Rapid Changes in Earth s Surface

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Rapid Changes in Earth s Surface"

Transcription

1 TEKS investigate rapid changes in Earth s surface such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and landslides Rapid Changes in Earth s Surface Constant Changes Earth s surface is constantly changing. Wind, water, and ice break down large rocks and move sediments on the surface. It usually takes years for weathering, erosion, and deposition to cause noticeable changes. Some events, though, change Earth s surface much more quickly. These include volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and landslides. These events have the ability to cause large changes in a much shorter period of time. Earth s Structure From its surface, Earth appears to be made of solid rock. If it were possible to travel about 6,000 km (4,000 mi) to the center of Earth you would find that Earth is actually composed of layers. As you go deeper, the pressure and temperature increase. Each layer has different properties. Crust 5 70 km (3 43 mi) thick The crust is the surface layer of Earth. The crust, which makes up the surface, is the thinnest of the layers. The crust is solid rock. So is most of the next layer, the mantle. But some rock within the mantle is soft, like melted candy. Below the mantle is the outer core. The outer core is liquid, but it is iron, not rock. The inner core is also metal, but it s solid due to intense pressure. Plate Tectonics Earth s crust and uppermost mantle are divided into sections, called plates. Plates are blocks of crust and upper mantle rock that fit together like puzzle pieces. Plates float on the softer rock of the mantle. As this rock flows, plates slowly move. Because the plates fit together so closely, the movement of one plate affects other plates. At different places, plates move toward each other, away from each other, or alongside each other. These plate movements are responsible for earthquakes. Mantle 2,885 km (1,790 mi) thick The mantle is made of rock. The upper mantle is partially melted Outer Core 2,270 km (1,410 mi) thick Inner Core 1,210 km (750 mi) thick Earth s tectonic plates fit together like puzzle pieces. They move very slowly just a few centimeters per year. Texas is located on the North American plate. and Assessment TEKS Page 1 of 6

2 Earthquakes Suppose you press your hands together as hard as you can. If one hand slips, energy is released suddenly and your hands move past each other. The same thing happens in Earth s crust. The movement of plates causes pressure to build up where two plates are colliding or sliding past one another. These areas are called faults, which are breaks in Earth s crust. When the pressure builds to a certain point, the plates move, energy is released, and the ground shakes. An earthquake is a shaking of the ground caused by a sudden release of energy in Earth s crust. Most earthquakes are too small to be felt, but they can be measured using a seismometer. Strong earthquakes can cause a great deal of damage to buildings and roads. Earthquakes cause rapid changes to Earth s surface. They may cause the ground to rupture, or break, along the fault. A major earthquake can move land several meters. An earthquake in the ocean floor can transfer energy to the water above and cause a tsunami. A tsunami is a fast-moving wave that can cause a large volume of water to flow onshore and damage coastal regions. Often, a tsunami washes away everything in its path. Volcanoes The melted rock in Earth s mantle is called magma. In some places, magma reaches the surface. A volcano is a vent, or opening, in the surface of Earth through which magma and hot gases erupt. Magma is called lava when it reaches the surface. In addition to lava, materials ejected from the vent could include cinder, pumice, and ash. Volcanoes can change Earth s surface in many ways. Flowing lava and ejections of cinder, pumice, and ash build up to create volcanic mountains. A powerful eruption can destroy trees many kilometers away as hot gases and ash flow from the volcano. Ash can be sent high into Earth s atmosphere. The ash from a volcanic eruption forms very fertile soils over time. Volcanic activity lays down thick, dense layers of rock. The Hawaiian Islands were formed by volcanic activity, which continues today. Similarly, melted rock cools and forms new land where two plates are pulling apart. Most volcanoes go through long periods during which they are dormant, or inactive. During this time, the crater at the volcano s peak may fill with water and form a lake. Sinkholes If you dig deep enough into the soil, you will eventually find rock. Sometimes, underground water wears away rock and forms a cave underground. If the cave collapses, the ground above falls into it. This forms a sinkhole on Earth s surface. and Assessment TEKS Page 2 of 6

