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013)

II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013) EAPS 100 Planet Earth Lecture Topics Brief Outlines II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013) 1. Interior of the Earth Learning objectives: Understand the structure of the Earth s interior crust,

More information

Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics Review. Name that Layer...

Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics Review. Name that Layer... Name that Layer... 1 Which layers make up the lithosphere? Multiple answer A B C D crust mantle inner core outer core Why wouldn t the fossil of an ocean fish found on two different continents be good

More information

Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE

Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE DATE DUE: Name: Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer Provide specific and detailed

More information

TECTONICS ASSESSMENT

TECTONICS ASSESSMENT Tectonics Assessment / 1 TECTONICS ASSESSMENT 1. Movement along plate boundaries produces A. tides. B. fronts. C. hurricanes. D. earthquakes. 2. Which of the following is TRUE about the movement of continents?

More information

Plate Tectonics. An outgrowth of the old theory of "continental drift," supported by much data from many areas of geology.

Plate Tectonics. An outgrowth of the old theory of continental drift, supported by much data from many areas of geology. Plate Tectonics Plate Tectonic theory was proposed in late 1960s and early 1970s. It is a unifying theory showing how a large number of diverse, seemingly-unrelated geologic facts are interrelated. An

More information

ES Chapter 10 Review. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

ES Chapter 10 Review. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: ES Chapter 10 Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Scientists used the pattern of alternating normal and reversed

More information

Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE

Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE DATE DUE: Name: Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer Provide specific and detailed

More information

Pacific NW Rocks & Minerals Mid Term I: KEY

Pacific NW Rocks & Minerals Mid Term I: KEY Name: Date: (1) 2 pts. Compared to the age of the Earth accepted as correct today, how did seventeenth and eighteenth century proponents of catastrophism envision the Earth's age? A) They believed Earth

More information

Environmental Science Volcano Review Sheet

Environmental Science Volcano Review Sheet Environmental Science Volcano Review Sheet 1. List and describe the components of the 4 spheres of the Earth. a. Geosphere; rock and soil b. Atmosphere; air c. Hydrosphere; water d. Biosphere; area where

More information

Minerals and Rocks C) D)

Minerals and Rocks C) D) Minerals and Rocks Name 1. Base your answer to the following question on the map and cross section below. The shaded areas on the map represent regions of the United States that have evaporite rock layers

More information

Regents Questions: Plate Tectonics

Regents Questions: Plate Tectonics Earth Science Regents Questions: Plate Tectonics Name: Date: Period: August 2013 Due Date: 17 Compared to the oceanic crust, the continental crust is (1) less dense and more basaltic (3) more dense and

More information

What causes Earth s surface to change?

What causes Earth s surface to change? Lesson 1 Earth s Landforms Lesson 2 Plate Tectonics Lesson 3 Volcanoes Lesson 4 Earthquakes What causes Earth s surface to change? Lesson 5 Shaping Earth s Surface landform relief map topographical map

More information

Slide 1. Earth Science. Chapter 6 Volcanoes

Slide 1. Earth Science. Chapter 6 Volcanoes Slide 1 Earth Science Chapter 6 Volcanoes Slide 2 Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics Volcano - a weak spot in the crust where molten material, or magma, comes to the surface. Ring of Fire - Major Volcanic Belt

More information

Rocks and Rock-Forming Processes

Rocks and Rock-Forming Processes Rocks and Rock-Forming Processes 3.4 How are the rock classes related to one another? The Rock Cycle Smith & Pun, Chapter 3 Processes link types Plate tectonics is driving force If we look closely we see

More information

Digging Deeper BUILDING FEATURES ON EARTH S SURFACE. Divergent Boundaries and Breaks in Earth s Crust (Rifting)

Digging Deeper BUILDING FEATURES ON EARTH S SURFACE. Divergent Boundaries and Breaks in Earth s Crust (Rifting) Chapter 2 Plate Tectonics Digging Deeper BUILDING FEATURES ON EARTH S SURFACE Divergent Boundaries and Breaks in Earth s Crust (Rifting) In the Investigate, you examined a diagram showing a cross section

