Plate Tectonics. Learning Guide. Pacific Plate. Pacific Ocean. Divergent boundaries

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1 Plate Tectonics Learning Guide North American Plate Eurasian Plate Arabian Plate Pacific Plate Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean Cocos Plate Nazca Plate South American Plate African Plate Convergent boundary Divergent boundaries Transform boundary Convergent boundary Subduction zone Oceanic Lithosphere Continental Lithosphere Visit for Online Learning Resources. Copyright NewPath Learning

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3 Table of Contents Lesson 1 - Earth s Interior... 2 Pause & Review - Earth s Interior... 4 Lesson 2 - Heat Transfer & Convection Currents... 5 Lesson 3 - Continental Drift... 7 Pause & Review - Continental Drift... 8 Lesson 4 - Sea-Floor Spreading... 9 Lesson 5 - Theory of Plate Tectonics...11 Pause & Review - Theory of Plate Tectonics Lab Investigation - Tectonic Plate Boundaries Key Vocabulary Terms Vocabulary Review Assessment Review Assessment Assessment Key NGSS Correlations Phone: Fax: NewPath Learning Products are developed by teachers using research-based principles and are classroom tested. The company s product line consists of an array of proprietary curriculum review games, workbooks, charts, posters, visual learning guides, interactive whiteboard software and other teaching resources. All products are supplemented with web-based activities, assessments and content to provide an engaging means of educating students on key, curriculum-based topics correlated to applicable state and national education standards. Copyright MMXIII NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. ISBN Printed in the United States of America. 1

4 Lesson 1 Earth s Interior Seismograms and Earth s Structure Scientists use machines called seismographs to study seismic waves caused by earthquakes. Data gathered from seismograms has provided a relatively detailed picture of Earth s interior structure. seismograph Time P wave S wave seismogram seismic waves Surface wave S-P interval Layers of the Earth The Earth is composed of three main layers the, mantle and core. These layers vary in composition, size, temperature and pressure. The Earth s Crust The is the outermost layer of the Earth and is 5 to 70 kilometers thick. There are two different types of oceanic and continental. The Earth s Core 5-70 km thick mantle 2,867 km thick outer core 2,266 km thick inner core 1,216 km thick The core is the densest layer of the Earth and is composed of nickel and iron. It is divided into a liquid outer core and a solid inner core. 2 Copyright NewPath Learning

5 Oceanic is primarily composed of basalt that forms when magma pours out from the mantle onto the ocean floor. Oceanic is denser, but also thinner than continental. Oceanic basalt granite Continental Continental forms the landmasses called continents. This layer is composed of rocks such as granite. It is less dense, but thicker than oceanic. magma The Earth s Mantle The mantle is found below the and is approximately 3,000 kilometers thick. The mantle is made of solid, hot rock. The uppermost layer of the mantle and the make up what is known as the lithosphere. The asthenosphere is found below the lithosphere and is called the upper mantle. It is made up of hotter, weaker rock. The lower mantle called the mesosphere is a thick layer of strong, solid rock. Oceanic increasing temperatures magma Continental Upper mantle Lower mantle Copyright NewPath Learning Lithosphere Asthenosphere weak, hot rock Mesosphere strong, solid rock 3

6 Pause and Review Label and describe each of the Earth s layers. 4 Copyright NewPath Learning

7 Lesson 2 Heat Transfer & Convection Currents Types of Heat Transfer There are three types of heat transfer. Radiation is heat transferred through space. Conduction is heat transferred within a material, and convection is heat transferred by the movement of liquids. cooled liquid falls hot liquid rises radiation conduction convection What Causes Convection? Convection is caused when a fluid has differences in temperature and density. When a liquid becomes cooler, its particles move more slowly and the liquid becomes denser. Hot Mantle Rises/ Cool Mantle Sinks In the Earth, the mantle is the hottest near the core and cooler near the. Because it has a lower density, the hot mantle material near the core starts to rise toward the. mantle convection currents As the mantle rises, it also cools. When it cools, it becomes denser and then descends back towards the center of the Earth. outer core inner core Mantle Convection Currents This circular motion creates convection currents. Convection currents in the mantle cause the to move over Earth s surface. Copyright NewPath Learning 5