3 Landslides If you have ever taken a trip through a mountainous area, you may have seen road signs warning of falling rocks. Weathering causes rocks to break free, and gravity pulls them tumbling down the mountainside. Sometimes, the same thing happens with a large area of rock or soil at once. A landslide is the fast movement of soil and rocks down a slope. Landslides can be very dangerous. Landslides occur in the ocean, along the coast, and on shore. Many factors determine how stable a slope is. Some landslides occur naturally. They are set off by heavy rains, floods, earthquakes, or volcanoes. Excessive human development and construction grading can also cause landslides. Hands-On Activity Make a Landslide There is a maximum slope that can exist for any given soil. We will investigate this slope with different types of materials. Procedure: 1. Cover the lab table or desk with paper to help with cleanup. Slowly pour the dry sand through the funnel onto the flat surface so that it makes a pile. Take notes about what happens to the sides of the pile as you pour the sand. Materials 500 ml each of fine sand, mud, gravel, potting soil, and sugar, in separate containers funnel protractor paper to cover the desk 2. Hold a protractor upright in the pile of sand so that you can measure the angle of the side of the pile. Read and record the angle in degrees. What happens if you add more sand to the pile? How does the measurement change? 3. After you have cleaned up all of the sand, repeat steps 1 and 2 with the mud, gravel, potting soil, and sugar. 4. Compare the angles for all the materials. Discussion Questions: 1. What happened to the sides of the pile as you poured the sand? 2. How does the angle change for each material? and Assessment TEKS Page 3 of 6

4 Volcanoes and Landslides Read each statement and write T for true or F for false. Magma that reaches the surface and flows from a volcano is called lava. The thick layer of rock beneath Earth s crust is called the mantle. A crater is the name of the hole at the top of the volcano s vent. It may contain a lake. Dormant is the word used to describe a volcano that is erupting. Gases, molten rock, lava, and rocks are thrown out of an erupting volcano. Earth s plates move several meters each year. Landslides are always very large. Landslides frequently occur during periods of intense rainfall or rapid snow melt. Landslides in the United States occur only on the coastlines. Earthquakes can cause the crust to crack. Volcano Diagram Label the diagram by using the words in the word bank. Word Bank gases, ashes, and cinders lava vent magma b. c. a. d. and Assessment TEKS Page 4 of 6

5 TEKS Assessment Fill in the letter of the best choice. Volcanoes and earthquakes are most likely to occur in the center of a plate at plate boundaries along the coast of a continent anywhere What occurs when the pressure that has built between two plates is suddenly released? new crust forms instantly volcanoes occur slowly earthquakes happen suddenly mountains form quickly What causes the movement of Earth s plates? landslides ocean currents shaking that occurs in Earth s inner core movement of melted rock in the mantle Use the drawing below to answer questions 6 7. A What is a fault? a place on Earth where earthquakes cannot occur a fracture on Earth s surface where movement has occurred the place where the most damage occurs during earthquakes another name for an earthquake Which location is most likely to be damaged by a tsunami? a coastline a volcanic crater a rain-soaked slope a snow-covered mountainside What do the arrows represent? the motion of plates the eruption of a volcano the cause of a tsunami the formation of a crater What is the area labeled A called? joint fault canyon plate and Assessment TEKS Page 5 of 6

6 Hands-On Activity (p. 3) 1. At first, the pile will grow higher. Once it reaches a certain height, particles that land near the top of the pile will be pulled down the sides of the pile by gravity. The particles will not form a structure that is steeper than a certain angle. 2. Answers will vary, but should be based on the measurements taken with the protractor. Student Response Activity (p. 4) 1. T 6. F 11. a. lava 2. T 7. F b. gases, ashes, and cinder 3. T 8. T c. vent 4. F 9. F d. magma 5. T 10. T TEKS Assessment (p. 5) 1. B 2. D 3. B 4. A 5. C 6. A 7. B and Assessment TEKS Page 6 of 6

Earth Science - SOL 5.7 Science Study Guide

Earth Science - SOL 5.7 Science Study Guide Earth Science - SOL 5.7 Science Study Guide Rocks are classified based on how they were formed. The three types of rocks are sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic. Igneous rock forms when magma (liquid

More information

Earth Science Landforms, Weathering, and Erosion Reading Comprehension. Landforms, Weathering, and Erosion

Earth Science Landforms, Weathering, and Erosion Reading Comprehension. Landforms, Weathering, and Erosion Reading Comprehension Name 1 How many people have been to the Rocky Mountains or the Grand Canyon? When people go to visit these natural wonders, they may not realize that it took millions of years for

More information

What causes Earth s surface to change?