More information

Plate Tectonics Short Study Guide

Plate Tectonics Short Study Guide Name: Class: Date: Plate Tectonics Short Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The existence of coal beds in Antarctica

More information

Earth s Layered Structure, Earth s Internal Structure, Plate Tectonics

Earth s Layered Structure, Earth s Internal Structure, Plate Tectonics Earth s Layered Structure, Earth s Internal Structure, Plate Tectonics Chs.1&2 Earth s Layered Structure High-velocity impact of debris + radioactive decay => increase in T => Fe & Ni melt & sink => Inner

More information

Volcanoes and plate tectonics

Volcanoes and plate tectonics Volcanoes and plate tectonics 1. divergent plate margins: rift volcanoes 2. convergent plate margins: 84% of eruptions ocean-ocean margins: island-arc volcanoes ocean-continent margins: andesitic volcanoes

More information

Exam #3 - All numbered questions are given equal weight in the multiple choice part.

Exam #3 - All numbered questions are given equal weight in the multiple choice part. Exam #3 - All numbered questions are given equal weight in the multiple choice part. Multiple Choice Mark only one answer for each question. 1) On a global map of earthquakes, the locations of the earthquakes

More information

Earth: An Introduc/on to Physical Geology, 10e

Earth: An Introduc/on to Physical Geology, 10e Earth: An Introduc/on to Physical Geology, 10e Tarbuck & Lutgens Plate Tectonics: A Scien/fic Revolu/on Unfolds Earth, 10e - Chapter 2 Hernan Santos University of Puerto Rico Mayagüez Campus Con/nental

More information

PLATE TECTONICS. The Basic Premise of Plate Tectonics

PLATE TECTONICS. The Basic Premise of Plate Tectonics PLATE TECTONICS The Basic Premise of Plate Tectonics The lithosphere is divided into plates that move relative to one another, and relative to the earth s asthenosphere. Movement occurs at very slow (cm/yr)

More information

There are three basic types of plate margins. I will list them here, and then discuss each of them in turn. These plate margins are:

There are three basic types of plate margins. I will list them here, and then discuss each of them in turn. These plate margins are: PLATE MARGINS As we discussed in class, while there is interesting geology all over the world, much of the most interesting and spectacular events occur where two plates meet. We refer to such regions

More information

Plate Tectonics. The Grand Unifying Theory. Tectonics. Plate Tectonics. Geol 104: Plate tectonics

Plate Tectonics. The Grand Unifying Theory. Tectonics. Plate Tectonics. Geol 104: Plate tectonics Plate Tectonics The Grand Unifying Theory Tectonics Study of the origin and arrangement of broad structural features of Earth s surface. Plate Tectonics Idea that the Earth s surface is divided into a

More information

Exam 2 review Earth Science 2 Exam on April 8th

Exam 2 review Earth Science 2 Exam on April 8th 1. How is Earth organized? A. Earth has an inner and outer core, a mantle, and a crust. B. Earth has an inner mantle and an outer lithosphere. with a liquid inner core. C. Earth's crust rests atop the

More information

Key topics today: How do we know about the Earth s interior structure? Earth s layering: By composition

Key topics today: How do we know about the Earth s interior structure? Earth s layering: By composition Solid-earth geology: Plate tectonics, earthquakes, and volcanoes Explain shape and structure of the ocean basins Explain cycle of oceanic opening and closing Explain many aspects of basic marine geology

More information

Minerals in granite. The igneous rock granite is composed of many separate grains of several main minerals. Figure 2.1

Minerals in granite. The igneous rock granite is composed of many separate grains of several main minerals. Figure 2.1 Minerals in granite The igneous rock granite is composed of many separate grains of several main minerals Figure 2.1 What is a mineral? Naturally occurring solid Specific chemical composition Crystal structure

More information

Rapid Changes in Earth s Surface

Rapid Changes in Earth s Surface TEKS investigate rapid changes in Earth s surface such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and landslides Rapid Changes in Earth s Surface Constant Changes Earth s surface is constantly changing. Wind,

More information

Earthquakes Volcanoes Mountains

Earthquakes Volcanoes Mountains Earthquakes Volcanoes Mountains Sea Floor Spreading Where is it located? How does it form? How does it change the Earth s surface? Earthquakes Where are earthquakes located? Most earthquakes happen around

More information

PLATE TECTONICS. 1. "Tectonics" - is a term that refers to the deformation of the earth's crust.

