Earth Materials: Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks. The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth

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1 Earth Materials: 1 The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth 2 Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks Three main categories of rocks: Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic The most common minerals in rocks (a.k.a. the rock-forming minerals) Igneous Rocks description and classification The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth 3 Relative abundance of rock types in the earth s crust 4 Composed of crystals and/or glass May have layers if volcanic Classified using composition and texture Most are composed of fragments (e.g. sand); Some may be crystalline. Always layered/stratified at some scale Classified using composition and texture Always crystalline Some have aligned crystals (foliation), some do not Classified using composition and texture Fig 3.4 Understanding Earth 1

2 The Rock-forming minerals 5 Understanding Earth 6 The 8 most abundant mineral in the earth s crust and the most common minerals in rocks are often called the rock-forming minerals. All 8 can be found in igneous rocks, and all 8 are silicates. Quartz (1) Feldspars: Alkali feldspar (2) Plagioclase l feldspar (3) Micas: Muscovite mica (4) Biotite mica (5) Pyroxene (6) Amphibole (7) Olivine (8) Igneous rocks General categories based on where they form Intrusive (plutonic) Extrusive (volcanic) Types of Intrusions Description and classification Texture crystal size(s) bubbles fragments Composition (minerals and color) Felsic Intermediate Mafic Origin of magma 7 Fig 3.2 Understanding Earth Formation of igneous rocks: intrusive and extrusive rocks Magma vs. Lava Magma is molten rock underground. Intrusive or Plutonic Lava is molten rock which has reached the surface. Extrusive or Volcanic 8 2

3 Extrusive rocks: Volcanoes and Lava flows 9 Some major types of igneous intrusions (plutons) 10 Vein Sill - very thin, tabular intrusion - the smallest type of intrusion - intrudes between rock layers, tabular shape Fig 4.8 Understanding Earth Dike - cuts across pre-existing rock layers, tabular shape - the main way in which magmas reach the surface Fig 4.8 Understanding Earth October 1915 eruption of Mt. Lassen (photo by Chester Mullen) Stock - cuts across rock layers, irregular shape Batholith - like a stock, but much larger (area of at least 100 km 2 ) - the largest type of igneous body - usually comprised of numerous individual intrusions Veins of granite cutting through metamorphosed sedimentary rock 11 Fig 4.2 Understanding Earth 12 Sill Intrusive rocks: Sill and dike Dike Fig 4.15 & 4.16 Understanding Earth 3

4 13 Part of the Sierra-Nevada batholith in Yosemite N. P. A huge mass of intrusive rocks composed of many individual intrusions (plutons) Classification of igneous rocks by texture and composition Igneous textures: crystal size all large crystals - produced d by relatively l slow cooling deep underground d -found in intrusive igneous rocks (also known as plutonic igneous rocks) phaneritic texture - large crystals pegmatitic texture - extremely large crystals 14 Classification of igneous rocks by texture and composition 15 Glassy texture: Obsidian, pumice, and volcanic ash 16 Igneous textures: crystal size Fig 4.3 Understanding Earth at least partly small crystals and/or glass - produced by relatively fast cooling, usually at or near the earth s surface - typical of extrusive (volcanic) rocks - sometimes in intrusive rocks (e.g. shallow dikes) glassy texture - no crystals aphanitic texture - very small crystals porphyritic texture - mixed sizes of crystals 4

5 fine = aphanitic 17 mixed = porphyritic Classification of igneous rocks by texture and composition 18 Igneous textures: other textures bubbles: vesicular texture Igneous textures Geology 2 nd ed. - Chernicoff Gas bubbles trapped in an igneous rock are called vesicles. Examples: vesicular basalt and pumice broken fragments: pyroclastic texture coarse = phaneritic extremely coarse = pegmatitic If there is enough gas, expanding bubbles may cause lava to explosively break into fragments. Examples: volcanic ash and pumice Pyroclastic deposits may have some of the same features as sedimentary rocks. Vesicular textures: basalt with vesicles (left) and pumice (below) Understanding Earth 19 Pyroclastic (fragmental) textures 20 Volcanic ash Pumice Tuff (this one contains both ash and pumice) 5

6 Composition Classification of igneous rocks by texture and composition observed as variations in: mineral abundance (quartz, feldspar, etc.), elemental abundance (silicon, oxygen, iron, etc.), color (dark, medium, light) Ultramafic Mafic Intermediate Felsic i.e. peridotite i.e. basalt and gabbro i.e. andesite and diorite i.e. rhyolite and granite 21 Classification of igneous rocks: texture and composition Mafic rocks: basalt (fine) and gabbro (coarse) Felsic rocks: rhyolite (fine) and granite (coarse) Extrusive/Volcanic (glassy, aphanitic, or porphyritic) Fig 4.5 Understanding Earth Intrusive (coarse or porphyritic) 22 Classification of igneous rocks: texture and composition 23 Igneous rock classification 24 Composition Understanding Earth Felsic Intermediate Mafic Ultramafic Ultramafic rocks Example: Peridotite re Textur Extrusive (glassy, aphanitic, porphyritic, Rhyolite Dacite Andesite Basalt fragmental, vesicular, etc.) Intrusive (phaneritic, pegmatitic) Komatiite (rare) Granite Granodiorite Diorite Gabbro Peridotite lighter more silica; less iron & magnesium darker less silica; more iron & magnesium 6

7 More silica (SiO 2 ), sodium, potassium Lighter color Igneous rock compositions More iron, magnesium, calcium Darker color 25 How are magmas formed? 26 g 4.6 Understanding Earth modified from Fig by partial melting of crust or mantle rocks Three ways to melt rocks in the Earth s mantle and crust: increase temperature decrease pressure on already hot rock (decompression) add fluids (water) to already hot rock Rhyolite or Granite Dacite or Granodiorite Andesite or Diorite Basalt or Gabbro Komatiite or Peridotite Magma formation at plate boundaries and hot spots Magma formation by addition of fluids at subduction zones Fig 4.8 Understanding Earth Modified from Fig 4.19 Understanding Earth 7

8 Where and how are magmas formed? Mid-ocean ridges decompression mafic (basaltic) magma 29 Continental rifts and other areas of extension decompression mostly mafic (basaltic) magma Subduction zones melting due to addition of fluids mafic, intermediate, and felsic magmas - often water-rich Mantle plumes (hot spots) decompression melting ocean basins: mafic magma continents: mostly mafic magma, some intermediate and felsic magmas Note: secondary melts may occur due to addition of heat from primary magma 8

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