What causes Earth s surface to change? Lesson 1 Earth s Landforms Lesson 2 Plate Tectonics Lesson 3 Volcanoes Lesson 4 Earthquakes What causes Earth s surface to change? Lesson 5 Shaping Earth s Surface landform relief map topographical map

More information

lithosphere granite basalt

lithosphere granite basalt The Earth s s Crust The Earth s s Crust The earth s crust is the outside layer of the earth. It is thickest at the continents at about 40 Km (up to 70 Km) deep. It is thinnest under the oceans at about

More information

Volcanoes and Earthquakes. Part 1: Volcanoes

Volcanoes and Earthquakes. Part 1: Volcanoes Volcanoes and Earthquakes Part 1: Volcanoes Introduction Earth s crust is made of cool, solid rock. Yet, most of Earth is made of extremely hot rock in the mantle and liquid metal in the core. Sometimes,

More information

Plate Tectonics. A Continental Puzzle. Drifting Continents

Plate Tectonics. A Continental Puzzle. Drifting Continents Plate Tectonics A Continental Puzzle Drifting Continents In 1910, a meteorologist from Germany named Alfred Wegener (Vay-guh-ner) developed a theory based on many observations. Even though meteorologists

More information

5thscience earth science (5thscience_earth)

5thscience earth science (5thscience_earth) Name: Date: 1. An extinct volcano is one that A. erupts only once. B. erupts once every 100 years. C. is expected to erupt soon. D. has not erupted in many years. 2. An acorn fell into a crack in a large

More information

WHERE DO VOLCANOES FORM AND WHY?

WHERE DO VOLCANOES FORM AND WHY? Name: Class: Date: What is a Volcano? WHERE DO VOLCANOES FORM AND WHY? A volcano is a weak spot in the crust where molten material, called magma, erupts to the surface. Magma is a mixture of rock-forming

More information

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Shaky Ground 6 th Grade

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Shaky Ground 6 th Grade The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

More information

TECTONICS ASSESSMENT

TECTONICS ASSESSMENT Tectonics Assessment / 1 TECTONICS ASSESSMENT 1. Movement along plate boundaries produces A. tides. B. fronts. C. hurricanes. D. earthquakes. 2. Which of the following is TRUE about the movement of continents?

More information

Interactive Plate Tectonics

Interactive Plate Tectonics Interactive Plate Tectonics Directions: Go to the following website and complete the questions below. http://www.learner.org/interactives/dynamicearth/index.html How do scientists learn about the interior

More information

Using specific examples, students will be able to explain how rocks change as they go through the rock cycle.

Using specific examples, students will be able to explain how rocks change as they go through the rock cycle. Title: Rock Cycle Comic Strip Author: Ashley Packard Subject Area: Geology Grade: 8 Description of Lesson: This lesson is designed to help the students understand how the rock cycle works. They will play

More information

Reading Science! Name: Date: Tectonic Plates

Reading Science! Name: Date: Tectonic Plates Name: ate: Tectonic Plates 6.10: Tectonic Plates 1 2 On March 11, 2011, an earthquake measuring 8.9 on the Richter Scale shook the ocean floor. It made a giant wave which grew up to 30 feet (9.14 meters)

More information

Joy of Science Experience the evolution of the Universe, Earth and Life

Joy of Science Experience the evolution of the Universe, Earth and Life Joy of Science Experience the evolution of the Universe, Earth and Life Review Introduction Main contents Quiz Unless otherwise noted, all pictures are taken from wikipedia.org Review 1 Which is not included

More information

Earthquakes Volcanoes Mountains

Earthquakes Volcanoes Mountains Earthquakes Volcanoes Mountains Sea Floor Spreading Where is it located? How does it form? How does it change the Earth s surface? Earthquakes Where are earthquakes located? Most earthquakes happen around

More information

Teacher Workbooks. Science and Nature Series Cloze Paragraphs Natural Disasters Theme, Vol. 1

Teacher Workbooks. Science and Nature Series Cloze Paragraphs Natural Disasters Theme, Vol. 1 Teacher Workbooks Science and Nature Series Cloze Paragraphs Natural Disasters Theme, Vol. 1 Copyright 2005 Teachnology Publishing Company A Division of Teachnology, Inc. For additional information, visit

More information

The Earth s Layers. Copyright 2009 LessonSnips

The Earth s Layers. Copyright 2009 LessonSnips The Earth s Layers Human beings have always imagined what it would be like to journey to the center of the Earth. There are many books and movies about characters who have adventures that take them to

More information

Section 2 Types of Volcanoes

Section 2 Types of Volcanoes Section 2 Types of Volcanoes Key Concept Tectonic plate motions can result in volcanic activity at plate boundaries. What You Will Learn Nonexplosive eruptions of basaltic magma occur at divergent boundaries.

