2. What structure absorbs this energy in the plants cell? In other words, where is photosynthesis occurring in the plant?

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1 Section: 3.4 Name: Opening Activity: What is the equation for photosynthesis? Latin Root Word: Review of Old Information: Review of Old Information: 1. All energy begins as what type of energy and from where? 2. What structure absorbs this energy in the plants cell? In other words, where is photosynthesis occurring in the plant? 3. Ultimately, what is the product of photosynthesis used by plants and other consumers? What type of energy is this? 4. Are plants autotrophs or heterotrophs? New Information: You learned in the last few sections that all energy comes from the sun. Plants take that light energy and transfer it into chemical energy by storing it in the bonds of macromolecules like carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Heterotrophs like ourselves are not able to do this on our own, so we must eat those plants and the energy from plants eaten by other animals to survive. When we consume food, we take the energy stored in those macromolecules and turn it into ATP, which is the source of energy for our cells. This process is known as. Cellular Respiration Notes: The process by which mitochondria break down to make. Two types o Aerobic respiration: requires oxygen and carried out by plants, animals, and some bacteria o Anaerobic respiration (also known as fermentation ): requires no oxygen and carried out by yeast, some bacteria, and sometimes animals Chemical equation for aerobic respiration: C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + chemical energy (glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + ATP)

2 Some of aerobic respiration occurs in the (plural of mitochondrion) Makes energy for the cell through aerobic respiration Structure of a mitochondrion: Steps of aerobic respiration: 1. : First step breaks down glucose into. Also makes 2. (Intermediate step: Change to acetyl CoA) 2. Citric Acid Cycle (Also known as Krebs Cycle): Second step uses the acetyl CoA to make (in the form of NADH) for the last step. Also makes 2.

3 Pg /Notes In the process of glycolysis, one -carbon molecule of glucose is broken down into two -carbon molecules of. There is also a NET production of ATP molecules. In which organelle do the Krebs Cycle Occur? The two pyruvic acid molecules undergo a transition reaction when they enter the mitochondrion, and are transformed into molecules. While the Krebs cycle produces the three things above, the bulk of the ATP will be produced in the electron transport stage from what two molecules made during the cycle? 3. Electron transport chain: Third step uses the to make a lot of ATP.

4 TOTALS: Answer the questions in the spaces below using pages in your textbook. Electron transport occurs on the folds of the inner membrane of the mitochondria. What are these folds called? What molecule bonds with (or accepts) the hydrogen protons and electrons at the end of the transport chain? If you have ever wondered why we must breath in oxygen in order to survive, this is one of the main reasons.

5 How many ATP molecules are produced from one glucose molecule through aerobic respiration (including glycolysis, Krebs, and the ETC- electron transport chain)? What is the overall chemical equation for cell respiration? This is the opposite of the overall equation for. Anaerobic Respiration Notes: Requires NO Also called. Activity: Use pages help you answer the review questions below. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Circle ALL that are TRUE. There may be MORE THAN one correct answer.

6 is the first step in cellular respiration that begins releasing energy stored in glucose. A. Alcoholic fermentation B. Lactic acid fermentation C. Glycolysis D. Electron transport chain If oxygen is NOT present, glycolysis is followed by A. Krebs cycle B. electron transport chain C. fermentation Name the 3 carbon molecule produced when glucose is broken in half during glycolysis. A. pyruvic acid B. lactic acid C. Acetyl-CoA D. citric acid Since fermentation does not require oxygen it is said to be. A. aerobic B. anaerobic How many ATP molecules are added to get glycolysis started? Since glycolysis produces 4 ATP molecules, this results in a NET GAIN of ATP s Tell the kind of fermentation used in each example (alcohol OR lactic-acid): Yeast uses this to make bread dough rise Your muscle cells use this during rapid exercise when oxygen is low Bacteria and yeast use this to make beer and wine

7 Bacteria use this to make cheese, yogurt, and sour cream Use pages in your text and the picture to help answer the questions below. Krebs Cycle Diagram: Circle the answer or answers that best complete the statement or answer the question. (THERE MAY BE MORE THAN ONE RIGHT ANSWER.) Where do the carbon atoms in pyruvic acid end up following the Krebs cycle? A. They enter the electron transport chain and make ATP B. They become part of a carbon dioxide molecule and end up in the atmosphere C. They join with citric acid to make Acetyl-CoA D. They build up in the intermembrane space Because cellular respiration requires oxygen it is said to be A. aerobic B. anaerobic How many total CO2 molecules are produced by 1 molecule of glucose completing cellular respiration?

8 WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ARE PRODUCED DURING THE KREBS CYCLE? A. ATP B. NADH C. FADH2 D. CO2 Name the? molecule that joins in this reaction to make Acetyl-CoA. A. ATP B. NADP + C. Coenzyme A D. citric acid If oxygen is present, what will happen to the NADH produced in this reaction? A. Its electrons will enter the Electron transport chain B. It will donate its H + ions to make glucose C. It will join with ATP to make citric acid D. It will join with oxygen to make CO2 Answer the questions in the spaces below using pages in your textbook and the diagram below. You will also be summarizing the entire process at the conclusion of these questions. Circle the answer or answers that best complete the statement or answer the question. (THERE MAY BE MORE THAN ONE RIGHT ANSWER.) Which of the following shows the correct sequence during cellular respiration? A. Electron transport chain glycolysis Krebs cycle B. Glycolysis Electron transport chain Krebs cycle C. Krebs cycle Electron transport chain glycolysis D. Glycolysis Krebs cycle Electron transport chain

9 How many total ATP molecules are produced by 1 molecule of glucose completing cellular respiration? What molecule is the final electron acceptor at the end of the Electron transport chain? A. oxygen B. carbon dioxide C. glucose D. NADH The movement of which ion across the membrane from the intermembrane space to the matrix causes ATP synthase to spin and make ATP? A. Na + ions B. oxygen C. H + ions D. water Which stage of cellular respiration produces the most ATP? A. glycolysis B. Krebs cycle C. Electron transport D. Acetyl-CoA charging Which of the following happens during the Electron Transport chain? (Circle all that are true) A. Energy from the moving electrons transports H + ions into the intermembrane space B. Carbon dioxide is released C. Energy from H + ions crossing back into the matrix causes ATP synthase to make ATP. D. Water is produced Write the complete overall chemical equation for cellular respiration using chemical symbols instead of words: + + +

10 Compare this reaction to the one you learned about last chapter for PHOTOSYNTHSIS (6 H2O + 6 CO2 + light energy C6H12O6 + 6 O2) How are these equations related?

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