PLATE TECTONICS. 1. Tectonics - is a term that refers to the deformation of the earth's crust. PLATE TECTONICS I. Introduction A. General 1. The theory of plate tectonics is a recent development in the geological sciences, really accepted by scientific community since the early 1960's. 2. Earlier

More information

Mountain Building. Folding. Faulting. Volcanoes

Mountain Building. Folding. Faulting. Volcanoes Mountain Building Folding Faulting Volcanoes Most Major Mountain ranges were formed by the collision of continental Plates Mountains by Folding Fold mountains are actually formed by crust which have been

More information

On the outside, there's a crust. Within this crust, the most abundant elements (by mass) are oxygen and silicon.

On the outside, there's a crust. Within this crust, the most abundant elements (by mass) are oxygen and silicon. The Earth is made up of rocks and minerals. The core of the Earth is molten rock. On the outside, there's a crust. Within this crust, the most abundant elements (by mass) are oxygen and silicon. Sometimes

More information

What does this all mean? DIVIDE COLLIDE - SLIDE. There are three types of motion. Mr. Fetch s Earth Science Classroom

What does this all mean? DIVIDE COLLIDE - SLIDE. There are three types of motion. Mr. Fetch s Earth Science Classroom What does this all mean? DIVIDE COLLIDE - SLIDE There are three types of motion. Plates can divide apart and move away from each other. Plates can collide together and move closer. Plates can slide past

More information

Mountain Building. Folding. Faulting. Volcanoes

Mountain Building. Folding. Faulting. Volcanoes Mountain Building Folding Faulting Volcanoes Most Major Mountain ranges were formed by the collision of continental Plates Mountains by Folding Fold mountains are actually formed by crust which have been

More information

Changes in Earth s Surface

Changes in Earth s Surface Changes in Earth s Surface Vocabulary For two-column notes, underlines titles are main ideas Scientific Theory of Plate Tectonics Based on Wegener s Hypothesis Sea-floor spreading Continents drifted to

More information

Section 1: Continental Drift

Section 1: Continental Drift Section 1: Continental Drift Preview Objectives Wegener s s Hypothesis Mid-Ocean Ridges Sea-Floor Spreading Paleomagnetism Wegener Redeemed Continental Drift (Pangaea) Objectives Summarize Wegener s hypothesis

More information

Chapter 8: Plate Tectonics -- Multi-format Test

Chapter 8: Plate Tectonics -- Multi-format Test Name: Class: Date: ID: A Chapter 8: Plate Tectonics -- Multi-format Test Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the

More information

REVIEW Key Concepts. Unit 5 Planet Earth. Earthquakes and Volcanoes can suddenly change the Earth s surface

REVIEW Key Concepts. Unit 5 Planet Earth. Earthquakes and Volcanoes can suddenly change the Earth s surface REVIEW Key Concepts Unit 5 Planet Earth 1.0 Changes on the Earth s Surface Layers: Crust, Mantle, Core (Inner and Outer) Earthquakes and Volcanoes can suddenly change the Earth s surface Scientist s use

More information

Plate Tectonics. Continental Drift. Introduction

Plate Tectonics. Continental Drift. Introduction Plate Tectonics Introduction Predecessor of plate tectonics: Continental drift hypothesis What is the theory of plate tectonics? What is a plate? How do we find their edges? How many plates are there?

More information

lithosphere granite basalt

lithosphere granite basalt The Earth s s Crust The Earth s s Crust The earth s crust is the outside layer of the earth. It is thickest at the continents at about 40 Km (up to 70 Km) deep. It is thinnest under the oceans at about

More information

Earth's Interior. Convection and the Mantle Section 2 Summary. Chapter 4 Plate Tectonics

Earth's Interior. Convection and the Mantle Section 2 Summary. Chapter 4 Plate Tectonics Chapter 4 Plate Tectonics Earth's Interior Earth's surface is constantly changing. Earth looks different today from the way it did millions of years ago. People wonder, "What's inside Earth?" The extreme

More information

8-3.1 Summarize the three layers of Earth crust, mantle, and core on the basis of relative position, density, and composition.