More information

FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FOURTH GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing different structures of volcanoes. LAB: Modeling three types

More information

EARTH LAYERS ROCKS. Released SOL Test Questions Sorted by Topic Compiled by SOLpass

EARTH LAYERS ROCKS. Released SOL Test Questions Sorted by Topic Compiled by SOLpass Released SOL Test Questions Sorted by Topic Compiled by SOLpass www.solpass.org SOL 5.7 Earth s Constantly Changing Surface The student will investigate and understand how Earth s surface is constantly

More information

Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 1: The Changing Earth

Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 1: The Changing Earth Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 1: The Changing Earth Lesson 1: Layers of the Earth 1. Atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds the planet 2. Clouds are in this layer 3. Atmosphere contains gases

More information

Earth's Interior. Convection and the Mantle Section 2 Summary. Chapter 4 Plate Tectonics

Earth's Interior. Convection and the Mantle Section 2 Summary. Chapter 4 Plate Tectonics Chapter 4 Plate Tectonics Earth's Interior Earth's surface is constantly changing. Earth looks different today from the way it did millions of years ago. People wonder, "What's inside Earth?" The extreme

More information

Plate Tectonics Web-Quest

Plate Tectonics Web-Quest Plate Tectonics Web-Quest Part I: Earth s Structure. Use the following link to find these answers: http://www.learner.org/interactives/dynamicearth/structure.html 1. Label the layers of Earth in the diagram

More information

Some Processes that Change the Earth s Surface

Some Processes that Change the Earth s Surface PART ONE Some Processes that Change the Earth s Surface Science standards To prepare students to understand the Essential Academic Learning Requirements (EALRs) introduced at middle school, this series

More information

When Things Go Wrong

When Things Go Wrong When Things Go Wrong When Things Go Wrong Our planet has many wondrous things. We plant a tiny sapling and it becomes a mighty tree. Water runs in rivers. Rainbows appear in the sky. But it is not always

More information

Earth s Rocky Surface

Earth s Rocky Surface Earth s Rocky Surface You have learned that Earth s surface is not permanent and is constantly changing. Some changes take place very slowly over millions of years, such as crustal plates moving and creating

More information

Slide 1. Earth Science. Chapter 6 Volcanoes

Slide 1. Earth Science. Chapter 6 Volcanoes Slide 1 Earth Science Chapter 6 Volcanoes Slide 2 Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics Volcano - a weak spot in the crust where molten material, or magma, comes to the surface. Ring of Fire - Major Volcanic Belt

More information

Michelle Mindick. volcanism, gradation, impact cratering, and Earth s interior core.

Michelle Mindick. volcanism, gradation, impact cratering, and Earth s interior core. Michelle Mindick The Evolution of Earth s Surface According to 21 st Century Astronomy, Earth originally formed as a result of gas and dust that rotated around a protostar - our sun- billions of years

More information

8-3.1 Summarize the three layers of Earth crust, mantle, and core on the basis of relative position, density, and composition.

8-3.1 Summarize the three layers of Earth crust, mantle, and core on the basis of relative position, density, and composition. Earth s Structure and Processes 8-3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of materials that determine the structure of Earth and the processes that have altered this structure. 8-3.1 Summarize

More information

to change. Let s look at what happens to rocks that spend some time on the surface.

to change. Let s look at what happens to rocks that spend some time on the surface. It s a Rock s Life I m what you would call a mutt-rock. Yep just like your dog I bet a regular Heinz-57 kind of rock. You see I am made of bits and pieces of a lot of different things. Let s see. I have

More information

Layers of the Earth and Plate Tectonics

Layers of the Earth and Plate Tectonics Layers of the Earth and Plate Tectonics Objectives: explain various ways the earth can be changed by natural forces define the term Geology define the terms Crust, Mantle, Outer Core and Inner Core classify

More information

Lesson 13: Plate Tectonics I

Lesson 13: Plate Tectonics I Standards Addressed Lesson 13: Plate Tectonics I Overview Lesson 13 introduces students to geological oceanography by presenting the basic structure of the Earth and the properties of Earth s primary layers.

More information

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science Grade 6. Unit Organizer: Geology: Inside the Earth (Approximate Time: 7 Weeks)

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science Grade 6. Unit Organizer: Geology: Inside the Earth (Approximate Time: 7 Weeks) The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

More information

Name: Period: # Plate Tectonics. Journey to the center of the Earth

Name: Period: # Plate Tectonics. Journey to the center of the Earth Plate Tectonics Journey to the center of the Earth Use pages 124 129 to answer the following questions. Exploring Inside Earth (p. 125-126) 1. What are the two main types of evidence that Geologist use

More information

Earth and Space Science. Semester 2 Exam Review. Part 1. - Convection currents circulate in the Asthenosphere located in the Upper Mantle.

Earth and Space Science. Semester 2 Exam Review. Part 1. - Convection currents circulate in the Asthenosphere located in the Upper Mantle. Earth and Space Science Semester 2 Exam Review Part 1 Convection -A form of heat transfer. - Convection currents circulate in the Asthenosphere located in the Upper Mantle. - Source of heat is from the

More information

4 Deforming the Earth s Crust

4 Deforming the Earth s Crust CHAPTER 4 4 Deforming the Earth s Crust SECTION Plate Tectonics BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What happens when rock is placed under stress?

