2 INSTRUSVE IGNEOUS FEATURES Plutonic-Intrusive igneous rocks can cool and solidify into large rock bodies: plutons Plutons form in all sizes several square meters to thousands of square meters Smaller plutons are called stocks The largest plutons are called batholiths
3 PLUTONIC INTRUSIVE IGNEOUS FEATURES
4 Igneous Features Plutonic and Volcanic
5 PLUTONIC IGNEOUS FEATURES Sill a basaltic concordant ( parallel to strata) plutons Intruding magma enters a space between layers of rock Dike a basaltic discordant ( across strata) plutons Steeply inclined, formed from rising magma, following a direct route to the surface
6 SILL DIKE
7 PLUTONIC IGNEOUS FEATURES Laccolith a felsic magma, dome-shaped concordant pluton formed at shallow depth, pushing up overlying rock Lopolith a mafic magma, saucer-shaped concordant pluton sags downward compressing underlying rock
8 LACCOLITH AND LOPOLITH
10 VOLCANOES Volcanoes cone-shaped or domeshaped initial landform created by emission of lava and gases from a constricted opening Magma rises through a narrow pipelike conduit a volcanic neck
11 VOLCANIC NECK
12 EXPLOSIVITY OF VOLCANOES Dependent on chemical and mineral content of magma Critical component: Silica (SiO) Controls on explosivity Viscosity Dissolved Gases
13 VISCOSITY VISCOSITY a measure of how easily a fluid (magma) flows High viscosity less ability to flow easily Temperature hotter magmas are less viscous cooler magmas are more viscous Chemical Composition mafic magmas are less viscous felsic magmas are more viscous Mafic magmas are hotter ( C) with low viscosity Felsic magmas are cooler ( C) with high viscosity
14 DISSOLVED GASES Felsic magmas contain more dissolved gases (H 2 0, CO 2, SO 2 ) than mafic magmas Viscous felsic magmas do not allow gases to escape easily Pressure builds up until gases finally escape explosively
15 WHY DO MAGMAS RISE AND ERUPT? BUOYANCY hot magma is less dense than overlying rocks HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE Buoyancy of magma below puts pressure on entire column of magma forcing it upwards
16 HOW DO MAGMAS RISE? SEGREGATION OF LIQUIDS accumulating liquids in magma less dense than remaining magma and separate out flowing into veins DIAPIRIC RISE the magma, with lower density, rises in a bulbous form ZONE MELTING upward migration of a pocket of magma, melting at top and crystallizing at bottom
17 DIAPIRIC RISE
18 WHAT MAKES ROCK MELT? Increase the temperature Decrease the pressure Add a flux
19 WHERE ARE VOLCANOES FOUND? Convergent Plate boundaries - Subduction Zones Oceanic-oceanic island arcs Aleutian, Kurile, Marianas, Tonga Oceanic-continental active continental margins South America, North America, Central America, Kamchatka Divergent Plate boundaries Mid-Ocean Ridges and Rift Zones Continental rifts East Africa Oceanic rifts Mid-ocean spreading centers Iceland, Azores Intraplate Hotspots or Mantle Plumes Oceanic islands Hawaii, Emperor Seamount Chains Pacific Ocean Continental Yellowstone, Wyoming, USA
20 WHERE DOES MAGMA FORM? Mid-ocean ridges: Rising rocks in mantle convection cell bring heat near the surface, transferring heat to overlying rocks. At the same time, the hot rising mantle rocks experience decompression melting. Subduction zones: As oceanic crust sits at bottom of ocean, it becomes charged with sea water. The subducting slab, although relatively cold, dives into hot surrounding rock. The slab acts as conveyors drawing water into the hotter, drier asthenosphere. When the water percolates into the surrounding hot rocks, melting due to the infusion of volatiles occurs. Mantle plumes: Those enigmatic localized upwellings of hot mantle rock from very deep in the mantle, expressed on the surface as mantle hot spots. As in mid-ocean ridges, mantle plume rocks transfer heat to overlying rocks and experience decompression as they come up.