8 Heat Transfer & Convection Currents Core Convection Currents There are also convection currents in the outer core. These currents contribute to the Earth s magnetic field. Magnetic North North Pole outer core South Pole Magnetic South 6 Copyright NewPath Learning

9 Lesson 3 Continental Drift What Is the Continental Drift Theory? In the early 1900s a scientist named Alfred Wegener proposed the Continental Drift theory, which suggests that the continents were once together as a single landmass that broke up and drifted apart over millions of years. Wegener based his theory on the observation that the boundaries of the continents appear to look like pieces of a large puzzle. Studies of fossils and glacial striations in rocks on different continents also supported continental drift. NORTH AMERICA SOUTH AMERICA ASIA INDIA AFRICA ANTARCTICA Present day AUSTRALIA PANGAEA 245 million years ago 245 million years ago Pangaea According to the Continental Drift theory, all of the continents once formed a large, single landmass called Pangaea. We now know that Pangaea existed 245 million years ago, when dinosaurs were roaming the Earth. LAURASIA GONDWANA Laurasia and Gondwana About 180 million years ago, Pangaea began to split into two smaller continents called Laurasia and Gondwana. 180 million years ago NORTH AMERICA SOUTH AMERICA 180 million years ago AFRICA Copyright NewPath Learning 65 million years ago ASIA ANTARCTICA INDIA AUSTRALIA 65 million years ago Modern Continents Approximately 65 million years ago, these two landmasses had broken apart to form the modern continents. Theory History The continental drift theory was an accepted part of geology for about 50 years until it was replaced by the more complete theory of plate tectonics. 7

10 Pause and Review Continental Drift theory suggested that the continents were once together as a single landmass that broke up and drifted apart over millions of years. Label the landmasses on each globe. Date the globes. millions of million years ago years ago million years ago million years ago 8 Copyright NewPath Learning 65 million years ago

11 Lesson 4 Sea-Floor Spreading Mid-Ocean Ridges In the middle of the Atlantic ocean is a submerged mountain range called a mid-ocean ridge. It is part of a worldwide system of mid-ocean ridges formed by sea-floor spreading. Mid-Atlantic ridge ocean ridges How Sea-Floor Spreading Occurs Sea-floor spreading occurs when two tectonic plates pull away from each other, and a crack forms in the ocean floor. Magma from the Earth s mantle pours onto the ocean floor through the crack and creates new oceanic. ocean tectonic plate oceanic tectonic plate continental magma Copyright NewPath Learning 9

12 Sea-Floor Spreading New & Old Oceanic Crust A mid-ocean ridge is formed along the crack where magma is emerging. As the sea floor spreads, new oceanic pushes the older away from the ridge. ocean floor erupting magma (lava) magma older younger younger older ocean floor magma Ocean Ridge System Sea-floor spreading is part of the Plate Tectonics theory. In the Atlantic, the plates move away from the mid-ocean ridge at a rate of about one centimeter per year. As the sea floor spreads, the Earth s is changing and moving the continents as well. Pacific Plate Pacific Ocean North American Plate Cocos Plate 1 cm Nazca Plate Atlantic Ocean South American Plate Eurasian Plate 1 cm African Plate Arabian Plate Mid-Atlantic Ridge 10 Copyright NewPath Learning

13 Lesson 5 Theory of Plate Tectonics mantle outer core inner core What Is the Theory of Plate Tectonics? The Theory of Plate Tectonics was proposed in the 1960s. It states that the lithosphere is broken into pieces called tectonic plates that are moving on top of the upper mantle. The plates carry both the continents and the ocean floors. Oceanic Continental Lithosphere (tectonic plate) magma Upper mantle Asthenosphere Tectonic Plates in Motion According to the theory, the tectonic plates are in motion due to the movement of convection currents in the mantle. plate mantle Tectonic Plate Boundaries The tectonic plates move against each other at their boundaries, resulting in intense geologic activity, such as volcanoes, earthquakes and mountain formation. There are three types of plate boundaries divergent, convergent and transform. Convergent boundary mid-ocean ridge trench trench Divergent boundaries rift valley Transform boundary Convergent boundary mountain range Subduction zone Oceanic Lithosphere magma Copyright NewPath Learning Continental Lithosphere 11