More information

4. Plate Tectonics II (p. 46-67)

4. Plate Tectonics II (p. 46-67) 4. Plate Tectonics II (p. 46-67) Seafloor Spreading In the early 1960s, samples of basaltic ocean crust were dredged up from various locations across the ocean basins. The samples were then analyzed to

More information

Glossary. continental crust: the sections of crust, the outermost layer of the earth, that include the continents

Glossary. continental crust: the sections of crust, the outermost layer of the earth, that include the continents aftershock: an earthquake that follows a larger earthquake or main shock and originates in or near the rupture zone of the larger earthquake. Generally, major earthquakes are followed by a number of aftershocks

More information

Rocks and Minerals What is right under your feet?

Rocks and Minerals What is right under your feet? Rocks and Minerals What is right under your feet? Name: 1 Before you start What do you already know? What is the difference between a rock and a mineral? What are the three categories of rocks? 1. 2. 3.

More information

Earth s Rocky Surface

Earth s Rocky Surface Earth s Rocky Surface Earth s surface is not permanent and is constantly changing. Some changes take place very slowly over millions of years, such as crustal plates moving and creating mountains or valleys.

More information

6.E.2.2 Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes and Volcanoes

6.E.2.2 Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes and Volcanoes Name: Date: 1. The road shown below was suddenly broken by a natural event. 3. The convergence of two continental plates would produce Which natural event most likely caused the crack in the road? island

More information

3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics

3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics CHAPTER 4 3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics SECTION Plate Tectonics BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is the theory of plate tectonics? What

More information

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY Orange GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY YEAR 1, PART 1 www.vicensvives.es Contents 01 Our planet Earth 02 The representation of the Earth: maps 03 The Earth s relief 04 Rivers and seas 05 Weather and climate 06 Climates

More information

[Geology Layers of the Earth] [Basic: Grade 2-3] [Advanced: Grade 5: Introduction to Plate Tectonics}

[Geology Layers of the Earth] [Basic: Grade 2-3] [Advanced: Grade 5: Introduction to Plate Tectonics} [Geology Layers of the Earth] [Basic: Grade 2-3] [Advanced: Grade 5: Introduction to Plate Tectonics} BACKGROUND Scientists and geologists have been able to do some drilling on Earth. They are also able

More information

Science Writing Heuristics

Science Writing Heuristics Student/Lab Group: Think It Through Questions Part III 1. What happens in a volcanic eruption? 2. What forces are involved in making a volcano erupt? 3. Why do volcanic eruptions affect us? 4. Why do some

More information

Forces of Nature: Teacher Packet

Forces of Nature: Teacher Packet Forces of Nature: Teacher Packet Compiled by: Morehead State University Star Theatre with help from Bethany DeMoss Table of Contents Table of Contents 1 Corresponding Standards 2 Vocabulary 4 How Can we

More information

alluvial fan alternative energy Arch Axis fan-shaped deposit of earth materials on dry land energy resources used instead of fossil fuels

alluvial fan alternative energy Arch Axis fan-shaped deposit of earth materials on dry land energy resources used instead of fossil fuels alluvial fan fan-shaped deposit of earth materials on dry land alternative energy energy resources used instead of fossil fuels Arch a rock formation shaped like an upside down U Axis an imaginary line

More information

Inside Earth: Layers of the Earth

Inside Earth: Layers of the Earth Inside Earth: Layers of the Earth Earth is a restless planet. Heat in the Earth s interior causes giant plates of crust to move around on the surface. The crashing and smashing of these plates leads to

More information

SIXTH GRADE VOLCANOES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

SIXTH GRADE VOLCANOES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES SIXTH GRADE VOLCANOES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SIXTH GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing the structure of different types of volcanoes. LAB: Plotting 3 different

More information

Contents. Ohio Revised Standards and Model Curriculum Correlation Chart... 5

Contents. Ohio Revised Standards and Model Curriculum Correlation Chart... 5 Contents Ohio Revised Standards and Model Curriculum Correlation Chart....................................... 5 Chapter 1 Earth Science........................................ 13 Lesson 1 Earth s Internal

More information

Earth Science Grade 4 Minerals

Earth Science Grade 4 Minerals Earth Science Grade 4 Minerals Standards: Identifies the physical properties of minerals Teacher Background Minerals are pure substances and mix together to make rocks. Rocks have a cycle and different

More information

Test 3 Earth Formation, Structure, Plate Boundaries, Volcanism

Test 3 Earth Formation, Structure, Plate Boundaries, Volcanism Test 3 Earth Formation, Structure, Plate Boundaries, Volcanism Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The shape of Earth most closely resembles

More information

Volcanoes and volcanic eruptions

Volcanoes and volcanic eruptions Volcanoes and volcanic eruptions Volcanoes form when magma reaches the Earth's surface, causing eruptions of lava and ash. They occur at destructive (compressional) and constructive (tensional) plate boundaries.