21 Volcanoes: Subduction Zone and Sea Floor Spreading - Mid-Ocean Ridges
22 INTRAPLATE VOLCANOES Intraplate volcanoes are caused by hot spots deep within the Earth. Magmatism is generated by buoyant upwellings in the mantle Upwellings, or "plumes", are believed to originate at the core mantle boundary They might also form near the boundary at ~670 km between the upper and lower mantle Magma rises and erupts as lava through cracks in the Earth's surface, forming volcanoes
23 INTRAPLATE VOLCANOES
24 Hotspot Volcanoes
25 INTRAPLATE VOLCANOES
26 Hotspots Map
27 VOLCANIC SHAPES Three basic shapes due to magma type and eruptive style Composite Volcanoes Stratovolcano Plug Dome volcano Shield Volcanoes Cinder Cones
28 COMPOSITE VOLCANOES - STRATOVOLCANOES Steep-sided cones produced by felsic magmas Convex sides, shallow slope angles at base, steepening sides towards top Eruptions are explosive with little to no lava Pyroclastic Flow Volcanic ash, gas, tephra and volcanic bombs Lahars
29 A composite volcano
30 Mt. St. Helens a typical composite volcano
31 Mt. St. Helens following the 1980 eruption
32 STRATOVOLCANOES Stratovolcanoes are very tall, 1000s of feet Most tend to have snow, ice and even glaciers at top Examples: Mt. Shasta Mt. Hood Mt. Rainier Mt. Fujiyama Mt. St. Helens Mt. Unzen
33 STRATOVOLCANO IMAGES
34 COMPOSITE VOLCANOES PLUG DOMES PLUG DOME VOLCANOES volcanoes that produce thick pasty lava DACITE. The lava cools into angular blocks after it is slowly squeezed out of the vents Not stratovolcanoes
35 PLUG DOME VOLCANOES
36 SHIELD VOLCANOES Shield volcanoes are volcanic mountains built up by the eruption of fluid, basaltic lava flowing out of a central vent. They have broad bases with very gentle slopes The largest shield volcano on Earth is Mauna Loa in Hawaii which rises from its base on the seafloor to a height of 17 km (10.5 miles).
37 SHIELD VOLCANO
38 SHIELD VOLCANO IMAGES Fluid, basaltic lava erupts onto the surface and flows freely across the ground for great distances forming a broad cone.
39 HAWAIIAN ISLANDS SHIELD VOLCANOES
40 CINDER CONE VOLCANOES A cinder cone is a steep, conical hill of volcanic fragments that accumulate around and downwind from a vent
41 CINDER CONES Cinders, or scoria, are glassy and contain numerous gas bubbles "frozen" into place as magma exploded into the air and then cooled quickly. Cinder cones range in size from tens to hundreds of meters tall.
42 CINDER CONE IMAGES
43 FISSURE ERUPTIONS FLOOD BASALTS Very fluid basaltic magmas rise to surface through linear fractures or fissures in crust At surface, fluid basalt flows for thousands of square kilometers. Columbia River Plateau, eastern WA 60 separate lava flows More than 2 kilometers thick Dated to approximately ~15 million years ago
44 COLUMBIA RIVER PLATEAU
45 A Pahoehoe lava flow
46 A Typical aa flow
47 Materials extruded from a volcano Pyroclastic materials Fire fragments Types of pyroclastic debris Ash and dust - fine, glassy fragments Pumice - porous rock from frothy lava Lapilli - walnut-sized material Cinders - pea-sized material Particles larger than lapilli Blocks - hardened or cooled lava Bombs - ejected as hot lava
48 A volcanic bomb Bomb is approximately 10 cm long
49 PYROCLASTIC FLOWS
50 PYROCLASTIC FLOWS A ground-hugging avalanche of hot ash, pumice, rock fragments, and volcanic gas that rushes down the side of a volcano as fast as 100 km/hour or more. The temperature within a pyroclastic flow may be greater than 500 C, sufficient to burn and carbonize wood.