14 Theory of Plate Tectonics Divergent boundaries mid-ocean ridge sea floor spreading rift valley Lithosphere Divergent Plate Boundaries New is created at divergent boundaries, where two plates are moving apart. This type of boundary creates mid-ocean ridges in the oceanic and rift valleys on land. rift valley Divergent boundaries Convergent boundaries, where two plates are moving together, can occur between an Convergent Plate Boundaries mid-ocean ridge oceanic and continental plate, two oceanic plates or two continental plates. sea floor oceanic plates spreading Convergent boundary oceanic & continental plates continental plates rift valley Convergent Convergent boundary boundary trench mountain range Su bd uc tio nz on e trench Oceanic Lithosphere Lithosphere 12 Copyright NewPath Learning Continental magma Lithosphere

15 Subduction Zone A subduction zone occurs when a dense oceanic plate is pushed down into the mantle below another plate. Over time, the subducted melts in the mantle. This geologic activity creates volcanic islands in the oceans and volcanic arcs on land. Oceanic plate trench Subduction zone mantle magma volcano Continental plate Mountain Range Formation Subduction does not occur at the convergent boundary of two continental plates. Instead, the is pushed upward and mountain ranges are formed. Convergent boundary mountain range Continental Transform boundary Transform Boundary Lithosphere A transform boundary occurs when plates slide past each other, such as the San Andreas fault in California. These boundaries are called conservative because plate material is neither created nor destroyed. Continental Lithosphere Copyright NewPath Learning 13

16 Pause and Review Create a concept map that includes the different types of tectonic plate boundaries and the associated geologic formations. 14 Copyright NewPath Learning

17 Lab Investigation - Tectonic Plate Boundaries In this virtual investigation, you will explore the geologic activities and formations that occur at the boundaries of moving tectonic plates. Study the images. Identify each type of tectonic plate boundary. Complete the labels. Describe what you see happening during each time period. Type of Plate Boundary plate 1,000 years mantle plate 10,000 years mantle high high temperatures 1000 Years volcano volcanoes 10,000 Years trench trench trench trench volcanoes res 1 million years mantle mantle mantle 10 million years 1 Million Years Description of Events Copyright NewPath Learning 10 Million Years 15

18 Lab Investigation - Tectonic Plate Boundaries Type of Plate Boundary plate plate plate plate 1,000 years 10,000 years 1000 Years 10,000 Years 1 1 million years 10 million years Description of Events 11 Million Years Million Years 16 Copyright NewPath Learning

19 Type of Plate Boundary plate plate 1,000 years 10,000 years 1000 Years 10,000 Years 10 1 million years 10 million years Description of Events 1 Million Years 10 Million Years Copyright NewPath Learning 17

20 Key Vocabulary Terms asthenosphere the weaker, upper portion of the Earth s mantle Oceanic magma Continental Upper mantle Lower mantle convection currents circular motions in the Earth s mantle caused by the rising and falling of mantle material that is undergoing changes in temperature and density conduction the transfer of heat energy within a material due to temperature gradients convergent boundary a boundary where two tectonic plates move toward each other Tectonic plate Convergent boundary Tectonic plate Lithosphere continental the Earth s outer layer of rock that composes the continents Continental core the dense innermost layer of the Earth composed of nickel and iron Crust Mantle Outer core Inner core continental drift an early theory that the continents float on the mantle and have moved relative to one another over geologic time the thin outermost layer of the Earth composed of oceanic and continental Crust Mantle Outer core Inner core convection the transfer of heat energy from the movement of currents divergent boundary a boundary where two tectonic plates move away from each other volcano chain Divergent boundary rift valley 18 Copyright NewPath Learning