More information

The Dynamic Crust 2) EVIDENCE FOR CRUSTAL MOVEMENT

The Dynamic Crust 2) EVIDENCE FOR CRUSTAL MOVEMENT The Dynamic Crust 1) Virtually everything you need to know about the interior of the earth can be found on page 10 of your reference tables. Take the time to become familiar with page 10 and everything

More information

1. You are about to begin a unit on geology. Can anyone tell me what geology is? The study of the physical earth I.

1. You are about to begin a unit on geology. Can anyone tell me what geology is? The study of the physical earth I. PLATE TECTONICS ACTIVITY The purpose of this lab is to introduce the concept of plate tectonics and the formation of mountains. Students will discuss the properties of the earth s crust and plate tectonics.

More information

Plate Tectonics. Structure of the Earth

Plate Tectonics. Structure of the Earth Plate Tectonics Structure of the Earth The Earth can be considered as being made up of a series of concentric spheres, each made up of materials that differ in terms of composition and mechanical properties.

More information

Volcanoes Erupt Grade 6

Volcanoes Erupt Grade 6 TEACHING LEARNING COLLABORATIVE (TLC) EARTH SCIENCE Volcanoes Erupt Grade 6 Created by: Debra McKey (Mountain Vista Middle School); Valerie Duncan (Upper Lake Middle School); and Lynn Chick (Coyote Valley

More information

FIRST GRADE VOLCANOES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FIRST GRADE VOLCANOES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES FIRST GRADE VOLCANOES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FIRST GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Learning the shapes of volcanoes. LAB: Experimenting with "lava." POST: Comparing

More information

Heat Flow. The decay of short-lived radioactive elements (such as aluminum-26) generated heat energy in the early stages of the Earth s formation.

Heat Flow. The decay of short-lived radioactive elements (such as aluminum-26) generated heat energy in the early stages of the Earth s formation. Heat Flow Heat from Earth s Interior Earth s interior heat comes from a combination of the following factors: Original heat from the formation and gravitational compression of the Earth from the solar

More information

The Structure of the Earth and Plate Tectonics

The Structure of the Earth and Plate Tectonics The Structure of the Earth and Plate Tectonics Structure of the Earth The Earth is made up of 3 main layers: Core Mantle Crust Mantle Outer core Inner core Crust The Crust This is where we live! The Earth

More information

Ride the Rock Cycle. Suggested Goals: Students will gain an understanding of how a rock can move through the different stages of the rock cycle.

Ride the Rock Cycle. Suggested Goals: Students will gain an understanding of how a rock can move through the different stages of the rock cycle. Illinois State Museum Geology Online http://geologyonline.museum.state.il.us Ride the Rock Cycle Grade Level: 5 6 Purpose: To teach students that the rock cycle, like the water cycle, has various stages

More information

SCIENCE 10 Unit 4: Earth Science Review

SCIENCE 10 Unit 4: Earth Science Review SCIENCE 10 Unit 4: Earth Science Review Use the following diagram to answer questions 1 and 2. 1. Which location has the youngest crust? A. A B. B C. C D. D 2. Which location is associated with subduction?

More information

KINDERGARTEN PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

KINDERGARTEN PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES KINDERGARTEN PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF KINDERGARTEN VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Learning that all mountains are not volcanoes. LAB: Investigating rocks

More information

ASTRONOMY 161. Introduction to Solar System Astronomy. Class 15

ASTRONOMY 161. Introduction to Solar System Astronomy. Class 15 ASTRONOMY 161 Introduction to Solar System Astronomy Class 15 The Earth Monday, February 12 The Earth: Physical characteristics Mass = 5.97 10 24 kg Mean radius = 6,373 km Polar radius = 6,357 km Density

More information

1 Shoreline Erosion and Deposition

1 Shoreline Erosion and Deposition CHAPTER 3 1 Shoreline Erosion and Deposition SECTION Agents of Erosion and Deposition BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a shoreline? How

More information

SECOND GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

SECOND GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES SECOND GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SECOND GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Investigating the parts of a volcano. LAB: Comparing the parts of a

More information

LAYERS OF EARTH. reflect

LAYERS OF EARTH. reflect reflect Have you ever cut an apple in half and looked at the layers inside? When you cut something in half, the resulting view is called a cross section. When you look at the cross section of an apple,