8-3.1 Summarize the three layers of Earth crust, mantle, and core on the basis of relative position, density, and composition. Earth s Structure and Processes 8-3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of materials that determine the structure of Earth and the processes that have altered this structure. 8-3.1 Summarize

More information

Most mafic magmas come from the upper mantle and lower crust. This handout will address five questions:

Most mafic magmas come from the upper mantle and lower crust. This handout will address five questions: Geology 101 Origin of Magma From our discussions of the structure of the interior of the Earth, it is clear that the upper parts of the Earth (crust and mantle) are mostly solid because s-waves penetrate

More information

Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 1: The Changing Earth

Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 1: The Changing Earth Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 1: The Changing Earth Lesson 1: Layers of the Earth 1. Atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds the planet 2. Clouds are in this layer 3. Atmosphere contains gases

More information

SIXTH GRADE VOLCANOES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

SIXTH GRADE VOLCANOES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES SIXTH GRADE VOLCANOES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SIXTH GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing the structure of different types of volcanoes. LAB: Plotting 3 different

More information

1. Base your answer to the following question on on the photographs and news article below. Old Man s Loss Felt in New Hampshire

1. Base your answer to the following question on on the photographs and news article below. Old Man s Loss Felt in New Hampshire UNIT 3 EXAM ROCKS AND MINERALS NAME: BLOCK: DATE: 1. Base your answer to the following question on on the photographs and news article below. Old Man s Loss Felt in New Hampshire FRANCONIA, N.H. Crowds

More information

Plate tectonics. The Earth s magnet Normal polarity. The Earth s magnet Reverse polarity. Internal processes: Reading: This week: Ch 3 Next week: Ch 4

Plate tectonics. The Earth s magnet Normal polarity. The Earth s magnet Reverse polarity. Internal processes: Reading: This week: Ch 3 Next week: Ch 4 Internal processes: Plate tectonics The Earth s magnet Normal polarity Magnetic azimuth the compass needle points north Reading: This week: Ch 3 Next week: Ch 4 Magnetic dip at equator: 0 (horizontal)

More information

Plate Tectonics. Earth, 9 th edition Chapter 2

Plate Tectonics. Earth, 9 th edition Chapter 2 1 Plate Tectonics Earth, 9 th edition Chapter 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Plate Tectonics: summary in haiku form Alfred Wegener gave us Continental Drift. Fifty years later... Continental Drift

More information

DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes

DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes NAME: BLOCK: DATE: 1. Base your answer to the following question on The block diagram below shows the boundary between two tectonic plates. Which

More information

Plate Tectonics Practice Questions and Answers Revised August 2007

Plate Tectonics Practice Questions and Answers Revised August 2007 Plate Tectonics Practice Questions and Answers Revised August 2007 1. Please fill in the missing labels. 2. Please fill in the missing labels. 3. How many large plates form the outer shell of the earth?

More information

Volcano Vocabulary ROCK CYCLE. Igneous REMELTED REMELTED BURIED BURIED HEAT ERODED DEPOSITED. Metamorphic Sedimentary ERODED, TRANSPORTED DEPOSITED

Volcano Vocabulary ROCK CYCLE. Igneous REMELTED REMELTED BURIED BURIED HEAT ERODED DEPOSITED. Metamorphic Sedimentary ERODED, TRANSPORTED DEPOSITED Volcano Vocabulary VOLCANISM VENT CRATER CALDERA QUIET ERUPTION EXPLOSIVE ERUPTION PYROCLASTIC DEBRIS CINDER CONE SHIELD VOLCANO COMPOSITE VOLCANO STRATO VOLCANO ACTIVE DORMANT EXTINCT INTRUSION DIKE SILL