21 Gondwana the Southern continental mass formed when Pangaea broke apart approximately 180 million years ago mid-ocean ridge the underwater mountain chain down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean basin that was formed by sea-floor spreading Laurasia the Northern continental mass formed when Pangaea broke apart approximately 180 million years ago oceanic the Earth s outer layer of rock which composes the ocean s floor Oceanic lithosphere the combination of Oceanic the and the rigid, uppermost mantle that moves as a unit; divided magma into tectonic plates Continental Upper mantle Lower mantle Pangaea the large, single continental landmass that formed approximately 245 million years ago mantle the middle layer of the Earth found between the and the core; composed of hot solid rock Crust Mantle Outer core Inner core plate tectonics theory the theory that the uppermost part of the Earth s mantle and the are divided into geologic plates that move relative to one another over time mesosphere the lower Oceanic mantle layer composed of a thick layer of strong solid rock magma Continental Upper mantle Lower mantle radiation heat that is transferred through space Copyright NewPath Learning 19

22 Key Vocabulary Terms sea-floor spreading the geologic process where two oceanic plates pull away from each other ocean floor erupting magma (lava) magma seismograph a machine that measures the strength and arrival times of seismic waves from an earthquake subduction the process of an oceanic tectonic plate moving under another tectonic plate trench Oceanic plate Subduction zone Mantle magma volcano Continental plate tectonic plates individual pieces of the Earth s lithosphere that move relative to one another transform boundary a boundary where two tectonic plates slide past one another, often causing earthquakes Transform boundary Continental Lithosphere 20 Copyright NewPath Learning

23 Vocabulary Review asthenosphere conduction continental continental drift convection convection currents convergent boundary core divergent boundary Copyright NewPath Learning 21

24 Vocabulary Review Gondwana Laurasia lithosphere mantle mesosphere mid-ocean ridge oceanic Pangaea plate tectonics theory radiation 22 Copyright NewPath Learning

25 Vocabulary Review sea-floor spreading seismograph subduction tectonic plates transform boundary Copyright NewPath Learning 23

26 Assessment Review 1. Briefly describe the three major layers of the Earth s interior. : mantle: core: 2. List and define three types of heat transfer. 3. How are convection currents created in the Earth s mantle? 4. What evidence was used to support Wegener s theory of continental drift? 5. Describe the tectonics plate theory 6. List and describe the three types of plate boundaries. 24 Copyright NewPath Learning

27 7. Draw and label a simple illustration of sea-floor spreading. 8. Draw and label a simple illustration of a subduction zone that occurs when an oceanic plate is pushed into the mantle below another plate. 9. Name and explain at least two specific examples of geologic formations or activities which are a result of tectonic plate movement. Copyright NewPath Learning 25

28 Assessment Copyright NewPath Learning

29 Copyright NewPath Learning 27

30 Assessment Key 1. C 2. B 3. D 4. A 5. B 6. D 7. C 8. C 9. D 10. B 11. C 12. C 13. D 14. True 15. A - divergent, B - transform, C - convergent 16. A - sea-floor spreading, B - subduction zone, C - fault 28 Copyright NewPath Learning