51 VOLCANIC ASH FLOW Ash flows are the most destructive type of volcanic activity. Volcanic ash consists of rock, mineral, and volcanic glass fragments smaller than 2 mm (0.1 inch) in diameter. Ash is extremely abrasive, similar to finely crushed window glass, mildly corrosive, electrically conductive, and slippery, especially when wet. Volcanic ash can be a serious hazard to aviation even thousands of miles from an eruption.
52 HISTORIC PYROCLASTIC FLOWS NUEÉ ARDENTE glowing cloud Mt. Pelee, on Martinique, May 8, 1902 eruption which killed 29,000 people and destroyed the city of St. Pierre. Photograph of Mt. Pelee by Heilprin, May 26, 1902
53 CALDERAS When a large volume of magma is removed from beneath a volcano, the ground subsides or collapses into the emptied space, to form a huge depression called a caldera. Some calderas are more than 25 kilometers in diameter and several kilometers deep.
54 CALDERAS Largest recognized caldera Lake Toba, Indonesia Erupted ~75,000 years before present (ybp) Measures 20 miles by 60 miles Ejected 2500 km 3 of material into atmosphere
55 CALDERAS Long Valley Caldera, northeastern California About 760,000 years ago 15 miles by 20 miles A cataclysmic volcanic eruption in the area blew out 150 cubic miles of magma from a depth of about 4 miles beneath the Earth's surface. Pyroclastic flows covered much of east-central California Airborne ash fell as far east as Nebraska and Texas The Earth's surface sank more than 1 mile into the space once occupied by the erupted magma
56 LONG VALLEY CALDERA Lava flows of the Mono-Inyo Craters volcanic chain in Long Valley Caldera, California. The most recent eruptions from along this chain occurred about 250 and 600 years ago. Scientists have monitored geologic unrest in the Long Valley, California, area since the central part of the Long Valley Caldera had begun actively rising. Unrest in the area persists today
57 TAMBORA April of 1815 cataclysmic eruption of Tambora Volcano, a stratovolcano in Indonesia Tambora lowered global temperatures by as much as 3 degrees C. In parts of Europe and in North America, 1816 was known as the year without summer
58 August 26, 1883, at 17: 07 Greenwich time (GMT), the first of four violent explosions begun. A black cloud of ash rose 17 miles (27 kilometers) above Krakatau, Indonesia. In the morning of the next day, on August 27, 1883, at 05:30, 06:44 and 10:02 GMT, three more violent eruptions occurred. An eruption at 10:02 blew away the northern two-thirds of the island. The explosion was followed by the collapse of Krakatoa forming the huge underwater caldera. Krakatau generated catastrophic tsunami waves as high as 37 meters. (120 ft.) in the Sunda Strait. KRAKATAU
60 MT. MAZAMA CRATER LAKE Crater Lake caldera formed by collapse during the catastrophic eruption of approximately 50 cubic kilometers of magma, 6,845 carbon-14 years B.P. (before present) Prior to its climactic eruption, Mount Mazama's summit elevation was between 3,300 meters and 3,700 meters (10,800-12,000 feet)
61 MOST DANGEROUS VOLCANOES - GLOBAL Volcano Mt Vesuvius Popocatepetl Ulawun Merapi Nyiragongo Unzen Sakura-jima Galeras Location Italy Mexico Papua New Guinea Indonesia DR Congo Japan Japan Colombia
62 VOLCANOES UNITED STATES Most Dangerous U.S. Volcanoes, in Descending Order 1. Kìlauea, Hawaii 2. Mount St. Helens, Washington State 3. Mount Rainier, Washington State 4. Mount Hood, Oregon 5. Mount Shasta, California 6. South Sister, Oregon 7. Lassen Volcanic Center, California 8. Mauna Loa, Hawaii 9. Redoubt Volcano, Alaska 10. Crater Lake area, Oregon 11. Mount Baker, Washington State 12. Glacier Peak, Washington State 13. Makushin Volcano, Alaska 14. Akutan Island, Alaska 15. Mount Spurr, Alaska 16. Long Valley caldera, California 17. Newberry Crater, Oregon 18. Augustine Island, Alaska
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