More information

Marine Geology, Review Questions for Final Exam. Part I

Marine Geology, Review Questions for Final Exam. Part I Marine Geology, 2015 Review Questions for Final Exam Part I Note: Part I covers topics from Origin of the Earth, Ocean, and Atmosphere to Features on Ocean Floor & Continental Margins Tectonic Perspective

More information

The Earth. March 4, 2014

The Earth. March 4, 2014 The Earth March 4, 2014 The Planets 2 How long ago did the solar system form? Radioactive Decay Radioactive decay - atomic nucleus spontaneously loses energy Parent nuclei transforms to daughter nuclei

More information

Earth Science - SOL 5.7 Science Study Guide

Earth Science - SOL 5.7 Science Study Guide Earth Science - SOL 5.7 Science Study Guide Rocks are classified based on how they were formed. The three types of rocks are sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic. Igneous rock forms when magma (liquid

More information

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science Grade 6. Unit Organizer: Geology: Inside the Earth (Approximate Time: 7 Weeks)

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science Grade 6. Unit Organizer: Geology: Inside the Earth (Approximate Time: 7 Weeks) The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

More information

Volcanoes. GE Natural Hazards. Kelly Durst- Mt. Rainier

Volcanoes. GE Natural Hazards. Kelly Durst- Mt. Rainier Volcanoes GE 4150- Natural Hazards Kelly Durst- Mt. Rainier Earth s Structure Plate Tectonics Plate Tectonics Divergent margins: Plate separation and decompression melting -> low volatile abundance, low

More information

FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FOURTH GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing different structures of volcanoes. LAB: Modeling three types

More information

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science Grade 6. Unit Organizer: Geology Rocks and Minerals. (Approximate Time: 7 Weeks)

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science Grade 6. Unit Organizer: Geology Rocks and Minerals. (Approximate Time: 7 Weeks) The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

More information

Plate Tectonics Chapter 2

Plate Tectonics Chapter 2 Plate Tectonics Chapter 2 Does not include complete lecture notes. Continental drift: An idea before its time Alfred Wegener First proposed his continental drift hypothesis in 1915 Published The Origin

More information

Earth s Rocky Surface

Earth s Rocky Surface Earth s Rocky Surface You have learned that Earth s surface is not permanent and is constantly changing. Some changes take place very slowly over millions of years, such as crustal plates moving and creating

More information

Name Rock and Mineral Review E-Science Date Midterm Review Science Department

Name Rock and Mineral Review E-Science Date Midterm Review Science Department Name Rock and Mineral Review E-Science Date Midterm Review Science Department 1 Base your answer to the following question on the drawings of six sedimentary rocks labeled A through F. Most of the rocks

More information

Plate Tectonics Lab II

Plate Tectonics Lab II Plate Tectonics Lab II This lab is modified from a UW ESS101 Lab created by Mike Harrell Note: Hand in only the Answer Sheet at the back of this guide to your Instructor Introduction One of the more fundamental

More information

6.E.2.2 Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes and Volcanoes

6.E.2.2 Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes and Volcanoes Name: Date: 1. The road shown below was suddenly broken by a natural event. 3. The convergence of two continental plates would produce Which natural event most likely caused the crack in the road? island

More information

How Did These Ocean Features and Continental Margins Form?

How Did These Ocean Features and Continental Margins Form? 298 10.14 INVESTIGATION How Did These Ocean Features and Continental Margins Form? The terrain below contains various features on the seafloor, as well as parts of three continents. Some general observations

More information

Earth Science Grade 4 Minerals

Earth Science Grade 4 Minerals Earth Science Grade 4 Minerals Standards: Identifies the physical properties of minerals Teacher Background Minerals are pure substances and mix together to make rocks. Rocks have a cycle and different

More information

EXTRUSIVE IGNEOUS ROCKS

EXTRUSIVE IGNEOUS ROCKS EXTRUSIVE IGNEOUS ROCKS What s your favorite volcano? Volcanoes and Volcanic Rocks Famous Volcanoes Basalts Andesites Dotsero, CO Fuji Kilauea St. Helens Mauna Loa Ranier Haleakala Shasta Hekla Stromboli

More information

Plate Tectonics. Structure of the Earth

Plate Tectonics. Structure of the Earth Plate Tectonics Structure of the Earth The Earth can be considered as being made up of a series of concentric spheres, each made up of materials that differ in terms of composition and mechanical properties.