31 NGSS TITLE Correlations MS-ESS2. PERFORMANCE EXPECTATION / FOUNDATION MS-ESS2.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas ELEMENT Middle ESS2.B: School (Grades Plate Tectonics and 6, Large-Scale 7, 8) System Interactions INDICATOR ESS2.B:1. Maps of ancient land and water patterns, based on investigations of rocks and States: Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Comprehensive) fossils, make clear how Earth s plates have moved great distances, collided, and spread apart. (MS-ESS2-3) Plate Tectonics Multimedia Lesson Grade: 7 - Adopted 2013 STRAND NGSS.MS-ESS. EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE TITLE MS-ESS2. Earth s Systems - Students who demonstrate understanding can: PERFORMANCE EXPECTATION / FOUNDATION PERFORMANCE EXPECTATION / FOUNDATION STRAND TITLE PERFORMANCE EXPECTATION / FOUNDATION ELEMENT INDICATOR MS-ESS2-2. MS-ESS2-3. NGSS.MS-ESS. MS-ESS2. MS-ESS2.DCI. ESS1.C: ESS1.C:1. Earth s Systems - Students who demonstrate understanding can: Construct an explanation based on evidence for how geoscience processes have changed Earth s surface at varying time and spatial scales. Analyze and interpret data on the distribution of fossils and rocks, continental shapes, and seafloor structures to provide evidence of the past plate motions. EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE Earth s Systems - Students who demonstrate understanding can: Disciplinary Core Ideas The History of Planet Earth Tectonic processes continually generate new ocean sea floor at ridges and destroy old sea floor at trenches. (HS.ESS1.C GBE) (secondary to MS-ESS2-3) STRAND TITLE PERFORMANCE EXPECTATION / FOUNDATION ELEMENT INDICATOR NGSS.MS-ESS. MS-ESS2. MS-ESS2.DCI. ESS2.A: ESS2.A:1. EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE Earth s Systems - Students who demonstrate understanding can: Disciplinary Core Ideas Earth s Materials and Systems All Earth processes are the result of energy flowing and matter cycling within and among the planet s systems. This energy is derived from the sun and Earth s hot interior. The energy that flows and matter that cycles produce chemical and physical changes in Earth s materials and living organisms. (MS-ESS2-1) INDICATOR STRAND TITLE PERFORMANCE EXPECTATION / FOUNDATION ELEMENT INDICATOR STRAND TITLE PERFORMANCE EXPECTATION / FOUNDATION PERFORMANCE EXPECTATION / FOUNDATION STRAND TITLE PERFORMANCE EXPECTATION / FOUNDATION ELEMENT ESS2.A:2. NGSS.MS-ESS. EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE MS-ESS2. Earth s Systems - Students who demonstrate understanding can: MS-ESS2.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas ESS2.B: Plate Tectonics and Large-Scale System Interactions ESS2.B:1. Maps of ancient land and water patterns, based on investigations of rocks and fossils, make clear how Earth s plates have moved great distances, collided, and spread apart. (MS-ESS2-3) Grade: 8 - Adopted 2013 NGSS.MS-ESS. MS-ESS2. MS-ESS2-2. MS-ESS2-3. NGSS.MS-ESS. MS-ESS2. MS-ESS2.DCI. ESS1.C: The planet s systems interact over scales that range from microscopic to global in size, and they operate over fractions of a second to billions of years. These interactions have shaped Earth s history and will determine its future. (MS-ESS2-2) EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE Earth s Systems - Students who demonstrate understanding can: Construct an explanation based on evidence for how geoscience processes have changed Earth s surface at varying time and spatial scales. Analyze and interpret data on the distribution of fossils and rocks, continental shapes, and seafloor structures to provide evidence of the past plate motions. EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE Earth s Systems - Students who demonstrate understanding can: Disciplinary Core Ideas The History of Planet Earth Copyright NewPath Learning 29