More information

Investigate Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Mountain Formation

Investigate Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Mountain Formation Gottesman Hall of Planet Earth Activities for Grades 6-8 Investigate Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Mountain Formation OVERVIEW Students will learn about why earthquakes happen, and how mountains and volcanoes

More information

Viscosity and Volcano Types

Viscosity and Volcano Types 20 LESSON Viscosity and Volcano Types This photo, taken in 1943 in Paricutin, Mexico, shows an eruption of the Paricutin volcano at night. Glowing hot, broken rocks outline the shape of the volcano, called

More information

Unit 6 Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Unit 6 Earthquakes and Volcanoes Unit 6 Earthquakes and Volcanoes Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Essential Questions What evidence can students observe that the Earth is changing? How do scientists know what s inside the Earth? What processes

More information

FOURTH GRADE VOLCANOES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FOURTH GRADE VOLCANOES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES FOURTH GRADE VOLCANOES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FOURTH GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing different structures of volcanoes. LAB: Modeling three types of

More information

THE STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH

THE STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH THE STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH Contents 1. Main Objectives 2. Useful Websites 3. Pupil Vocabulary Cards 4. Word Wall Cards 5. Glossary 6. Key Question Cards 7. Prior Learning Diagram 8. Hands-on Activities

More information

Student Exploration: Plate Tectonics

Student Exploration: Plate Tectonics Name: Date: Student Exploration: Plate Tectonics Vocabulary: collisional boundary, convergent boundary, crust, divergent boundary, earthquake, lithosphere, mantle, plate, plate tectonics, transform boundary,

More information

3. When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source, which is called the. a. epicenter c. fault b. focus d.

3. When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source, which is called the. a. epicenter c. fault b. focus d. NAME EARTH SCIENCE CHAPTER 8 1. A fault is. a. a place on Earth where earthquakes cannot occur b. a fracture in the Earth where movement has occurred c. the place on Earth s surface where structures move

More information

Structure of the Earth

Structure of the Earth Structure of the Earth Have you ever wondered how Earth is put together? Most people live their lives every day. They don t think about what is under their feet. Some people wonder about Earth. They think

More information

Layers of the Earth s Interior

Layers of the Earth s Interior Layers of the Earth s Interior 1 Focus Question How is the Earth like an ogre? 2 Objectives Explain how geologists have learned about the interior of the Earth. Describe the layers of the Earth s interior.

More information

Earth Egg Model Teacher Notes

Earth Egg Model Teacher Notes Ancient Greeks tried to explain earthquakes and volcanic activity by saying that a massive bull lay underground and the land shook when it became angry. Modern theories rely on an understanding of what

More information

Earth Science: Volcanoes Teacher s Guide

Earth Science: Volcanoes Teacher s Guide Teacher s Guide Grade Level: 6 8 Curriculum Focus: Earth Science Lesson Duration: 3 class periods Program Description Just beneath Earth s crust lies a ball of molten rock, kept semi-liquid thanks to heat

More information

Use the web link provided in the Earth Science Folder

Use the web link provided in the Earth Science Folder ONLINE ACTIVITY: PLATE TECTONICS Using the web links provided in the Science10 handout folder complete the following activities and answer the questions listed. Use the web link provided in the Earth Science

More information

2 Wind Erosion and Deposition

2 Wind Erosion and Deposition CHAPTER 3 2 Wind Erosion and Deposition SECTION Agents of Erosion and Deposition BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: How can wind erosion shape the

More information

Theory of Catastrophism - earth s shapes created in great cataclysms

Theory of Catastrophism - earth s shapes created in great cataclysms Atmosphere Biosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere Lithosphere is the branch of physical geography, shared with the fields of Geomorphology and Tectonics, that specifically examine the landforms, continents

More information

Essential Question: How did the theory of Plate Tectonics evolve?

Essential Question: How did the theory of Plate Tectonics evolve? Essential Question: How did the theory of Plate Tectonics evolve? 1. Look at a globe or a map of the Earth. Name the continents. (7 points) 2. How many continents are there? (3 points) 3. On a sheet of

More information

Chapter 7 Earth and the Terrestrial Worlds

Chapter 7 Earth and the Terrestrial Worlds Chapter 7 Earth and the Terrestrial Worlds Mercury craters smooth plains, cliffs Venus volcanoes few craters Radar view of a twinpeaked volcano Mars some craters volcanoes riverbeds? Moon craters smooth

More information

Fourth Grade Geology: The Earth and Its Changes Assessment

Fourth Grade Geology: The Earth and Its Changes Assessment Fourth Grade Geology: The Earth and Its Changes Assessment 1a. What is the center layer of the Earth called? a. crust b. core c. mantle d. middle 1b. Label each layer of the Earth. 1c. What are the Earth

More information

LESSON PLAN 1. Key Terms and Concepts. asthenosphere continental crust geologist. Purpose. Objectives. Activities

LESSON PLAN 1. Key Terms and Concepts. asthenosphere continental crust geologist. Purpose. Objectives. Activities LESSON PLAN 1 What s Inside? Earthquakes 3 5 Earthquake Science Children will better understand earthquakes, volcanoes and tsunamis when they learn that we live on the surface of a constantly changing

More information

Plate tectonics states that the Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into sections, called plates.