More information

Atoms and Elements. Atoms: Learning Goals. Chapter 3. Atoms and Elements; Isotopes and Ions; Minerals and Rocks. Clicker 1. Chemistry Background?

Atoms and Elements. Atoms: Learning Goals. Chapter 3. Atoms and Elements; Isotopes and Ions; Minerals and Rocks. Clicker 1. Chemistry Background? Chapter 3 Atoms Atoms and Elements; Isotopes and Ions; Minerals and Rocks A Review of Chemistry: What geochemistry tells us Clicker 1 Chemistry Background? A. No HS or College Chemistry B. High School

More information

1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers.

1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers. 1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers. Which statement about the deposition of the sediments best explains why these layers have the curved shape shown? 1) Sediments were

More information

INTRODUCTION TO PLATE TECTONICS. Alfred Wegener

INTRODUCTION TO PLATE TECTONICS. Alfred Wegener INTRODUCTION TO PLATE TECTONICS Alfred Wegener 12-1 CONTINENTAL DRIFT AN IDEA BEFORE ITS TIME Alfred Wegener first proposed his continental drift hypothesis in 1915 when he published The Origin of Continents

More information

Unit 4 Lesson 2 Plate Tectonics. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 4 Lesson 2 Plate Tectonics. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Puzzling Evidence What evidence suggests that continents move? In the late 1800s, Alfred Wegener proposed his hypothesis of continental drift. According to this hypothesis, the continents once formed a

More information

Plate Tectonics Review

Plate Tectonics Review 1. Recent volcanic activity in different parts of the world supports the inference that volcanoes are located mainly in 1) the centers of landscape regions 2) the central regions of the continents 3) zones

More information

GEOLOGY MEDIA SUITE Chapter 2

GEOLOGY MEDIA SUITE Chapter 2 UNDERSTANDING EARTH, SIXTH EDITION GROTZINGER JORDAN GEOLOGY MEDIA SUITE Chapter 2 Plate Tectonics The Unifying Theory 2010 W.H. Freeman and Company Interactions at plate boundaries depend on the direction

More information

11.3 Plate Boundaries In this section, you will learn how movement at the boundaries of lithospheric plates affects Earth s surface.

11.3 Plate Boundaries In this section, you will learn how movement at the boundaries of lithospheric plates affects Earth s surface. 11.3 Plate Boundaries In this section, you will learn how movement at the boundaries of lithospheric plates affects Earth s surface. Moving plates Three types of boundaries Imagine a single plate, moving

More information

Heat Flow. The decay of short-lived radioactive elements (such as aluminum-26) generated heat energy in the early stages of the Earth s formation.

Heat Flow. The decay of short-lived radioactive elements (such as aluminum-26) generated heat energy in the early stages of the Earth s formation. Heat Flow Heat from Earth s Interior Earth s interior heat comes from a combination of the following factors: Original heat from the formation and gravitational compression of the Earth from the solar

More information

3. When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source, which is called the. a. epicenter c. fault b. focus d.

3. When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source, which is called the. a. epicenter c. fault b. focus d. NAME EARTH SCIENCE CHAPTER 8 1. A fault is. a. a place on Earth where earthquakes cannot occur b. a fracture in the Earth where movement has occurred c. the place on Earth s surface where structures move

More information

1. You are about to begin a unit on geology. Can anyone tell me what geology is? The study of the physical earth I.

1. You are about to begin a unit on geology. Can anyone tell me what geology is? The study of the physical earth I. PLATE TECTONICS ACTIVITY The purpose of this lab is to introduce the concept of plate tectonics and the formation of mountains. Students will discuss the properties of the earth s crust and plate tectonics.

More information

Convergent Boundaries

Convergent Boundaries Convergent Boundaries Zones where lithospheric plates collide Three major types Ocean - Ocean Ocean - Continent Continent Continent Convergent Boundaries Convergent boundaries may form subduction zones

More information