32 STRAND TITLE MS-ESS2. PERFORMANCE EXPECTATION / FOUNDATION MS-ESS2.DCI. NGSS Correlations ELEMENT INDICATOR STRAND TITLE PERFORMANCE EXPECTATION / FOUNDATION ELEMENT INDICATOR STRAND TITLE PERFORMANCE EXPECTATION / FOUNDATION ELEMENT INDICATOR STRAND TITLE PERFORMANCE EXPECTATION / FOUNDATION PERFORMANCE EXPECTATION / FOUNDATION STRAND TITLE PERFORMANCE EXPECTATION / FOUNDATION ELEMENT INDICATOR STRAND TITLE PERFORMANCE EXPECTATION / FOUNDATION ELEMENT INDICATOR INDICATOR STRAND TITLE PERFORMANCE EXPECTATION / FOUNDATION ELEMENT INDICATOR interactions have shaped Earth s history and will determine its future. (MS-ESS2-2) NGSS.MS-ESS. EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE Earth s Systems - Students who demonstrate understanding can: Disciplinary Core Ideas ESS2.B: Plate Tectonics and Large-Scale System Interactions ESS2.B:1. Maps of ancient land and water patterns, based on investigations of rocks and High School fossils, (Grade make clear 9) how Earth s plates have moved great distances, collided, and spread apart. (MS-ESS2-3) Grade: 9 - Adopted 2013 NGSS.HS-ESS. EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE HS-ESS1. Earth s Place in the Universe - Students who demonstrate understanding can: HS-ESS1.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas ESS1.C: The History of Planet Earth ESS1.C:2. Although active geologic processes, such as plate tectonics and erosion, have destroyed or altered most of the very early rock record on Earth, other objects in the solar system, such as lunar rocks, asteroids, and meteorites, have changed little over billions of years. Studying these objects can provide information about Earth s formation and early history. (HS-ESS1-6) NGSS.HS-ESS. EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE HS-ESS1. Earth s Place in the Universe - Students who demonstrate understanding can: HS-ESS1.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas ESS2.B: Plate Tectonics and Large-Scale System Interactions ESS2.B:1. Plate tectonics is the unifying theory that explains the past and current movements of the rocks at Earth s surface and provides a framework for understanding its geologic history. (ESS2.B Grade 8 GBE) (secondary to HS- ESS1-5) NGSS.HS-ESS. EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE HS-ESS2. Earth s Systems - Students who demonstrate understanding can: HS-ESS2-1. Develop a model to illustrate how Earth s internal and surface processes operate at different spatial and temporal scales to form continental and ocean-floor features. HS-ESS2-3. Develop a model based on evidence of Earth s interior to describe the cycling of matter by thermal convection. NGSS.HS-ESS. EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE HS-ESS2. Earth s Systems - Students who demonstrate understanding can: HS-ESS2.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas ESS2.A: Earth Materials and Systems ESS2.A:2. Evidence from deep probes and seismic waves, reconstructions of historical changes in Earth s surface and its magnetic field, and an understanding of physical and chemical processes lead to a model of Earth with a hot but solid inner core, a liquid outer core, a solid mantle and. Motions of the mantle and its plates occur primarily through thermal convection, which involves the cycling of matter due to the outward flow of energy from Earth s interior and gravitational movement of denser materials toward the interior. (HS-ESS2-3) NGSS.HS-ESS. EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE HS-ESS2. Earth s Systems - Students who demonstrate understanding can: HS-ESS2.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas ESS2.B: Plate Tectonics and Large-Scale System Interactions ESS2.B:1. The radioactive decay of unstable isotopes continually generates new energy within Earth s and mantle, providing the primary source of the heat that drives mantle convection. Plate tectonics can be viewed as the surface expression of mantle convection. (HS-ESS2-3) ESS2.B:2. Plate tectonics is the unifying theory that explains the past and current movements of the rocks at Earth s surface and provides a framework for understanding its geologic history. Plate movements are responsible for most continental and ocean-floor features and for the distribution of most rocks and minerals within Earth s. (ESS2.B Grade 8 GBE) (HS-ESS2-1) NGSS.HS-ESS. EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE HS-ESS2. Earth s Systems - Students who demonstrate understanding can: HS-ESS2.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas PS4.A: Wave Properties PS4.A:1. Geologists use seismic waves and their reflection at interfaces between layers to probe structures deep in the planet. (secondary to HS-ESS2-3) States: Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Comprehensive) 30 Copyright NewPath Learning

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36 Plate Tectonics Learning Guide About the Learning Guide Series... Each comprehensive student learning guide listed below, includes self-directed readings, easy-to-follow illustrated explanations, guiding questions, inquiry-based activities, a lab investigation, key vocabulary review and assessment review questions, along with a post-test. Titles in the Series Include: Life Science: 1. All About Cells 2. Osmosis and Diffusion: Cell Transport 3. Mitosis: Cell Growth and Division 4. Photosynthesis and Respiration 5. Six Kingdoms of Life 6. Protists: Pond Microlife 7. Food Chains and Webs 8. Meiosis 9. Chromosomes, Genes and DNA 10. Genetics: The Study of Heredity Human Biology: 1. Moving and Controlling the Body 2. Providing Fuel and Protection 3. Maintaining Life Protection, Reproduction & Cooperation Earth Science: 1. Our Solar System 2. The Sun-Earth-Moon System 3. Plate Tectonics 4. Earthquakes 5. Earth s Atmosphere and Weather 6. Earth s Climate 7. Minerals 8. Rocks 9. Volcanoes 10. Earth s Surface Physical Science: 1. Properties and States of Matter 2. Atoms and Chemical Bonding 3. Elements and the Periodic Table 4. Chemical Reactions 5. Forces and Motion 6. Electricity and Magnetism 7. Energy: Forms and Changes 8. Work, Power and Simple Machines 9. All About Sound 10. All About Light \ xibahbdy01972lz[ Visit for Online Learning Resources. Copyright NewPath Learning

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