Plate tectonics states that the Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into sections, called plates. Notes on Plate Tectonics Plate tectonics states that the Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into sections, called plates. These plates move around the mantle. Plates are composed of the crust and

More information

Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering

Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering by Dr. Deepankar Choudhury Professor Department of Civil Engineering IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076, India. Email: dc@civil.iitb.ac.in URL: http://www.civil.iitb.ac.in/~dc/

More information

Third Grade Science Vocabulary Investigation Design & Safety

Third Grade Science Vocabulary Investigation Design & Safety recycle dispose reuse goggles data conclusion predict describe observe record identify investigate evidence analyze mass matter float sink attract force magnet magnetic magnetism pole pull push repel Third

More information

Chapter 9: Plates and Plate Boundaries. Fig. 9.11

Chapter 9: Plates and Plate Boundaries. Fig. 9.11 Chapter 9: Plates and Plate Boundaries Fig. 9.11 OBJECTIVES Identify the physical and chemical divisions in Earth s outer layers. Understand that the lithospheric plates are buoyant and that this buoyancy

More information

NATURAL HAZARDS & NATURAL DISASTERS

NATURAL HAZARDS & NATURAL DISASTERS NATURAL HAZARDS & NATURAL DISASTERS The World is always changing. Natural disasters are changes which are so great they may cause damage to the shape of the land or to the lives of people and other living

More information

Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Earthquakes and Volcanoes Earthquakes and Volcanoes Earthquakes There s nothing quite like getting caught up in an earthquake. The ground shakes and rolls. The Earth makes a big shift. Have you ever felt an earthquake? An earthquake

More information

Learn more at www.pbs.org/nature

Learn more at www.pbs.org/nature Lesson Title: Vibrant Volcanoes Grade level: 2 4 Topic/Subject Matter: Earth Science Time Allotment:1-2 class periods Overview This lesson will introduce elementary students to the fiery and explosive

More information

FIRST GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FIRST GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES FIRST GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FIRST GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Learning the shapes of volcanoes. LAB: Experimenting with "lava." POST:

More information

Put the sentences in the correct order. They describe the process of PLATE TECTONICS.

Put the sentences in the correct order. They describe the process of PLATE TECTONICS. Tectonics The changing position of the continents is called continental drift. Plates move a few centimetres a year. Plate movement causes continents to collide, and split apart. The Earth s crust is divided

More information

Volcanoes. These icons indicate that teacher s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page.

Volcanoes. These icons indicate that teacher s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. Volcanoes These icons indicate that teacher s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not

More information

STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH

STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH The Ancient Greeks knew that the Earth was about 12,750 kilometres in diameter, but it was only in the 20 th century that geophysical studies showed that the Earth has several distinct

More information

Lecture 23: Terrestrial Worlds in Comparison. This lecture compares and contrasts the properties and evolution of the 5 main terrestrial bodies.

Lecture 23: Terrestrial Worlds in Comparison. This lecture compares and contrasts the properties and evolution of the 5 main terrestrial bodies. Lecture 23: Terrestrial Worlds in Comparison Astronomy 141 Winter 2012 This lecture compares and contrasts the properties and evolution of the 5 main terrestrial bodies. The small terrestrial planets have

More information

The rock cycle. Introduction. What are rocks?

The rock cycle. Introduction. What are rocks? The rock cycle This Revision looks at the three types of rock: sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic. It looks at how they are formed, the weathering of rocks and the way one form of rock turns into another,

More information

Earth Layers Foldable

Earth Layers Foldable Earth Layers Foldable The Layers of the Earth Copyright 2006. M. J. Krech. All rights reserved. The Four Layers The Earth is composed of four different layers. The crust is the layer that you live on,

More information

SCRIPT OF NARRATION The Crust

SCRIPT OF NARRATION The Crust Rocks and Minerals, Shaffer, Paul & Zim, Herbert, Racine, Wisconsin: Western Publishing Co, INC., 1957. ISBN 0-307-63502-3. This is an old book but is a valuable resource for the classroom. The book provides

More information